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in 


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SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

IN  ULSTER  AND  AMERICA 


BY 

CHARLES  KNOWLES  BOLTON 

Author  of  "The  Private  Soldier  Under  Washington,"  Etc. 


WITH   MAPS  AND   ILLUSTRATIONS  DRAWN    BY 
ETHEL  STANWOOD  BOLTON 


BOSTON 

BACON  AND  BROWN 

1910 


Copyright,  1910,  by 
Charles  Knowles  Bolton 


PREFACE 

• 

The  following  pages  attempt  for  the  first  time  a  syste- 
matic treatment  of  the  beginning  of  a  migration  of  settlers 
of  Scotch  and  English  descent  from  the  north  of  Ireland  to 
the  New  World.  Parker,  Perry,  Green,  Hanna  and  other 
writers  have  collected  much  of  general  history  and  tradi- 
tion ;  and  they  have  so  pictured  the  Scotch  traits  developed 
under  Irish  skies,  that  Scotch  Irish  blood,  once  a  reproach, 
is  now  cause  for  pride.  But  the  conditions  in  Ireland  be- 
fore the  migration,  the  voyage  across  the  ocean,  the  emi- 
grants as  they  appeared  to  early  observers  —  these  phases  of 
the  story  have  now  for  the  first  time  been  treated  in  detail, 
drawing  upon  hitherto  unexplored  sources.  If  a  large  part 
of  our  American  population  traces  back  to  Ulster,  the  early 
religious,  political  and  economic  life  of  the  valleys  of  the 
Foyle  and  the  Bann  should  interest  many,  for  many, 
whether  they  are  aware  of  it  or  not,  are  descended  from  the 
Scotch  Irish.  Clergymen  and  statesmen  have  from  genera- 
tion to  generation  extolled  the  rugged  virtues  of  these 
pioneers,  and  a  closer  study  of  their  lives  will,  it  is  hoped, 
deepen  the  hold  which  they  already  have  upon  our  affec- 
tions. 

There  has  been  a  constant  temptation  to  include  in  this 
study  some  account  of  emigrants  from  the  west  of  Scot- 
land; they  had  very  much  in  common  with  their  Ulster 
friends  and  kinsmen.  But  however  desirable  a  wide  scope 
may  be,  it  has  been  my  purpose  here  to  include  only  those 
who  were  influenced  by  the  peculiar  environment  of  a  life 
upon  Irish  soil. 


238143 


iv  PREFACE 

I  am  grateful  to  many  for  assistance:  To  the  trustees 
of  the  Boston  Public  Library  for  the  use  of  many  books 
relating  to  Ireland,  a  few  of  them  purchased  at  my  sug- 
gestion; to  the  Hon.  James  Phinney  Baxter  for  his  per- 
sonal helpfulness  as  well  as  for  access  to  his  unrivaled 
manuscript  material  relating  to  Maine;  to  Mr.  Julius  H. 
Tuttle  of  the  Massachusetts  Historical  Society;  to  Mr. 
Edmund  M.  Barton  and  Mr.  Clarence  S.  Brigham  of  the 
American  Antiquarian  Society ;  to  Mr.  "William  P.  Greenlaw 
of  the  New  England  Historic  Genealogical  Society;  to  Dr. 
Bernard  C.  Steiner  of  the  Maryland  Historical  Society, 
and  to  Mr.  Alexander  S.  Salley,  Jr.,  Secretary  of  the  His- 
torical Commission  of  South  Carolina.  I  am  under  great 
obligation,  also,  to  Dr.  Hugh  S.  Morrison,  coroner  of 
Coleraine  and  Aghadowey,  Ireland;  to  the  Rev.  Crawford 
Hillis  of  Tanvally  Fort,  County  Down;  to  Mr.  W.  T. 
Pike  of  Brighton,  England,  publisher  of  an  elaborate  work 
on  Belfast  and  the  Province  of  Ulster;  to  the  editor  of 
the  "Ulster  Journal  of  Archaeology";  and  to  others  who 
are  mentioned  in  connection  with  each  chapter. 

C.  K.  B. 

Pound  Hill  Place, 
Shirley. 


CONTENTS 

CHAPTER  pAGE 

I.  Ireland  and  New  England  before  1714        .         1 

II.  Ireland's  Eelation  to  Maryland,  Pennsyl- 
vania and  South  Carolina  before  1718     .       21 

III.  Economic   Conditions  in  Ulster,   1714-1718      37 

IV.  Political     and     Religious     Conditions     in 

Ulster,  1714-1718     60 

V.  The    Rev.    William    Homes    and    the    Rev. 

Thomas  Craighead  .....       79 

VI.  Ulster  and  the  Presbyterian  Ministry  in 

1718 91 

VII.  Aghadowey  and  the  Session  Book         .         .     119 

VIII.  The  Arrival  of  "Five  Ships"  in  August, 

1718 130 

IX.  The  Winter  of  1718-1719  in  Boston     .         .     154 

X.  The  Years  1718  and  1719  in  Worcester;  and 
in  the  Settlements  at  Rutland,  Pelham 
and  Palmer      ......     177 

XI.  The  Winter  of  1718-1719  in  Dracut,  An- 

DOVER,    AND    IN    CASCO    BAY  .  .  .       196 

XII.  The  Years  1718  and  1719  at  Merrymeeting 

Bay 215 


vi  CONTENTS 

CHAPTER  PAGE 

XIII.    NUTFIELD    AND    LONDONDERRY,     1719-1720             .  239 

XIV.  The  Scotch  Irish  in  Donegal,  Derry,  and 

Neshaminy,  Pennsylvania,  after  1718       .  266 

XV.  The  Scotch  Irish  in  Charleston  and  Wil- 
liamsburg, South  Carolina,  after  1718     .  285 

XVI.  The  Character  of  the  Scotch  Irish    .         .  296 

Index .         .         .379 


APPENDICES 

I.  Ships  from  Ireland  Arriving  in  New  England, 

1714-1720 317 

II.  The  Petition  to  Governor  Shute  in  1718        .     324 

III.  Andrew   McFadden's   Transplanting  to   the 

Province  of  the  Massachusetts  Bay  in  1718    331 

IV.  (A)  Members  of  the  Charitable  Irish  Society 

in  Boston  . 333 

(B)  Names  of  Fathers  on  the  Presbyterian 
Baptismal  Records  in  Boston,  1730-1736      .     334 

V.  List  of  Existing  Vital  Records  of  Towns  in 

Ulster,  begun  before  1755         .         .         .     337 

VI.  Home  Towns  of  Ulster  Families,  1691-1718    .     339 


ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Londonderry,  on  the  River  Foyle  .         .         Frontispiece 
Redrawn  from  an  Engraving  made  in  1793,  by  W.  and 
J.  Walker 

Ruins  of  the  first  Presbyterian  Church  built  in 

Ireland,    at    Ballycarry,    County    Antrim        3 

Bangor  Castle,  County  Down      ....        7 
Near  the  Home  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Blair 

The  Rev.  Cotton  Mather      .....       16 
Drawn  by   Sarah,   wife  of  the  Rev.   John   Moorhead, 
probably  after  Peter  Pelham 

Ramelton,  on  Lough  Swilly,  County  Donegal      .       23 

Early  Home  of  the  Rev.  Francis  Makemie  of  Maryland 
and  Virginia 

Old  House  at  Snow  Hill,  Maryland      ...       26 

Map  of  Maryland  and  Delaware  ....       33 

Road  Map  of  the  Bann  Yalley      ....       39 

The  Salmon  Leap,  near  Coleraine  and  Somerset      53 
With  Ruins  of  Mount  Sandall  Fort  on  the  Bank 

Meeting  House  at  Dungannon,  County  Donegal 

Built  before  1725 62 

Redrawn  from  a  View  in  the  Ulster  Journal  of  Archae- 
ology, N.  S.,  Vol.  1,  Page  47 


viii  ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

The  Town  of  Antrim  on  the  River  Braid      .         .       73 
Where  the  Rev.  John  Abernethy  Lived 

Holy  Hill  House,  Strabane,  County  Tyrone       .       80 
Standing  when  the  Rev.  William  Homes  was  a  Min- 
ister in  Strabane.     Set  on  Fire  when  Derry  was  Be- 
sieged 

Donegal,  County  Donegal 86 

Home  Town  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Craighead  of  Freetown, 
Massachusetts,  Delaware,  etc. 

COLERAINE,  ON  THE  BANN 97 

The   Ship   "William"   Sailed   from   Coleraine   in   1718. 
Drawing  by  John  Huybers 

Map  op  the  Province  of  Ulster      ....     103 

Wall  and  Iron  Gates  enclosing  the  Site  op  the 

Rev.  James  McGregor's  Meeting  House       .     120 

The  Village  Road  east  op  McGregor's  Meeting 

House,  in  what  is  now  called  Ardreagh     .     123 

Residence  of  Dr.  Hugh  S.  Morrison  at  Aghadowey    128 

Lizard  Manor,  Aghadowey,  residence  of  Charles 

E.  S.  Stronge,  Esq.,  J.  P.,  D.  L.  .         .         .     129 

Governor  Winthrop's  Mill  at  New  London  .         .     137 

South  View  op  Belfast  in  1789,  from  Mr.  Joy's 

Paper  Mill 147 

The  Brigantine  "Robert"  Sailed  from  this  Port  in  1718 

An  18th  Century  Brigantine       ....     150 
Redrawn  from  Price's  View  of  Boston 


ILLUSTRATIONS  ix 

PAGE 

Map  of  Boston  in  1722.    Drawn  by  Captain  John 

Bonner        .......     161 

The  Rev.  John  Moorehead,  "minister  of  a  Church 

of  Presbyterian  Strangers  in  Boston,  ' '  1730     167 
Peter  Pelham's  Portrait,  redrawn  by  John  Huybers 

Map  of  Massachusetts  and  New  Hampshire  .         .178 

Ancient  house  in  Worcester,  once  owned  by  Alex- 
ander McConkey  .....     189 

Map  of  Casco  Bay 204 

Home  built  by  Bryce  McLellan  at  Falmouth  in 

1731 211 

The  Oldest  House  in  Portland. 

"Brunswick  Town" 216 

Part  of  Southack's  Map  of  Casco  Bay. 

Meeting  House  and  Session  House  at  Londonderry, 

New  Hampshire  ......     245 

Ancient  Ballymoney,  County  Antrim  .         .         .     253 
Reconstructed   from  a   Plan   and   Descriptions   in   the 
Ulster  Journal  of  Archaeology,  N.   S.,  Vol.   3,   Page 
151 

Abraham  Holmes  '  Letter  from  the  Church  at 

Aghadowey,  County  Londonderry,  1719         .     259 

Beardiville,  a  house  in  Ballywillan,  County  An- 
trim .  .......     265 

Standing  when  the  Griffins  of  Spencer  and  the  Temple- 
tons  of  Londonderry  Lived  at  Ballywillan 


x  ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Meeting  House  at  Donegal,  Pennsylvania  .         .273 

Meeting  House  at  Derby,  Pennsylvania         .         .276 

Charleston  Harbor,  South  Carolina,  1740  .         .     289 
From  Winsor's  Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  Amer- 
ica.   The  Name  was  written  Charlestown  until  1783 

Map  of  South  Carolina 293 

The  Parish  Church,  Aghadowey  ....     297 
From  a  Photograph  taken  for  this  hook  by  Miss  Pauline 
Marian  Stronge 

A  Ruined  church  in  Kilrea,  County  Londonderry    302 

Conagher's  Farm,  near  Dervock,  County  Antrim  .     311 
Home  of  the  McKinley  Family 

On  the  Aghadowey  River     ...*..     313 
From  a  Photograph  by  Miss  Stronge 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


IRELAND  AND  NEW  ENGLAND  BEFORE  1714 

On  the  map  of  Ireland  the  province  of  Ulster  gath- 
ers into  a  circle  nearly  a  quarter  of  the  territory  of 
the  island.  Its  southerly  bound  runs  from  Donegal 
Bay  on  the  west  to  Carlingford  Bay  on  the  east.  In 
the  centre  of  Ulster  lies  County  Tyrone,  with  the 
counties  of  Donegal,  Londonderry,  and  Antrim 
along  its  northern  borders  to  fend  the  sea.  This  is 
the  heart  of  the  Scotch  Irish  country.  South  of 
County  Tyrone  are  Fermanagh,  Monaghan,  and  Ar- 
magh, counties  not  so  closely  associated  with  early 
Protestant  migration.  South  of  Monaghan,  border- 
ing the  Roman  Catholic  province  of  Leinster,  is 
Cavan,  and  to  the  east,  touching  Armagh,  lies 
County  Down  whose  shores  are  less  than  a  dozen 
miles  from  Ayrshire  in  Scotland. 

Donegal  and  Tyrone  are  drained  by  the  Finn  and 
the  Mourne,  two  rivers  which  unite  at  Strabane  to 
form  the  Foyle.  The  Foyle  flows  northward  across 
Londonderry  to  the  sea.  From  Lough  Neagh  on  the 
eastern  border  of  Tyrone  the  Bann  flows  north  also 


2  SCOTCH   IBISH   PIONEEES 

to  the  sea,  separating  the  counties  of  Londonderry 
and  Antrim.  The  sonrce-lands  of  the  Foyle  and  the 
Bann  had  supported  a  Scotch  population  for  several 
generations  before  the  year  1718 ;  of  this  population 
and  its  interest  in  America  the  following  pages  give 
some  account. 

The  temperature  of  Ulster  is  milder  than  that  of 
New  England,  and  even  warmer  than  will  be  found 
in  northern  England.  Snow  rarely  lies  on  the 
ground  over  a  month  in  the  winter.  The  gaunt, 
gloomy  mountains  and  the  barren  moorlands  give 
some  parts  of  the  country  a  forbidding  aspect. 
There  are  fine  streams  which  leap  down  the  steeps 
and  gurgle  through  the  rocky  foot-hills,  sweeping 
gracefully  and  sleepily  across  the  moors  and  mead- 
ows toward  the  sea. 

In  the  days  of  the  early  eighteenth  century  mills 
for  lumber  and  grain  were  dotted  over  this  country, 
and  everywhere  in  Northern  Ireland  were  the 
patches  of  green  grass  upon  which  the  flax  was 
spread  to  bleach  in  the  sun. 

The  villages  comprised  usually  little  more  than 
a  few  houses  along  a  winding  country  road,  with  a 
lane  here  and  there  to  tie  a  wayward  hut  to  the 
mother  flock.  The  better  houses  were  built  with 
thick  walls  of  stone,  sometimes  with  projecting  but- 
tresses and  old-fashioned  turrets.  Their  windows 
were  leaded,  and  over  the  door  a  carved  stone  gave 
the  birth-date  of  the  house.    Upon  this  stone  was 


IEELAND  AND  NEW  ENGLAND  3 

lavished  all  the  art  of  which  the  dwelling  could 
boast.1 

Of  the  houses  at  Omagh  an  English  traveller  says : 
"A  number  of  the  houses  were  thatched;  being 
repaired  at  different  periods,  as  necessity  required, 
the  roofs  often  presented  a  grotesque  appearance, 
and  were  decked  in  all  the  colours  of  the  year;  the 
fresh  straw  of  autumn  on  the  part  lately  done,  and 


Ruins  of   the   first   Presbyterian    Church   built   in    Ireland 
at  Ballycarry,  County  Antrim 

the  green  verdure  of  spring  in  the  plentiful  crop 
of  weeds  which  grew  on  the  more  ancient."2 

Of  the  people  themselves  much  will  be  said  from 
time  to  time  in  these  pages.  The  Irish  or  Celts  were 
everywhere,  although  less  numerous  than  in  the 
Southern  provinces.  They  were  largely  Eoman 
Catholics  and  therefore  at  the  time  legally  deprived 
of  the  powers  and  privileges  that  the  humblest  la- 

1  Gamble's  Sketches  of  History,  Politics  and  Manners  in  Dublin 
and  the  North  of  Ireland  in  1810,  New  Edition,  1826,  pp.  284-286. 

2  Ibid,  p.  251. 


4  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEERS 

borer  today  expects  as  a  matter  of  right.  In  the 
more  remote  regions  the  Irish  were  scarcely  above 
the  condition  of  savages,  living  npon  game  and 
abandoning  agriculture  to  the  conquering  race. 

The  Scotch,  invited  by  the  King  to  inhabit  confis- 
cated Irish  lands,  were  in  almost  every  village,  as 
their  Presbyterian  chapels  bore  witness.  But  during 
the  century  of  their  occupation  of  Ulster  their  thrift 
and  energy  had  battled  with  but  moderate  success 
against  the  ravages  of  war  and  the  burden  of  hostile 
laws. 

The  third  element  in  the  population  was  the  ruling 
class.  This  class  was  largely  English,  supplemented 
by  Scotch  and  Irish  landowners,  nearly  all  of  whom 
through  self-interest  or  conviction  upheld  the  Estab- 
lished Church,  and  by  virtue  of  this  allegiance  had 
access  to  the  magistracy  and  the  army. 

Such  a  population  offered  endless  opportunity  for 
friction  and  discontent.  And  yet  had  there  been  an 
eighteenth  century  Lord  Cromer  to  do  for  Ireland 
what  the  present  administrator  has  done  for  Egypt, 
one  may  feel  certain  that  the  Irish  question  of  today 
would  never  have  existed. 

The  Scotch  Irish  who  came  from  Ireland  to  Amer- 
ica are  criticised  for  their  personal  habits  as  much 
as  they  are  praised  for  their  more  vital  good  quali- 
ties. That  these  defects  persisted  in  Ulster  is  con- 
firmed by  a  generous  and  kindly  English  traveller, 
John  Gamble,  who  in  1810  saw  them  in  their  homes. 


IRELAND  AND  NEW  ENGLAND  5 

Stopping  at  a  roadside  cottage  one  day  for  dinner 
he  decided  that  he  wonld  ask  for  eggs,  as  safer  than 
some  other  foods  of  unknown  composition.  The 
good  woman  who  presided  over  the  home,  roasted 
an  egg  or  two  in  ashes  before  her  blazing  fire.  When 
he  asked  if  they  were  done  "she  took  a  long  pin 
with  which  she  had  been  picking  her  teeth  and  thrust- 
ing it  into  the  side  of  the  egg: — 'Ah!  weel-a-wot, 
snrr,'  proceeded  she,  presenting  it  to  him:  'it's  as 
weel  done  an  egg  as  ony  in  Christendom. '  "  Bread, 
with  butter  dexterously  spread  with  the  thumb,  after 
the  custom  of  the  people,  completed  the  meal.  Mr. 
Gamble  then  continues: 

"A  few  years  ago  the  Presbyterians  in  the  Coun- 
try parts  of  this  Kingdom  were  not  much  cleaner 
than  their  Scottish  ancestors.  The  inside  of  a  ves- 
sel was  seldom  washed  and  the  outside  still  sel- 
domer. ' n 

Confirmation  of  this  view  comes  from  Arthur  Lee, 
who  visited  Pittsburg  in  1784.  He  describes  the 
town  as  inhabited  almost  entirely  by  Scots  and 
Irish,  living  "in  paltry  log-houses,  and  as  dirty  as 
in  the  north  of  Ireland,  or  even  Scotland."2 

But  there  were  characteristics  of  these  Scotch 
Irish  husbandmen  more  racial  and  permanent  than 
mere  habits  of  cleanliness.     Gamble  was  a  shrewd 


1  Gamble,  p.  262. 

2  Life  of  Arthur  Lee,  1829,  Vol.  2,  p.  385.     My  attention  has 
been  called  to  Lee  and  other  writers  by  Mrs.  Ruth  D.  Coolidge. 


6  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

observer  of  these:  "It  is  astonishing, ' '  he  says, 
"how  little  idea  Presbyterians  have  of  pastoral 
beanty;  the  Catholic  has  ten  times  more  fancy — bnt 
a  Presbyterian  minds  only  the  main  chance.  If  he 
builds  a  cottage,  it  is  a  prison  in  miniature;  if  he 
has  a  lawn,  it  is  only  grass ;  the  fence  of  his  grounds 
is  a  stone  wall,  seldom  a  hedge.  ...  A  Presby- 
terian has  a  sluggish  imagination :  it  may  be  awak- 
ened by  the  gloomy  or  terrific,  but  seldom  revels  in 
the  beautiful."1 

These  were  the  people  whom  we  call  Scotch  Irish, 
a  term  which  was  in  use  as  early  as  the  seventeenth 
century.  They  came  to  America,  not  as  discoverers, 
but  as  the  pioneers  of  their  race ;  they  defended  the 
frontiers  against  Indians,  and  their  numbers  in  the 
South  so  much  augmented  the  forces  in  the  Revolu- 
tionary army  that  they  may  fairly  be  said  to  have 
saved  Washington  from  defeat.  To  these  people  the 
British  Colonies  in  America  were  not  unknown. 
Intercourse  between  Ireland  and  New  England  has 
gone  on  with  little  interruption  from  very  early 
days.  During  the  first  century  after  the  settlement 
of  Boston,  non-conformist  ministers  of  Ireland  and 
New  England  were  in  close  touch;  members  of  the 
Mather  family  were  as  familiar  with  the  streets  of 
Dublin  as  they  were  with  the  three  green  hills  in 
the  Bay  colony's  chief  town;  and  more  than  one 
early  attempt  was  made  to  transplant  Ulster  set- 


'Gamble,  p.  348. 


IRELAND  AND  NEW  ENGLAND  7 

tiers.  Another  century  witnessed  a  steady  migra- 
tion of  the  Protestant  inhabitants  of  Ulster,  until 
by  estimation  a  third  of  the  population  had  crossed 
the  Atlantic.  During  the  last  fifty  years  central  and 
southern  Ireland  have  sent  so  many  Roman  Catholic 
emigrants  that  our  American  cities  one  and  all  feel 
the  power  of  their  numbers.    The  Atlantic  States  are 


Bangor  Castle,  County  Down 
The  Rev.  Robert  Blair  preached  at  Bangor 

today  a  New  Ireland,  influenced  in  the  rural  dis- 
tricts by  those  of  Scotch  Irish  descent,  and  governed 
in  the  cities  by  the  Celtic  Irish. 

In  1636  a  desire  to  emigrate  took  firm  hold  upon 
the  people  in  the  towns  near  Belfast.  Their  leaders 
were  four  able  men :  the  Rev.  Robert  Blair  of  Ban- 
gor, county  Down;   the  Rev.  James  Hamilton  who 


8  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

preached  at  Bally  waiter,  a  little  village  a  few  miles 
east  of  Belfast ;  the  Rev.  John  McLellan  of  the  neigh- 
boring town  of  Newtownards;  and  the  Rev.  John 
Livingston  who  had  been  deposed  from  the  chnrch 
at  Killinchy  in  the  diocese  of  Down. 

These  earnest  clergymen,  living  within  the  radins 
of  a  few  miles  of  Bangor,  became  more  and  more  dis- 
satisfied with  the  Established  Chnrch  and  its  order 
of  service.  Blair  was  their  leader,  a  man  of  "ma- 
jestic, awfnl,  yet  amiable  countenance, ' '  who  gradu- 
ally drew  into  his  circle  the  clergymen  of  eight  or 
nine  adjoining  parishes.  He  was  suspended  from 
his  charge,  and  by  the  varying  authorities  reinstated 
and  twice  deposed  for  non-conformity,  and  finally 
his  followers  suffered  a  like  fate.  They  found  it  dif- 
ficult to  preach  in  Ireland,  and  asked  Livingston,  a 
very  eloquent  speaker,  to  visit  Boston  in  company 
with  William  Wallace,  to  obtain  favorable  terms 
from  the  Governor  living  there  for  a  settlement  in 
New  England. 

Mr.  Wallace  delayed  so  long  to  bid  farewell  to  his 
family  that  the  two  agents  lost  the  desired  ships 
then  sailing  from  London.  Meeting  Mr.  John  Hum- 
phrey they  agreed  to  go  in  his  ship,  and  so  were 
unable  to  accept  Mr.  Bellingham's  later  offer  of 
passage  in  a  larger  ship.  At  Dorchester,  England, 
they  tarried  to  listen  to  the  Rev.  John  White,  a  pro- 
moter of  the  colony  of  the  Massachusetts  Bay;  at 
last  setting  sail  they  encountered  head  winds  and 


IEELAND  AND  NEW  ENGLAND  9 

were  forced  to  put  in  at  Plymouth.  There  Wallace 
fell  ill,  and  they  decided  to  abandon  the  voyage.  Liv- 
ingston never  became  an  emigrant,  but  his  son  Bob- 
ert  settled  later  npon  the  Hudson,  and  the  soil  of 
Livingston  manor  nurtured  a  race  of  American 
statesmen  and  soldiers. 

Persecution  still  continued  in  Ireland,  and  a  kindly 
invitation  from  the  Governor  and  Council  in  New 
England  determined  the  leaders  to  order  a  ship  to 
be  built  for  them  near  Belfast,  of  about  one  hundred 
and  fifty  tons  burden.  Full  of  hope  they  named  her 
the  " Eagle  Wing,"  from  that  beautiful  passage  in 
Exodus  where  the  Lord  said  to  Moses:  "Ye  have 
seen  what  I  did  unto  the  Egyptians,  and  how  I  bare 
you  on  eagles'  wings,  and  brought  you  unto  myself. 
Now  therefore,  if  ye  will  obey  my  voice  indeed,  and 
keep  my  covenant,  then  ye  shall  be  a  peculiar  treas- 
ure unto  me  above  all  people:  for  all  the  earth  is 
mine. ' ' 

One  cannot  but  wonder,  recalling  the  little  settle- 
ment at  Boston,  what  would  have  been  the  effect  of 
the  arrival  of  four  or  live  very  able  Presbyterian 
ministers  at  that  time.  Blair  and  Livingston, 
McLellan  and  Hamilton  were  men  of  education, 
property,  and  family.  Hamilton's  uncle,  Lord 
Clandeboye,  had  befriended  them;  McLellan  and 
Livingston  were  by  ties  of  marriage"  or  descent 
closely  allied  with  the  Scottish  aristocracy.  Blair 
was  a  prince  among  leaders,  and  rose  to  be  mod- 


10  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

erator  of  the  General  Assembly  in  Scotland ;  in  1648 
he  represented  it  in  an  endeavor  to  have  Cromwell 
impose  Presbyterianism  upon  England. 

The  "Eagle  Wing"  set  sail  September  9,  1636, 
from  Lough  Fergus,  but  was  soon  compelled  to  put 
in  at  Lough  Eyan  in  Scotland  to  stop  dangerous 
leaks;  she  then  turned  her  prow  westward.  Tem- 
pestuous weather  during  the  three  or  four  hundred 
leagues  which  the  ship  covered  weakened  and  at  last 
crushed  the  rudder,  "brake  much  of  our  gallion- 
head,  our  fore-cross-tree,  and  tare  our  fore-sail; 
five  or  six  of  our  chainplaitts  made  up;  ane  great 
beam  under  the  gunner-roome  door  brake ;  seas  came 
in  over  the  round-house,  and  brake  ane  plank  or  two 
in  the  deck,  and  wett  all  them  that  were  between 
decks. ' '  Thus  Livingston  tells  of  those  trying  days 
when  men  worked  incessantly  at  the  pumps,  and 
repaired  the  damage  from  wave  and  wind  as  rapidly 
as  they  could  find  opportunity.  Meanwhile  their 
leader  Blair  lay  ill  in  the  cabin;  some  of  the  com- 
pany of  one  hundred  and  forty  passengers  died,  and 
a  baby  came  into  that  storm-tossed  world  of  water. 
When  the  captain,  who  did  not  dare  to  face  another 
hurricane  off  the  New  England  coast,  turned  the  lit- 
tle ship  toward  Ireland  the  courageous  Blair  fell  in 
a  swoon,  unable  to  think  of  failure  after  so  much 
distress.  Through  it  all  Blair 's  infant  son,  who  had 
been  ill  at  departure,  lived  and  even  grew  stronger, 
so  that,  in  the  quaint  language  of  the  chronicle,  "it 


IEELAND  AND  NEW  ENGLAND    11 

pleesed  the  only  wise  God  to  twist  in  this  small  ply 
in  Mr.  Blair's  rod.,n 
*  The  early  appearance  of  Scotch  names  in  Amer- 
ica is  dne  largely  to  the  wars  between  England  and 
Scotland.  Many  prisoners  taken  at  the  battles  of 
Dunbar  and  Worcester  were  sold  into  service  in  the 
colonies.  These  men  worked  ont  their  terms  of  serv- 
itude at  the  Lynn  iron  works  and  elsewhere,  and 
founded  honorable  families  whose  Scotch  names 
appear  upon  our  early  records.  No  account  exists 
of  the  Scotch  prisoners  that  were  sent  to  New  Eng- 
land in  Cromwell's  time;  at  York  in  1650  were  the 
Maxwells,  Mclntires,  Junkinses  and  Grants.  The 
Mackclothlans,2  later  known  as  the  Claflins,  gave  a 
governor  to  Massachusetts  and  distinguished  mer- 
chants to  New  York  city.  In  Prendergast  's  ' '  Crom- 
wellian  Settlement  of  Ireland' '  reference  is  made  to 
attempts  to  strengthen  the  Protestant  population 
of  Catholic  Ireland  by  offering  inducements  to  New 
England  families  to  migrate.  These  efforts  of  1651, 
1655  and  1656  led  to  the  transplanting  of  many 
Yankee  families  to  Limerick  and  Garristown,  where 
their  descendants  perhaps  still  reside. 

During  Charles  the  Second's  time  the  harshness 
of  the  laws  in  Scotland  as  well  as  in  Ireland  led  to 


1  Autobiographies   of   Blair   and   Livingston,   published   by   the 
Wodrow  Society;  also  Dictionary  of  National  Biography. 

2  New   England   Historical   and   Genealogical   Register,   Vol.   1, 
p.  377.     See  also  the  Claflin  Genealogy. 


12  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEEES 

many  plans  for  removal  to  America.  Hugh  Camp- 
bell, a  Boston  merchant,  obtained  permission  from 
the  Bay  colony  in  February,  1679-80,  to  transport 
settlers  from  Scotland  and  establish  them  in  the 
Nepmug  country1  in  the  vicinity  of  Springfield. 

None  of  these  Scotchmen,  however,  can  properly 
be  associated  with  Ulster,  and  their  interest  in  Amer- 
ica is  not  germain  to  our  subject. 

What  object  the  captain  of  the  ship  George  of 
Londonderry  had  in  his  voyage  to  Boston  in  1675 
we  now  have  no  means  of  knowing.  The  records  of 
the  Court  of  Assistants  2  show  that  the  mariners  of 
the  ship  appealed  to  the  authorities  for  payment  of 
wages.  The  names  of  the  members  of  the  crew  were 
Philip  Owen,  Charles  Frost,  John  Bell,  Arthur 
Richards  and  William  Maxfeild. 

The  next  effort  to  establish  a  colony  originated  in 
Ireland.  Wait  Winthrop  in  Boston  wrote  to  his 
brother  Fitz- John  of  Connecticut  December  29, 1684, 
that  a  gentleman  had  lately  come  over,  "a  man  of 
some  interest  there,' '  and  was  looking  out  for  a  plan- 
tation for  about  one  hundred  families.  Winthrop 
talked  with  him  of  Quinnebaug  3  and  was  told  that 
an  abundance  of  people  would  come  over  if  they 
could  be  assured  that  they  could  have  liberty  of  con- 


1  Massachusetts  Bay  Colony  Records,  Vol.  5,  p.  264. 
3  Ibid,  Vol.  1,  p.  41. 

s  Plainfield,  about  twenty-nine  miles  north  east  of  New  London, 
in  Connecticut. 


IRELAND  AND  NEW  ENGLAND    13 

science,  their  views  being  "much  of  the  same  stamp" 
as  those  in  New  England. 1  We  know  that  conditions 
in  a  large  part  of  Ireland  were  distressing ;  this  was 
especially  true  in  the  counties  of  Derry  and  Donegal, 
where  many  ministers  of  the  presbytery  of  Lagan 
resolved  to  emigrate  to  America.  But  the  fever  for 
migration  that  was  rising  subsided  upon  the  death 
of  Charles  II,  February  6,  1685;  no  movement  to 
New  England  took  place,  although  a  few  settle- 
ments were  made  in  Maryland,  Pennsylvania  and 
the  Carolinas,  where  ships  engaged  in  the  tobacco 
trade  found  their  ports  of  destination. 2 

With  the  coming  of  James  II  to  power,  Roman 
Catholic  influence  began  to  be  felt,  and  the  Protes- 
tant population  of  Ireland  was  sure  to  suffer.  In 
1686  and  1687  high  offices  in  the  church  and  army 
were  given  to  Papists,  and  an  effort  was  made  to 
bring  English  universities  under  Catholic  rule.  The 
Earl  of  Tyrconnel,  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Ireland,  and 
an  influential  member  of  the  Roman  Catholic  party 
at  Court,  at  once  "purged"  the  army  in  Ireland  of 
its  Protestant  officers.  But  perceiving  an  oppor- 
tunity to  show  loyalty  to  King  James  by  sending  to 
England  three  thousand  men  to  aid  him  in  his 
encounter  with  William,  Prince  of  Orange,  "it 
pleased  God  to  so  Infatuate  the  Councils  of  my  Lord 


1  Massachusetts   Historical   Society   Collections,    Series   V,   Vol. 
8,  p.  450. 

2  See  the  next  chapter. 


14  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEEES 

Tyrconnel,"  as  Walker,  historian  of  the  siege,  puts 
it,  that  he  sent  ont  of  Ireland  the  Catholic  regiment 
quartered  at  Derry.  Tyrconnel  soon  saw  his  error 
in  withdrawing  this  force  from  Derry,  and  dis- 
patched the  Earl  of  Antrim  to  the  north.  When  the 
news  of  Antrim's  approach  reached  the  city  there 
was  great  indecision;  but  caution  soon  gave  way 
before  hotter  blood,  the  bridge  was  drawn  up  and 
the  gates  were  locked.  Thus  began  the  defence  of 
Derry,  April  20,  1689.  Incident  at  once  crowded 
upon  incident ;  sally  and  assault,  plot  and  treachery, 
vacillation  and  courage  gave  to  each  day  a  new  sen- 
sation, until  Colonel  Lundy,  commander  of  the  be- 
sieged forces,  having  advocated  a  secret  withdrawal 
of  officers  and  gentlemen,  leaving  the  citizens  of 
Derry  to  the  mercy  of  the  enemy,  was  forced  to  flee 
in  disguise  with  a  pack  on  his  back.  Then  in  truth 
began  the  famous  days  of  waiting  and  fighting,  un- 
der the  leadership  of  a  militant  clergyman,  the  Rev. 
George  Walker,  rector  of  Donaghmore  in  County 
Tyrone.  To  add  to  the  distress  of  the  besieged  their 
enemies  drove  thousands  of  women  and  children 
from  the  neighboring  towns  under  the  walls  of  Derry 
where  they  had, to  be  rescued  and  fed  by  a  garrison 
already  short  of  stores.  Then  came  the  days  when 
horse  flesh  was  served  to  the  soldiers,  while  dogs 
"fatned  by  eating  the  bodies  of  the  slain  Irish' ' 
sold  by  the  quarter  for  five  shillings  and  six  pence, 
and  cats  brought  four  shillings  and  six  pence  each. 


IRELAND  AND  NEW  ENGLAND    15 

On  the  30th  of  July,  in  the  time  of  their  direst  ex- 
tremity, two  ships  ladened  with  provisions  came  np 
the  Longh,  broke  the  boom  and  reached  the  town 
amid  hysterical  tears  and  thanksgiving.  They  had 
but  one  pint  of  meal  for  each  man  and  nine  lean 
horses  left  for  food. 

King  William  relieved  the  Presbyterians  of  some 
of  their  bnrdens  by  obtaining  through  his  influence 
the  Toleration  Act  (May  24, 1689) .  The  waste  lands 
soon  began  to  respond  to  the  plow,  and  thrifty  set- 
tlers from  the  Scottish  lowlands  and  Lancashire 
came  over  the  water  to  aid  those  that  had  survived 
the  war. 

Under  Queen  Anne  (1702-1714)  the  Presbyterians 
in  Ireland  again  lost  almost  every  advantage  that 
had  been  gained,  and  became  by  the  Test  Act  of 
1704  virtually  outlaws.  Their  marriages  were  de- 
clared invalid,  and  their  chapels  were  closed.  They 
could  not  maintain  schools  nor  hold  office  above  that 
of  a  petty  constable. 

The  commercial  acts  of  1698,  restricting  the  Irish 
woolen  industry  and  encouraging  the  manufacture 
of  linen,  brought  ultimate  improvement  in  Ireland 
because  lands  formerly  devoted  to  grazing  could  now 
be  devoted  in  part  to  tillage;  but  for  some  years 
immediately  following  the  passage  of  the  acts  there 
was  great  industrial  depression.  Distress  due  to  the 
lack  of  work,  together  with  the  want  of  religious 
freedom  and  political  opportunity,  excited  the  sym- 


16  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEERS 

pathy  of  non-conformists  beyond  the  bounds  of  Ire- 
land. 

During  these  years  the  Eev.  Cotton  Mather  was  in 


close  touch  with  religious  and  political  affairs  in 
Scotland  and  Ireland.   His  father  was  a  Master  of 


IEELAND  AND  NEW  ENGLAND    17 

Arts  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  and  his  two  nncles, 
Nathaniel  and  Samuel,  were  well  known  in  Dublin  as 
preachers.  To  the  University  of  Glasgow  the  Eev. 
Cotton  Mather  sent  books  and  pamphlets  from  time 
to  time,  and  had  received  there  the  honorary  degree 
of  Doctor  of  Divinity  in  1710.  He  was  therefore 
interested  both  in  Ireland  and  in  Scotland.  More- 
over he  was  a  far  seeing  patriot  of  broad  views  and 
sympathies,  to  whom  New  England  owes  much.  He 
was  the  leading  clergyman  in  a  colony  where  his 
religion  was  the  foremost  force  in  education,  in  soci- 
ety, and  in  official  life. 

On  the  20th  of  September,  1706,  Mather  records : 
"I  write  letters  unto  diverse  persons  of  Honour 
both  in  Scotland  and  in  England;  to  procure  Settle- 
ments of  Good  Scotch  Colonies,  to  the  Northward  of 
us.  This  may  be  a  thing  of  great  consequence."1 
It  was  Mather's  plan  to  settle  hardy  families  on 
the  frontiers  in  Maine  and  New  Hampshire  to  pro- 
tect the  towns  and  churches  of  Massachusetts  from 
the  French  and  Indians.  In  his  Memorial  of  the 
Present  deplorable  state  of  New  England  he  sug- 
gests that  a  Scotch  colony  might  be  of  good  service 
in  getting  possession  of  Nova  Scotia.2 

With  the  death  of  Queen  Anne  in  1714  and  the 
accession  of  George  I  the  period  of  ferment  in  Irish 


1MS.   in  the  Massachusetts  Historical   Society. 
2  Massachusetts   Historical    Society   Collections,    Series   V,   Vol. 
6,  p.  41*. 


18  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

emigration  may  be  said  to  begin.  In  that  year  two 
clergymen  set  out  for  New  England,  and  tbeir  resi- 
dence in  America  probably  had  more  to  do  with  the 
great  migration  of  1718  than  we  can  as  yet  demon- 
strate. They  were  the  Rev.  William  Homes  of  Stra- 
bane  in  County  Tyrone  who  settled  on  Martha's 
Vineyard,  and  the  Rev.  Thomas  Craighead,  his 
brother-in-law,  of  the  town  of  Donegal,  who  lived  for 
some  years  in  Freetown,  a  village  about  ten  miles 
east  of  Fall  River.  There  was,  however,  no  immedi- 
ate migration  resulting  from  their  arrival  in  New 
England.  A  few  passengers  had  arrived  in  the  year 
1716  in  the  < « Truth  and  Daylight, ' '  the  "  Mary  Ann, ' ' 
and  the  "Globe";  but  in  1717  when  piracy  was  rife 
along  the  New  England  coast  the  records,  as  com- 
municated by  Governor  Shute  to  the  Lords  of  Trade, 
show  that  only  fourteen  male  servants  or  appren- 
tices arrived  from  Dublin,  in  August,  1717,  and  nine 
from  Belfast  in  September  of  that  year.1  None 
arrived  at  Boston  from  January  to  June  29th  of  the 
year  1718,  although  Captain  Gibbs  brought  a  few 
persons  from  Dublin  to  Marblehead  in  May.  In  less 
than  two  years  from  the  arrival  of  the  Rev.  William 
Boyd  in  July,  1718,  five  or  six  hundred  men,  women 
and  children  had  come  over  to  settle.2 
But  before  considering  the  careers  and  influence 


1  See  Appendix  1. 

2  Maine  Historical  Society  Collections,  Baxter  Mss.,  Vol.  X,  p. 
106. 


IRELAND  AND  NEW  ENGLAND    19 

of  Homes  and  Craighead,  the  economic  and  religious 
condition  of  Ulster  at  this  time  should  be  made 
clear.  Dean  Swift,  in  speaking  of  tyrannical  land- 
lords, wrote  in  1720,1  "  Whoever  travels  this  conn- 
try  [Ireland]  and  observes  the  face  of  nature,  or  the 
faces,  and  habits,  and  dwellings  of  the  natives,  will 
hardly  think  himself  in  a  land  where  law,  religion, 
or  common  humanity  is  professed. ' '  And  he  explains 
that  the  landlords  by  "screwing  and  racking "  their 
tenants  had  reduced  the  people  to  a  worse  condition 
than  the  peasants  in  France  or  the  vassals  in  Ger- 
many and  Poland.  The  property  owners  were 
pressed  by  debt  incurred  often  in  London  or  on  the 
Continent.  They  felt  forced  to  exact  the  last  penny 
from  their  tenants,  and  too  often  turned  a  thrifty 
Scotch  Protestant  farmer  from  the  land  he  had  by 
incessant  toil  brought  into  good  condition  so  that 
the  land  might  go  to  two  or  more  Catholic  families 
who,  while  living  together  in  poverty,  could  by  their 
united  efforts  pay  a  greater  return.  The  Irish  were 
not  fond  of  the  plow  and  the  land  suffered  under 
their  hands.2  Sir  Thomas  Phillips  told  King 
Charles  I  that  the  native  Irish  would  give  increasing 
rents  rather  than  move ;  therefore  the  landlord  could 
hope  to  reap  only  half  the  profit  from  English  and 
Scotch  farmers  that  might  come  from  the  Irish.3 


1  Proposal  for  a  Universal  use  of  Manufactures. 

2  Hill's  Plantation  in  Ulster,  p.  590. 

s  Dublin  University  Magazine,  1833,  p.  474. 


20  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

As  late  as  1790  Lord  Chancellor  Clare  again 
repeated  the  explanation:  "The  great  misfortune 
of  Ireland,  and  particularly  [of]  the  lower  classes  of 
its  inhabitants  is,  that  at  the  expiration  of  every 
lease,  the  farm  is  pnt  np  to  auction,  and  without  con- 
sidering whether  it  is  a  Protestant  or  a  Papist — 
whether  he  is  industrious  or  indolent — whether  he  is 
solvent  or  a  beggar,  the  highest  bidder  is  declared 
the  tenant  by  the  law  agent  of  the  estate,  I  must  say 
to  the  disgrace  of  the  landlord,  and  most  frequently 
much  in  his  advantage."1 

These  were  the  conditions  in  Ulster  which  turned 
the  eyes  of  the  intelligent  Protestant  farmer  toward 
the  American  colonies.  The  desire  to  emigrate  had 
deeper  and  more  immediate  sources  than  a  century 
of  intercourse  and  sympathy  between  Ireland  and 
America. 


1  Dublin  University  Magazine,  May,  1833,  p.  480.  A  very  inter- 
esting account  of  the  confusion  and  friction  resulting  from  the 
occupation  of  the  land  by  several  tenants,  each  sharing  the  good 
and  the  poor  plots  of  land,  will  be  found  in  Mr.  and  Mrs.  S.  C. 
Hall's  Ireland,  Vol.  3,  p.  261. 


II 


IRELAND'S     RELATION     TO     MARYLAND, 

PENNSYLVANIA  AND  SOUTH  CAROLINA 

BEFORE   THE  YEAR  1718 

The  early  annals  of  the  Presbyterian  chnrch  in 
the  colonies  sonth  of  New  England  are  closely  linked 
with  the  name  of  the  Rev.  Francis  Makemie  of  Ram- 
elton  on  Lough  Swilly,  County  Donegal,  who  was 
licensed  by  the  Presbytery  of  Lagan  in  1681,  and 
came  to  America  soon  after.  Makemie  covered  the 
Atlantic  coast  colonies  in  his  ministrations,  devoting 
much  of  his  time,  however,  to  Maryland.  Before 
1690  there  were  three  and  perhaps  four  congrega- 
tions in  Somerset  County,  which  then  included 
Worcester  County,  Maryland,  with  their  meeting- 
houses at  Snow  Hill  (1684),  Manokin,  Wicomico, 
and  Rehoboth.1  These  places  lie  south  of  the  present 
southern  boundary  of  Delaware.  It  may  be  said  that 
although  two  ministers,  Doughty  and  Hill,  were 
early  Presbyterian  preachers  on  the  western  shore 
of  Chesapeake  Bay  these  settlements  on  the  east 

aThe  sheriff  of  Somerset  reported  that  the  dissenters  "hath  a 
house  in  Snow  Hill,  one  on  the  road  going  up  along  the  seaside, 
one  at  Manokin,  about  thirty  feet  long— plain  country  buildings 
all  of  them."  See  Mrs.  Mary  M.  North's  "An  Historic  Church" 
(1904). 


22  SCOTCH   IRISH  PIONEEES 

side  formed  the  first  stronghold  of  their  faith  in 
the  South. 

Another  member  of  the  Lagan  Presbytery  in  Ire- 
land, and  a  friend  of  Makemie,  was  the  Rev.  Wil- 
liam Traill,  a  Glasgow  graduate,  who  suffered  im- 
prisonment for  his  convictions,  and  upon  his  release 
came  to  Maryland  in  1682.  He  probably  founded  the 
church  at  or  near  Rehoboth  in  Somerset  County, 
where  he  had  influential  friends,  including  Colonel 
"William  Stevens,  John  White,  John  Shipway  and 
others.1 

A  few  months  earlier,  perhaps  in  1681,  came  the 
Rev.  Thomas  Wilson  to  found  a  church  at  Manokin, 
a  settlement  now  called  Princess  Anne.  It  is  sup- 
posed that  Wilson  was  the  minister  of  the  same 
name  who  had  been  at  Killybegs,  County  Donegal. 
Among  his  friends  were  John  Galbraith,  Archibald 
Erskine,  and  David  Brown.  Possibly  also  Abraham 
Gale  of  Somerset  County  in  1684  should  be  counted 
as  a  neighbor  and  friend.  Gale's  wife  Sarah  and 
their  sons  James  and  John,  sailing  from  Dublin  to 
Virginia,  fell  in  with  a  designing  rascal  who  sold 
their  services  for  a  term  of  years  to  pay  the  sum 
required  for  their  passage,  although  Gale  himself 
stood  ready  to  pay  it.2 

1Rev.  J.  W.   Mcllvain  in  Johns  Hopkins  University   Studies, 
notes  supplementary,  1890,  No.  3,  p.  19. 
■Maryland  Archives,  Vol.  17,  p.  352. 


Ramelton,  on  Lough  Swilly,  Ireland 
Home  of  the  Rev.  Francis  Makemie 


IEELAND  AJSTD  THE  SOUTH  25 

Another  of  Wilson's  neighbors  was  John  Wallis, 
Senior,  "of  Ireland  and  Monokin  Kiver,  Somerset 
County, ' '  who  was  living  in  1685  with  his  wife  Jane, 
his  nephew  John  Wallis,  Junior,  and  his  kinsmen 
Matthew  and  James  Wallis.1  Other  settlers  from 
Ireland  were  there.  Edward  Eandolph,  writing  to 
the  Commissioners  of  Customs  from  James  City, 
June  27,  1692,  adds  to  our  knowledge  of  the  Scotch 
Irish  in  Somerset  County  in  the  following  reference 
to  the  new  governor  of  Maryland: 

"I  hear  he  has  continued  Majr  King  to  bee  ye 
Navall  Officer  in  Somerset  Coty  on  ye  eastern  shore, 
a  place  pestred  wth  Scotch  &  Irish.  About  200  fam- 
ilies have  within  ye  2  years  arrived  from  Ireland  & 
setled  in  y*  Coty  besides  some  hundred  of  family's 
there  before.  They  have  set  up  a  linnen  Manufac- 
ture, Encouraged  thereto  by  Co11  Brown,  a  Scotch- 
man, one  of  ye  Councill  &  by  Majr  King  &  other  prin- 
cipall  persons  upon  ye  place,  who  support  ye  Inter- 
lopers &  buy  up  all  their  Loading  upon  their  first 
arrivall,  &  govern  ye  whole  trade  on  ye  Eastern 
shore,  so  yl  whereas  7  or  8  good  ships  from  Engld 
did  yearly  trade  &  load  ye  Tobb°  of  y*  Coty  I  find  yl 
in  these  3  years  last  past  there  has  not  been  above 
5  ships  trading  legally  in  all  those  Eivers,  &  nigh  30 
Sayle  of  Scotch  Irish  &  New  Engld  men. ' ' 2 


1  Maryland  Calendar  of  Wills,  Jane  Baldwin,  editor,  Vol.  1. 
'In  Edward  Randolph  (Prince  Society),  Vol.  7,  p.  364,  to  which 
Mr.  Albert  Matthews  directed  my  attention. 


26 


SCOTCH   IRISH  PIONEERS 


A  third  Presbyterian  minister  in  this  region  was 
the  Rev.  Samuel  Davis,1  possibly  also  from  Ireland, 
who  is  said  to  have  been  pastor  of  the  "  famous  and 


{: 


§2& 


Old  House  in  Snow  Hill,  Maryland 


venerable"  church  at  Snow  Hill  from  an  early  date 
until  1698.  He  afterward  settled  at  Hoarkill,  now 
Lewes,  in  Delaware.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Makemie  mar- 
ried a  lady  of  wealth  in  1690  and  settled  in  Accomac 


1  Rev.  William  Hill,  in  his  History  of  American  Presbyterianism 
(Washington  City,  1839)  pp.  162-163,  doubts  a  Scotch  origin  for 
all  of  the  seven  members  of  the  first  presbytery.  Mackemie, 
Hampton  and  McNish,  he  agrees,  Were  Irish, 


IEELAND  AND  THE  SOUTH  27 

County,  Virginia,  a  few  miles  south  of  Snow  Hill. 
Whether  he  or  Davis  was  regularly  in  charge  at 
Snow  Hill  cannot  now  be  determined.  The  Makemie 
Memorial  Presbyterian  Church  perpetuates  the 
memory  of  his  ministry. 

Along  the  western  shore  of  Chesapeake  Bay  Colo- 
nel Ninian  Beall  was  the  leading  Presbyterian  lay- 
man. Through  his  influence  a  church  existed  at 
Patuxent  in  1704,  and  the  members  included  several 
prominent  Fifeshire  families  of  the  present  Prince 
George  County. 

Makemie 's  successor  was  the  Eev.  John  Henry, 
who  came  from  Ireland  in  1709,  having  been  licensed 
by  Armagh  Presbytery  in  1708.  Although  Makemie 
was  the  chief  Presbyterian  minister  of  the  early 
pioneers  there  were  several  others  in  the  colonies 
at  about  this  period.  They  are  little  more  than 
names  to  us,  but  they  did  faithful  service,  going  from 
plantation  to  plantation  along  the  rivers,  preaching 
in  the  open  air  or  in  houses,  where  no  church  existed, 
and  living  as  traders  when  bread  could  not  be  earned 
by  the  work  of  the  ministry.  The  Eev.  Josias  Mackie 
came  to  Elizabeth  Eiver,  Virginia — the  lands  about 
Norfolk — from  St.  Johnstown,  County  Donegal,  a 
town  destined  to  try  the  soul  of  New  England's 
Scotch  Irish  leader,  Boyd,  half  a  century  later  when 
he  had  returned  to  Ulster.  The  Eev.  John  Hamp- 
ton, probably  "master  John  of  Burt,"  whose  school 
days  were  brightened  by  money  from  the  Presbytery 


28  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

of  Lagan,  settled  at  Snow  Hill,  and  the  Rev.  George 
McNish,  Scotch  or  Irish,  officiated  at  Manokin  and 
Wicomico.  Others  were  the  Rev.  Hugh  Conn  of  our 
present  Bladensburg,  Maryland,  the  Rev.  Robert 
Orr  of  Maidenhead,  New  Jersey,  the  Rev.  John 
Thomson  of  Lewes,  and  the  Rev.  Samuel  Gelston 
who  went  down  after  a  sojourn  in  New  England  to 
preach  at  Opequon  in  Virginia. 

A  question  arises  in  considering  the  history  of 
these  early  churches  of  Maryland  and  Virginia; — 
Were  the  Scotch  Irish  a  real  factor  here  before  the 
year  1718,  the  date  of  the  great  migration  to  New 
England  ?  In  Maryland  Presbyterianism  was  of  the 
mild  English  type,  and  we  find  Presbyterians  joining 
with  Episcopalians  in  an  appeal  for  an  Established 
Church  as  a  protection  against  the  spread  of  Roman 
Catholicism.  The  same  type  of  Presbyterianism  pre- 
vailed in  Philadelphia  during  the  ministry  of  the 
Rev.  Jedediah  Andrews,  a  Yankee  in  the  Quaker 
city.  It  is  probable  therefore  that  very  few  com- 
municants, aside  from  the  ministers,  had  ever  lived 
in  Ireland. 

While  few  Presbyterians  came  from  Ireland 
before  1718,  the  Quaker  migration  certainly  began 
as  early  as  1682.  The  failure  of  this  Quaker  migra- 
tion to  influence  the  coming  of  Scotch  Irish  settlers  is 
curiously  illustrated  by  a  table  in  Mr.  Myers's  inval- 
uable book  on  the  Irish  Quakers  in  Pennsylvania. 
We  learn  there  that  of  the  one  hundred  and  sixty- 


IRELAND  AND  THE  SOUTH  29 

five  families  that  came  during  the  thirty-five  years 
from  1682  to  1717  only  one  left  a  home  in  Connty 
Antrim,  and  none  came  from  Londonderry  or 
Tyrone,  the  Scotch  Irish  counties  ;*  whatever  Scotch 
Irish  migration  from  Ulster  existed  before  1718  was 
not  influenced  by  the  Quakers '  example. 

In  the  next  thirty-two  years,  1718  to  1750,  a  period 
covering  the  great  Scotch  Irish  migration  from 
Ulster,  two  hundred  and  sixty-five  Quaker  adults 
or  families  came  to  Pennsylvania.  Of  these  there 
were  one  hundred  and  thirty-five  from  Ulster,  or 
just  one  half.  They  came  largely  from  the  meet- 
ings at  Antrim,  Ballinderry,  Ballinacree  and  Lis- 
burn,  in  county  Antrim,  the  heart  of  the  Scotch  Irish 
country,  and  from  Ballyhagan,  Grange,  and  Lurgan, 
county  Armagh.  This  tide,  however,  did  not  really 
set  in  until  after  the  Scotch  Irish  had  b^gun  their 
removal,  or  until  1729,  when  in  one  year  twenty-nine 
left  Ireland  as  against  seventeen  in  the  preceding 
nine  years.  Evidently  the  sudden  increase  in  the 
Ulster  Quaker  migration  was  due  to  the  economic 
disturbances  of  the  years  1728  and  1729,  discussed  so 
fully  in  Archbishop  Boulter's  letters.2  It  follows, 
therefore,  that  the  Scotch  migration  of  1718  from 
Ulster  was  in  no  manner  influenced  by  the  migration 
of  Quakers.  That  Quakers  and  Presbyterians  had 
family  ties  may  be  inferred,  however,  from  the  fact 

twenty-seven  came  from  Armagh  and  Cavan. 
2  See  Chapter  III, 


30  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

that  James  Logan,  the  Quaker,  William  Penn's 
friend,  and  Secretary  of  Pennsylvania,  was  a  cousin 
of  the  Rev.  William  Tennent,  who  came  to  America 
from  Ireland  and  settled  at  East  Chester,  New 
York  in  1718.1  Tennent  became  one  of  the  great 
leaders  in  the  Presbyterian  church. 

The  passengers  who  arrived  at  Philadelphia  from 
Ireland  earlier  than  1718  were  for  the  most  part 
Quakers  or  Celtic  Irish.  We  have  few  contempor- 
ary references  to  the  arrival  of  Scotch  Irish  com- 
panies of  settlers,  until  the  American  Weekly  Mer- 
cury of  October  27,  1720,  mentions  a  brigantine 
from  Londonderry  with  ninety  passengers  on  board. 
These  were  probably  Presbyterians.  The  Presby- 
terian influence  in  the  colonies  was  never  strong  un- 
til the  migration  from  Ulster  began.  Mr.  J.  S. 
Futhey  in  his  history  of  Upper  Octorara  Church 
bears  testimony  to  this,  and  Mr.  W.  D.  Mackey  in  his 
history  of  the  church  at  White  Clay  Creek  is  another 
witness.  Moreover,  the  Scotch  Irish  type  of  Mary- 
land Presbyterianism  was  just  coming  into  prom- 
inence when  the  Rev.  Thomas  Craighead  went  from 
Freetown  in  Massachusetts  to  become  the  first  pas- 
tor at  White  Clay  Creek  in  1724.2 

The  next  port  on  the  coast  which  is  associated  with 
Scotch  Irish  immigrants  at  an  early  date  is  Charles- 


1  Webster's  Presbyterian  Church,  p.  365. 

'See  Alfred  Nevin's  Presbytery  of  Philadelphia,  1888,  Chapter 
2,  for  a  good  summary  of  the  early  history. 


IEELAND  AND  THE  SOUTH  31 

ton.  About  the  year  1683,  if  we  may  rely  upon  tradi- 
tion, several  emigrants,  influenced  by  Sir  Richard 
Kyrle,1  a  Protestant  Irishman  of  some  note,  and  led 
by  a  man  named  Ferguson,  landed  there,  although 
little  is  known  of  them.2  One  tangible  fact,  indeed, 
we  have  in  the  presence  at  Charleston  in  1692  of 
Richard  Newton  whose  brother  Marmaduke  Newton 
still  remained  at  Carrickfergus  in  old  Ireland.3 

The  first  Presbyterian  church  in  Charleston  was 
organized  about  1685,  with  communicants  largely  if 
not  entirely  from  Scotland  and  New  England.  It 
enjoyed  a  prosperous  history  for  half  a  century.  The 
Rev.  Archibald  Stobo  of  the  original  or  "  White 
Meeting  House' '  became  a  famous  Charleston 
preacher.  He  and  his  wife  had  come  ashore  in  1699 
from  the  ship  " Rising  Sun,"  which  then  lay  off  the 
bar  under  jury  masts,  he  having  received  an  invita- 
tion to  preach.  A  hurricane  approaching  unexpect- 
edly, the  ship  and  all  her  company,  except  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Stobo  and  the  longboat's  crew,  were  lost.  The 
people  were  on  their  way  to  Scotland  from  the  unfor- 
tunate colony  at  Darien.4 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Stobo  was  an  ardent  missionary, 
and  his  efforts  to  widen  the  borders  of  his  church 
by  the  creation  of  new  congregations  and  the  erec- 


1  Governor  of  South  Carolina  in  1684. 

2  Charlestown  Year  Book,  1883,  p.  380. 

3  South  Carolina  Historical  and  Genealogical  Magazine,  Vol.  8, 
204. 

'Charleston  Year  Book,  1882,  p.  397. 


32  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

tion  of  new  places  for  worship  were  successful.  A 
letter  from  South  Carolina  published  in  1710  speaks 
of  five  " British  Presbyterian' '  ministers  then  in  the 
colony.1  These  preachers  heralded  the  faith  which 
was  in  another  generation  to  make  itself  felt  in 
South  Carolina,  when  the  real  migration  from  Ire- 
land should  begin. 

The  following  incident  is  worthy  of  record  here. 
A  certain  Mr.  John  Jarvie  had  been  ordained  by  the 
Presbytery  of  Belfast  instead  of  by  that  of  Down 
as  had  been  decreed  by  the  Synod.  An  explanation 
of  the  irregularity  was  given  by  Mr.  Robert  Wilson, 
merchant,  of  Belfast:  "That  there  was  a  ship  in 
the  Logh  of  Belfast  bound  for  South  Carolina ;  that 
the  seamen  and  passengers  amount  to  the  number 
of  70;  that  it  was  earnestly  desir'd  that  they  may 
have  a  Chaplain  on  board,  and  if  ordain 'd,  so  much 
the  better  for  the  voyage,  and  also  for  the  person 
to  be  ordain 'd  and  the  country  whither  they  are 
bound — therefor  desir'd,  seeing  Mr.  Jarvie  inclines 
to  sail  in  the  ship,  that  he  may  be  ordain 'd  before 
he  go,  and  that  it  may  be  done  as  soon  as  possible, 
because  the  ship  will  soon  be  clear  to  sail."2  It  is 
possible  that  these  passengers  were  from  Glasgow, 
since  nearly  all  ships  from  that  port  called  at  Bel- 
fast on  the  voyage  to  America.  Whether  Scotch 
or  Scotch  Irish  we  cannot  decide,  but  they  sailed 


1  Hodge's  Presbyterian  Church,  Vol.  1,  p.  85. 

3  Records  General  Synod  at  Belfast  June  15,  1714,  p.  336. 


IEELAND  AND  THE  SOUTH  35 

from  an  Irish  port  with  one  of  Ireland's  Presbyter- 
ian ministers  on  board,  and  arrived  at  Charleston, 
probably  in  the  summer  of  the  year  1714. 

Evidently  there  were  a  few  Scotch  Irish  in  and 
near  Charleston,  and  on  the  rich  lands  between  Phil- 
adelphia and  Wilmington,  at  an  early  date.  In  New 
York  also  they  held  a  place,  and  in  the  Presbyterian 
churches  on  Long  Island.  But  in  no  case  did  the 
migrations  before  1718  have  great  influence.  They 
were,  it  is  true,  responses  to  a  spirit  of  discontent 
and  unrest  in  Ulster,  but  low  rates  of  transportation 
on  account  of  trade  in  tobacco  had  their  force  as 
well. 

Such  were  the  conditions  at  the  opening  of  the 
year  1718.  Yet  we  shall  see  that  in  less  than  a  dec- 
ade after  Boyd  and  McGregor  had  set  foot  in  New 
England,  the  ports  of  Philadelphia,  Newcastle  and 
Charleston  were  swarming  with  the  Scotch  Irish. 
James  Logan  of  Pennsylvania  reported  in  1727  the 
arrival  of  eight  or  nine  emigrant  ships  that  autumn, 
and  in  1729  six  vessels  in  a  single  week  Game  into 
port. 

Before  the  year  1718  the  growth  of  Scotch  Irish 
influence  and  numbers  cannot  safely  be  measured  by 
the  spread  of  Presbyterianism,  yet  its  early  ecclesi- 
astical history  is  of  contributive  value.  In  the  year 
1704  or  1705  the  ministers  who  gathered  in  Philadel- 
phia   to    ordain    and    install    the    Eev.    Jedediah 


36  SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEERS 

Andrews  of  Boston  agreed  to  form  a  General  Pres- 
bytery.   These  men  were : 

Francis  Makemie,  Rehoboth. 

Nathaniel  Taylor,  Upper  Marlborough. 

John  Wilson,  Newcastle. 

George  McNish,  Manokin. 

John  Hampton,  Snow  Hill. 

Samuel  Davis,  Lewes. 

Jedediah  Andrews,  Philadelphia. 

Although  the  Scotch  Irish  have  their  full  share  in 
this  list  of  ministers,  the  people  who  listened  to  their 
sermons  were  very  largely  of  Scotch  and  English 
ancestry ;  and  in  the  next  decade  their  growing  fam- 
ilies and  the  arrival  of  their  friends  from  abroad 
so  increased  the  number  of  Presbyterians  that  in 
1717  the  General  Presbytery  became  a  Synod  with 
four  presbyteries,  Philadelphia,  Newcastle,  Snow 
Hill,  and  Long  Island,1  and  twenty-nine  ministers. 
Twenty  years  later  the  number  of  ministers  had 
trebled,2  for  the  great  tide  of  migration  which  was 
identified  with  New  England  in  1718  soon  turned 
toward  Philadelphia. 


See  Hodge's  Presbyterian  Church,  1839,  pp.  93-97. 
Proceedings  Presbytery  of  Baltimore,  1876. 


Ill 


ECONOMIC  CONDITIONS  IN  ULSTER, 
1714-1718 

To  understand  the  conditions  in  Ulster  in  1718  it 
will  be  necessary  to  know  the  Irish  Society,  or  as  it 
was  called  legally  The  Society  of  the  Governor  and 
Assistants  of  London,  of  the  New  Plantation  in 
Ulster,  in  the  Kingdom  of  Ireland.  This  Society 
held  sway  over  the  present  county  of  Londonderry, 
between  the  rivers  Foyle  and  Bann,  leasing  or  sub- 
letting its  valuable  rights  and  privileges  to  local  offi- 
cials. The  territory  about  Coleraine  thus  came  by 
lease  into  the  hands  of  the  Jackson  family.  Ambi- 
tious to  acquire  both  property  and  power,  they  were 
often  at  odds  with  the  authorities  in  London,  and 
were  driven  by  these  conditions  to  hold  their  terri- 
tory at  excessive  rates  imposed  by  the  none  too 
friendly  London  directors.  In  the  year  1713  com- 
plaint was  made  that  Mr.  William  Jackson  had  three 
uncles  who  with  himself  and  two  tenants  were  alder- 
men, so  that  six  out  of  the  twelve  aldermen  of  Col- 
eraine obeyed  his  orders.  Five  of  the  twenty-four 
burgesses,  or  members  of  the  lower  house,  were  his 
tenants,  and  Mr.  Jackson  desired  to  fill  a  vacancy 
with  another  tenant  of  his,  living  ten  miles  away  at 


38  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

Kilrea ;  this  tenant  was  moreover  brother  of  a  bur- 
gess, and  both  were  sons  of  Alderman  Adams.  Thir- 
teen members  of  the  Common  Council  (which  includ- 
ed Aldermen  and  Burgesses)  called  upon  the  mayor 
for  a  judicial  investigation  of  the  matter,  but  the 
mayor,  who  was  a  relative  of  Jackson's,*  refused  to 
accede  to  their  request  although  it  was  made  accord- 
ing to  the  law.  This  was  but  the  beginning  of  dis- 
cord in  the  Bann  valley.  In  1728  the  Society 
expressed  dissatisfaction  with  the  Jackson  family, 
which  had  opposed  the  political  interest  of  the  Soci- 
ety, and  had  through  control  of  the  Corporation  of 
Coleraine  usurped  the  power  to  grant  lands. 

The  long  arm  which  reached  out  from  London  had 
no  sooner  quieted  Coleraine,  than  Derry  (the  early 
name  for  Londonderry)  was  in  trouble  for  disre- 
garding its  by-laws.  These  controversies  probably 
had  little  influence  upon  the  lot  of  the  humbler  ten- 
ant except  along  the  Bann  where  the  Jackson  sway 
was  felt.  It  was  " commonly  reported' '  that  the 
Hon.  Richard  Jackson  was  forced  to  raise  the  rents 
of  his  tenants  in  order  to  meet  his  obligations ;  and 
that  these  tenants,  who  lived  upon  lands  within  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  Clothworkers  Company  near 
Coleraine,  began  agitation  for  the  first  great  Scotch- 
Irish  emigration  to  America.1 

The  larger  part  of  the  lands  in  Ulster  had  es- 

1  Narrative  of  a  Journey  to  the  North  of  Ireland  in  the  year 
1802,  by  Robert  Slade,  Esq.,  Secretary  to  the  Irish  Society. 


Altyw.tfenCA. 


1?'  HcmHt. 


^^DL^^L£-JL 


ZDer^YTfj,      ^ 


Road  Map  of  the  Bann  Valley 
From  Kilrea  to  Coleraine  via  Garvagh  and  Macosquin  Twelve  Miles 


ECONOMIC  CONDITIONS  41 

cheated  to  the  crown  early  in  the  reign  of  James  I,  as  » 
confiscated  property  of  Irish  noblemen  in  rebellion. 
In  order  to  plant  a  Protestant  colony  in  Ulster  the 
Lords  of  Council  placed  these  lands  in  the  hands  of 
wealthy  adventurers.  That  part  now  known  as 
County  Londonderry  came  under  the  jurisdiction  of 
the  Corporation  of  London,  and  by  its  officers  it  was 
divided  between  twelve  of  the  chief  London  compa- 
nies or  guilds  who  came  forward  as  " undertakers' ' 
or  promoters  of  the  project.  The  Irish  Society  was 
incorporated  to  have  a  general  control  of  Derry  and 
Coleraine,  and  of  lands  not  granted  to  the  twelve 
companies.  It  aided  churches  and  schools,  protected 
the  settlers,  and  defended  the  rights  of  those  who 
had  invested  in  the  enterprise.  The  twelve  chief 
companies  and  their  lands  were  noticed  in  the  report 
of  a  journey  of  inspection  made  by  Eobert  Slade  in 
1802.1    They  were : 

Ironmongers,  about  Garvagh.  Including  more  or 
less  of  the  parishes  of  Aghadowey,  Agivey,  Macos- 
quin,  Desertoghill,  Errigal. 

ClothworJcers,  about  Coleraine. 

From  the  Atlantic  S.  E.  along  the  Bann  to  Kill- 

owen ;  included  Down  Hill. 

Drapers,  about  Moneymore. 

Grocers,  about  Muff.  Bounded  N.  by  Lough  Foyle ; 
S.  by  Burntollet  river. 

1  Early  tenants  are  mentioned  in  the  notes  to  Pynnar's  Survey, 
reprinted  in  Hill's  Plantation  in  Ulster. 


\y 


42  SCOTCH  IKISH  PIONEERS 

Goldsmiths,  near  Londonderry.  Bounded  N.  and  W. 
by  lough  and  river  Foyle ;  S.  by  Tyrone. 

Vintners,  Ballaghy,  west  of  Lough  Beg. 

Merchant  Tailors,  about  Somerset,  near  Salmon 
Leap.    Included  most  of  Macosquin. 

Mercers,  near  Kilrea. 

Fishmongers,  about  "Walworth,  near  Lough  Foyle. 
< « Alias  Ballykelly." 

Skinners,  " Alias  Dungiven." 

Haberdashers,  about  Newtown  Limavady,  and  Bally- 
castle. 

Salters,  about  Magherafelt. 

The  charter  granted  by  King  James  in  1615  was 
in  the  reign  of  Charles  I  annulled  in  the  Court  of 
Star  Chamber,  so  that  the  Society  and  the  twelve 
companies  and  their  subordinate  companies,  all  lost 
their  powers.  This  decree  was  rescinded  under 
Cromwell;  and  a  new  charter  was  granted  by 
Charles  II  in  1662,  whereby  Derry  became  known 
legally  as  Londonderry.  It  was  at  this  time  that 
the  control  of  Londonderry  and  Coleraine,  with  the 
fisheries,  woods,  ferryage,  and  the  right  of  patron- 
age of  the  churches,  was  vested  in  the  Governor  and 
Assistants  of  the  Irish  Society  and  not  in  the  several 
companies.1 

This  system  went  far  toward  established  Protes- 
tant power  in  Ulster.   Indeed  if  the  Presbyterians  in 

»W.  C.  Hazlitt's  Livery  Companies  of  London,  p.  28. 


ECONOMIC  CONDITIONS  43 

Ulster  had  been  treated  with  consideration  and  wis- 
dom by  the  leaders  of  the  Irish  Established  Church, 
and  with  tact  by  the  government  in  London,  they 
would  have  had  less  inclination  to  brave  the  ocean 
to  inhabit  the  frontiers  of  the  colonies  in  America. 
It  is  evident  that  the  economic  changes  in  Mr.  Jack- 
son's territory  along  the  Bann  cannot  alone  explain 
the  emigration  fever  which  prevailed  on  the  banks 
of  the  Poyle.  The  controlling  influences  were  more 
wide  spread  and  more  vital  in  the  lives  of  the  peo- 
ple. They  were  to  some  extent  economic,  but  they 
were  still  more  political  and  religious.  A  Scot  might 
starve  in  Ireland  as  peaceably  as  he  was  likely  to 
do  in  a  strange  land  beyond  the  sea,  but  to  be 
thwarted  in  his  views  of  right  and  of  heaven  stirred 
him  to  action. 

The  six  years  between  1714  and  1719  were  notable 
in  Ireland  for  their  insufficient  rainfall.1  So  long  a 
period  of  injury  to  crops  proved  more  and  more  dis- 
couraging, not  only  to  those  settlers  who  depended 
upon  agriculture,  but  also  to  the  weavers  of  flax 
who  found  the  cost  of  food  very  high.  In  1716  the 
sheep  were  stricken  with  a  destructive  disease  known 
as  rot,  and  severe  frosts  over  Europe  further  crip- 
plecTThe  supply  of  food.  During  the  spring  and 
summer  of  1718  ' '  a  slow  confluent  small-pox ' '  raged 
over  Ulster  in  a  malignant  form;  while  the  next 
three  years  brought  fevers  in  the  winter  months. 


* 


Rutty 's  "Weather  and  Seasons." 


44  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

These  misfortunes  affected  the  Scotch  farmer  in 
Ulster  just  as  they  did  the  native  Irish  in  Leinster 
or  in  Munster.  The  following  note  on  Ireland  in 
1716  is  from  Archbishop  King's  papers,  and  it  has 
the  ring  of  Dean  Swift.  It  shows,  moreover,  that 
in  Ireland  the  farmer  had  to  contend  with  difficul- 
ties that  were  less  marked  in  England  and  Scotland. 
"The  common  Irish1  are  laborious  people,  and  if 
we  set  aside  the  holydays  their  religion  nrjoins,  they 
work  as  hard  and  as  long  as  any  in  England.  I  con- 
fess not  with  the  same  success,  for  they  have  neither 
the  assistance  to  labour  nor  the  encouragement 
workmen  have  in  England,  their  poverty  will  not 
furnish  them  with  convenient  tools,  and  so  the  same 
quantitie  of  work  costs  them  p'haps  twice  the  labour 
with  which  it  is  p'form'd  in  England;  there  are 
many  accidental  differences  that  increase  their 
labour  on  them,  as,  for  example,  England  is  already 
enclos  'd,  and  if  a  farmer  have  a  mind  to  keep  a  field 
for  medow,  grazing,  or  plowing,  it  costs  him  no  more 
but  the  shutting  his  gate,  but  the  Irishman  must 
fence  his  whole  field  every  year  or  leave  it  in  com- 
mon, and  the  like  saving  of  labour  happens  in  the 
plow  utensils  in  building  houses  and  p'viding  fire- 
ing.    Neither  hath  the  Irishman  that  encouragement 


*"A11  persons  born  in  Ireland  are  called  and  treated  as  Irish- 
men although  their  fathers  and  grandfathers  were  born  in  Eng- 
land."— Swift  to  Earl  of  Peterborough,  1726,  quoted  in  A  great 
archbishop  of  Dublin,  William  King  (1906),  p.  283. 


ECONOMIC  CONDITIONS  45 

to  labour  as  there  is  in  England,  lie  has  no  markett 
for  his  manufactories,  if  he  build  a  good  house  or 
inclose  his  grounds,  to  be  sure  he  must  raise  his  rent 
or  turn  out  at  the  end  of  a  short  lease.  These  and 
many  other  considerations  make  the  Irishman's  case 
very  pitifull,  and  ought,  as  seems  to  me,  to  move 
compassion  rather  than  anger  or  a  severe  condemna- 
tion. Upon  the  whole  I  do  not  see  how  Ireland  can 
on  the  p'sent  foot  pay  greater  taxes  than  it  does 
without  starving  the  inhabitants  and  leaving  them 
entirely  without  meat  or  clothes.  They  have  already 
given  their  bread,  their  flesh,  their  butter,  their 
shoes,  their  stockings,  their  beds,  their  house  fur- 
niture and  houses  to  pay  their  landlords  and  taxes. 
I  cannot  see  how  any  more  can  be  got  from  them, 
except  we  take  away  their  potatoes  and  butter  milk, 
or  flay  them  and  sell  their  skins."1 

The  people  suffered  also  from  the  devotion  of  the 
great  landlords  to  grazing,  due  to  the  profit  to  be 
obtained  from  contraband  trade  in  wool,  and  from 
the  sale  of  salted  meat.  Farm  buildings  gradually 
disappeared  or  fell  into  decay  and  the  herder  with 
his  dog  wandered  over  the  desolate  fields.  Leases 
forbade  the  use  of  the  plow,  and  grain  had  to  be 
imported  because  Ireland  did  not  supply  enough  to 
satisfy  the  demand  even  at  high  prices.  Archbishop 
Boulter  who,  with  King,  and  that  other  brilliant 


xFrom  (Great  Britain)  Royal  Commission  on  Historical  Manu- 
scripts, second  report,  London,  1874,  pp.  256-257. 


\ 


46  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

churchman,  Dean  Swift,  strove  incessantly  for  leg- 
islation to  make  Ireland  prosper,  wrote  to  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury  in  1727  that  more  tillage  must 
be  demanded  of  the  landowner.  The  Irish  House  of 
Commons  had  tried  in  1716  and  again  in  1719  to 
interest  the  England  Parliament  in  a  bill  of  this 
nature.  Boulter  writes  to  the  Archbishop  of  Can- 
terbury in  February,  1727 : — 

' '  There  is  part  of  another  bill  which  will  go  over, 
that  is  of  great  consequence  to  this  kingdom;  the 
title  of  the  act  is,  I  think,  an  act  to  prevent  frauds, 
&c.  in  buying  corn,  &c.  and  to  encourage  tillage. 

' l  It  is  the  latter  part  of  this  bill  about  tillage  that 
is  of  great  moment  here.  The  bill  does  not  encour- 
age tillage  by  allowing  any  premium  to  the  exporters 
of  corn,  but  barely  obliges  every  person  occupying 
100  acres  or  more  (meadows,  parks,  bogs,  &c.  ex- 
cepted) to  till  five  acres  out  of  every  100 ;  and  so  in 
proportion  for  every  greater  quantity  of  land  they 
occupy.  And  to  make  the  law  have  some  force,  it 
sets  the  tenant  at  liberty  to  do  this,  notwithstanding 
any  clause  in  his  lease  to  the  contrary.  We  have 
taken  care  to  provide  in  the  bill,  that  the  tenant  shall 
not  be  able  to  burnbeat  any  ground  in  virtue  of  this 
act;  and  since  he  is  tyed  up  from  that,  and  from 
ploughing  meadows,  &c.  the  people  skilled  in  hus- 
bandry say,  he  cannot  hurt  the  land  though  he  should 
go  round  the  100  acres  in  20  years. 

"I  find  my  Lord  Trevor  objected  to  a  bill  we  sent 


ECONOMIC  CONDITIONS  47 

from  council  that  this  was  a  breaking  of  private 
contracts,  and  invading  property :  bnt  I  think  that 
nothing,  since  the  lessor  receives  no  damage  by  it, 
and  the  pnblick  is  very  mnch  benefitted;  and  this 
is  no  more  than  what  is  done  every  session  in  Eng- 
land, where  rivers  are  made  navigable  or  commons 
inclosed;   and  in  many  road  bills. 

"I  shall  now  acquaint  yonr  Grace  with  the  great 
want  we  are  in  of  this  bill :  onr  present  tillage  falls 
very  short  of  answering  the  demands  of  this  nation, 
which  occasions  onr  importing  corn  from  England 
and  other  places ;  and  whilst  onr  poor  have  bread  to 
eat,  we  do  not  complain  of  this;  bnt  by  tilling  so 
little,  if  onr  crop  fails,  or  yields  indifferently,  onr 
poor  have  not  money  to  buy  bread.  This  was  the 
case  in  1725  and  last  year,  and  without  a  prodigious 
crop,  will  be  more  so  this  year.  When  I  went  my 
visitation  last  year,  barley  in  some  inland  places, 
sold  for  6  5.  a  bushel  to  make  bread  of ;  and  oatmeal 
(which  is  the  bread  of  the  north)  sold  for  twice  or 
thrice  the  usual  price ;  and  we  met  all  the  roads  full 
of  whole  families  that  had  left  their  homes  to  beg 
abroad,  since  their  neighbors  had  nothing  to  relieve 
them  with.  And  as  the  winter  subsistance  of  the 
poor  is  chiefly  potatoes,  this  scarcity  drove  the  poor 
to  begin  with  their  potatoes  before  they  were  full 
grown,  so  that  they  have  lost  half  the  benefit  of  them, 
and  have  spent  their  stock  about  two  months  sooner 
than  usual :  and  oatmeal  is  at  this  distance  from  har- 


48  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

vest,  in  many  parts  of  this  kingdom  three  times  the 
customary  price ;  so  that  this  summer  must  be  more 
fatal  to  us  than  the  last;  when  I  fear  many  hun- 
dreds perished  by  famine. 

"Now  the  occasion  of  this  evil  is,  that  many  per- 
sons have  hired  large  tracts  of  land,  on  to  3  or  4000 
acres,  and  have  stocked  them  with  cattle,  and  have 
no  other  inhabitants  on  their  land  than  so  many  cot- 
tiers as  are  necessary  to  look  after  their  sheep  and 
black  cattle;  so  that  in  some  of  the  finest  counties, 
in  many  places  there  is  neither  house  nor  corn  field 
to  be  seen  in  10  or  15  miles  travelling :  and  daily  in 
some  counties,  many  gentlemen  (as  their  leases  fall 
into  their  hands)  tye  up  their  tenants  from  tillage: 
and  this  is  one  of  the  main  causes  why  so  many  ven- 
ture to  go  into  foreign  service  at  the  hazard  of  their 
lives,  if  taken,  because  they  can  get  no  land  to  till 
at  home.  And  if  some  stop  be  not  put  to  this  evil, 
we  must  daily  decrease  in  the  numbers  of  our  people. 

"But  we  hope  if  this  tillage  bill  takes  place,  to 
keep  our  youth  at  home,  to  employ  our  poor,  and  not 
be  jn  danger  of  a  famine  among  the  poor  upon  any 
little  miscarriage  in  our  harvest.  And  I  hope  these 
are  things  of  greater  consequence  than  the  breaking 
through  a  lease,  so  far  as  concerns  ploughing  five 
acres  in  a  hundred."1 

After  a  potato  famine  from  which  many  hun- 

1  Letters  by  Hugh  Boulter  to  several  Ministers  of  State,  Oxford, 
1769,  Vol.  1,  pp.  220-223. 


ECONOMIC  CONDITIONS  49 

dreds  of  the  peasants  died  of  starvation  the  English 
Council  at  last  consented,  avowedly  for  the  benefit  of 
the  poor,  to  cancel  the  prohibitory  clause  in  leases 
so  that  a  small  part  of  each  farm  should  be  plowed.1 

Two  industries  in  the  counties  of  Antrim  and  Lon- 
donderry changed  the  character  of  the  misfortunes 
of  the  settlers  there,  although  it  cannot  be  said  that 
they  warded  off  trouble.  The  Scotch  in  Ulster  should 
have  been  prosperous  even  in  years  when  other 
provinces  of  Ireland  starved.  But  the  industries  of 
Ireland  were  crushed  out  at  the  behest  of  English 
merchants  by  laws  favorable  to  home  products. 

The  farms  in  Ulster  were  small,  each  having  its 
field  of  potatoes.  The  soil  was  enriched  by  manure 
and  lime,  and  after  the  crop  of  potatoes  had  been 
gathered  the  flax  was  sown,  perhaps  a  bushel  of  seed 
by  a  family.2  Each  farm  had  also  its  bleaching 
green  where  the  flax  fibres  were  whitened  in  the  sun, 
the  drying  season  lasting  for  more  than  half  the 
year. 

All  that  has  to  do  with  the  flax  plant  must  be  of 
interest  to  lovers  of  Ulster.  When  the  seed  had  pro- 
duced the  graceful  fields  of  flax,  the  women  of  the 
household  kept  down  the  weeds  until  the  pretty  blue 
petals  had  opened  and  had  in  turn  given  way  to  rip- 
ening seed-pods.  The  plants  then  were  pulled  or 
1 '  plucked ' '  in  small  handf uls  and  ' '  bogged. "    ' '  And 

1 1  George  II,  Chapter  10. 

'Arthur  Young's  Tour  in  Ireland,  August,  1776. 


50  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

why  do  you  bog  it,  Larry !"  asked  Mrs.  Hall,  who 
was  familiar  with  flax  culture  from  childhood. 

"Is  it  why  we  bog  it,  dear? — Why  then,  you  see, 
we  must  all  pass  through  the  waters  of  tribulation 
to  be  purified,  and  so  must  the  flax — the  bad  you  see, 
and  the  good,  in  that  small  plant  is  glued  together, 
and  the  water  melts  the  glue,  so  that  they  divide — 
and  that's  the  sense  of  it,  dear!" 

The  plants  were  held  in  water  by  heavy  stones — 
in  running  water  if  the  fibres  were  to  be  good  in 
color,  although  the  processes  of  decay  went  on  more 
rapidly  in  stagnant  water.  Sometimes  they  were 
laid  out  in  the  fields  until  a  season's  grass  had  grown 
up  about  and  through  them.  In  due  time  they  were 
gathered  and  dried  in  the  open  air  or  over  a  fire. 
The  coarse  brown  stalks  were  then  slowly  drawn 
over  an  upright  post  or  chair-back  and  beaten  inch 
by  inch,  this  being  the  " scutching' '  process.  The 
stalks  in  the  next  process  were  cleaned  and  split 
by  rude  combs  of  varying  coarseness,  and  known  as 
hackles.  The  task  was  tiresome  and  dirty,  so  that 
an  itinerant  workman  usually  did  this  part  of  the 
labor,  going  from  cabin  to  cabin  with  his  store  of 
Dublin  news  and  neighborhood  gossip.  The  rough 
fibres  were  then  subjected  to  many  scaldings  and 
dryings,  until  the  bleaching  greens  began  at  last  to 
appear  white  with  the  harvest  of  flax. 

A  century  ago  the  hand  loom  produced  finer  linen 
yarn  than  any  that  came  from  the  mill.  In  1815  Cath- 


ECONOMIC  CONDITIONS  51 

erine  Woods  of  Dunmore  near  Ballynahinch,  a  girl 
of  fifteen,  spnn  yarn  which  gave  2,520,000  yards  to 
the  avoirdupois  pound  of  flax,  requiring  but  17 
pounds,  6  ounces,  3%  drams  of  flax  to  go  entirely 
around  the  earth.1 

This  industry  of  spinning  and  weaving  was  car- 
ried to  America  by  many  thousands  of  emigrants 
during  half  a  century  which  preceded  the  Revolu- 
tionary war.  It  brought  fame  and  comforts  to  the 
Scotch  Irish  towns  both  north  and  south.2  After 
young  Jerry  Smith  of  Peterborough  in  New  Hamp- 
shire, the  future  congressman,  had  acquired  a  little 
book  learning  he  chided  his  mother  one  day  for  her 
unfamiliarity  with  the  rudiments  of  grammar.  Mrs. 
Smith  who  had  borne  ten  children  in  twelve  years, 
besides  cooking  and  mending,  digging  sixteen  bush- 
els of  potatoes  in  a  day,  and  earning  money  by  spin- 
ning to  educate  her  boys,  replied  somewhat  warmly : 
"But  wha  taught  you  langage?  It  was  my  wheel; 
and  when  ye  '11  hae  spun  as  many  lang  threeds  to 
teach  me  grammar  as  I  hae  to  teach  you,  I'll  talk 
better  grammar ! '  ,3 

The  catching  of  salmon  in  the  waters  of  the  Bann 

JMr.  and  Mrs.  S.  C.  Hall's  Ireland,  new  edition,  Vol.  3,  pp. 
85-91. 

2  Archibald  Thompson  of  Abington  and  Bridgewater  is  said  to 
have  made  the  first  spinning  foot-wheel  of  New  England  manu- 
facture—a statement  difficult  of  proof.  He  died  in  1776  at  the 
age  of  eighty-five. 

'Morison's  Life  of  Judge  Smith,  p.  5. 


52  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

and  the  Foyle  was  a  great  Ulster  industry,  and  the 
early  settlers  of  Londonderry  in  New  Hampshire 
must  have  known  its  every  detail,  for  many  of  them 
had  lived  near  the  "Salmon  Leap"  on  the  Bann. 
About  the  middle  of  August  the  salmon  spawned  in 
all  the  streams  that  are  tributary  to  the  Bann  and 
the  Foyle.  As  soon  as  they  could  swim  they  went 
down  to  the  sea.  In  January,  when  they  began  to 
return  to  fresh  water,  their  weight  often  exceeded 
ten  pounds.  A  year  later  their  weight  had  doubled 
and  they  were  ready  for  the  market.  It  was  natural 
that  the  Nutfield  settlers  should  ask  the  American 
Indians  where  they  could  go  for  the  catching  of  fish. 
This  was  an  important  occupation;  but  the  linen 
manufacture  was  more  wide  spread,  and  many  of  the 
Scotch  Irish  who  made  their  wills  in  America  styled 
themselves  " weavers.' '  The  industry  succeeded 
the  woolen  manufacture  which  had  been  ruined  in 
1698  by  an  English  law  that  forbade  export  of  wool- 
ens from  Ireland  except  to  England  and  Wales.1 

The  linen  industry  had  one  unfortunate  circum- 
stance peculiar  to  all  manufacture.  Depending  to  a 
large  extent  upon  foreign  markets^ or  its  success,  it 
had  years  of  great  prosperity  followed  by  others  of 
ruinous  inactivity,  and  the  causes  of  these  fluctua- 
tions, whether  economic  or  political,  lay  wholly  out- 
side Ireland  and  beyond  her  control.  When  a  period 
of  depression  was  concurrent  with  the  expiration  of 


10  and  11  William  III,  Chapter  10   (English), 


ECONOMIC  CONDITIONS  55 

many  leases,  as  once  happened  on  Lord  Donegal's 
Antrim  estates,  the  people  emigrated  in  great  num- 
bers' to  America.  Arthur  Young  has  an  instructive 
paragraph  on  this  point :  "It  is  the  misfortune  of  all 
manufacture  worked  for  a  foreign  market  to  be  upon 
an  insecure  footing ;  periods  of  declension  will  come, 
and  when  in  consequence  of  them  great  numbers  of 
people  are  out  of  employment,  the  best  circumstance 
is  their  enlisting  in  the  army  or  navy ;  and  it  is  the 
common  result ;  but  unfortunately  the  manufacture 
in  Ireland,  is  not  confined,  as  it  ought  to  be,  to  towns, 
but  spreads  into  all  cabins  of  the  country.  Being 
half  farmers,  half  manufacturers,  they  have  too 
much  property  in  cattle,  &c,  to  enlist  when  idle ;  if 
they  convert  it  into  cash  it  will  enable  them  to  pay 
their  passage  to  America,  an  alternative  always 
chosen  in  preference  to  the  military  life. ' n 

It  has  often  been  said  that  the  landlords  in  Ireland 
were  always  too  much  embarrassed  financially  to 
retain  a  Protestant  tenantry.  The  highest  bidder 
was  usually  an  Irishman.  Loving  Ireland  he  did  not 
wish  to  emigrate,  and  felt  compelled  to  get  the  lease, 
even  if  the  price  was  beyond  his  power  to  pay.  He 
would  share  a  single  Scotch  or  English  farmer's 
land  with  six  or  seven  of  his  countrymen,  all  ekeing 
out  a  miserable  existence;  and  when  the  unsuccess- 
ful Protestant  bidder  was  far  away  clearing  the  New 
England  field  for  planting,  his  Irish  successors  were 

1  Pinkerton's  Voyages,  London,  1809,  Vol.  3,  p.  869. 


56  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

ready  to  abandon  the  land  they  had  obtained  at  an 
impossible  rental.1  Never  over  a  third  and  often 
not  over  a  fifth  of  the  profit  went  to  the  tiller  of  the 
soil,2  and  the  slightest  misfortune  reduced  the  profit 
to  the  laborer  below  the  point  of  subsistence.  Arch- 
bishop King  in  a  letter  to  Archbishop  Wake,  June 
2, 1719,  sums  up  the  matter  from  the  point  of  view  of 
a  churchman  who  loved  Ireland. 

1 '  Some  would  insinuate  that  this  is  in  some  meas- 
ure due  to  the  uneasiness  dissenters  have  in  the 
matter  of  religion,  but  this  is  plainly  a  mistake ;  for 
dissenters  were  never  more  easy  as  to  that  matter 
than  they  have  been  since  the  Revolution,  &  are  at 
present:  &  yet  they  never  thought  of  leaving  the 
kingdom,  till  oppressed  by  excessive  [rents  !  ]  & 
other  temporal  hardships:  nor  do  only  dissenters 
leave  us,  but  proportionately  of  all  sorts,  except 
Papists.  The  truth  of  the  case  is  this:  after  the 
Revolution,  most  of  the  kingdom  was  waste,  & 
abundance  of  the  people  destroyed  by  the  war :  the 
landlords  therefore  were  glad  to  get  tenants  at  any 
rate,  &  set  their  lands  at  very  easy  rents ;  this  invited 
abundance  of  people  to  come  over  here,  especially 
from  Scotland,  &  they  have  lived  here  very  happily 
ever  since ;  but  now  their  leases  are  expired,  &  they 
obliged  not  only  to  give  what  was  paid  before  the 
Revolution,  but  in  most  places  double  &  in  many 


1  Sir  L.  Tarsons  in  1793.     Also  Archbishop  King's  Life,  p.  301. 

2  Boulter's  Letters,  Vol.  1,  p.  292. 


ECONOMIC  CONDITIONS  5T 

places  treble,  so  that  it  is  impossible  for  people  to 
live  or  subsist  on  their  farms."1 

Add  to  these  conditions  a  scarcity  of  small  coin 
whereby  the  money  required  to  pay  the  humble  spin- 
ner for  his  yarn  or  the  farmer  for  his  produce  cost 
the  merchant  over  one  and  a  half  per  cent  ;2  and  the 
attempts  in  England  to  cripple  the  linen  industry,3 
and  we  are  not  surprised  that  the  desire  to.  emi- 
grate passed  over  the  land  like  a  fever.  Letters  like 
the  following  show  that  Archbishop  King,  at  the 
very  outset  of  the  great  migration,  was  doing  his 
best  by  eloquent  appeal  to  awaken  the  English  con- 
science. He  wrote  February  6,  1717-18  to  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury:  "I  find  likewise  that  your 
Parliament  is  destroying  the  little  Trade  that  is  left 
us.  These  &  other  Discouragements  are  driving 
away  the  few  Protestants  that  are  amongst  us ;  inso- 
much that  last  year  some  Thousands  of  Families  are 
gone  to  the  West  Indies.  No  Papists  stir  except 
young  men  that  go  abroad  to  be  trained  to#arms, 
with  Intention  to  return  with  the  Pretender.  The 
Papists  being  already  five  or  six  to  one,  &  a  breed- 
ing People,  you  may  imagine  in  what  conditions  we 
are  like  to  be.  I  may  farther  observe  that  the  Pa- 
pists being  made  incapable  to  purchase  Lands,  have 
turn'd  themselves  to  Trade,  &  already  engrossed 
almost  all  the  Trade  of  the  Kingdom."4 

1  King's  Life,  p.   301. 

a  Boulter  to  Newcastle,  1728;  Letters,  Vol.  1,  p.  252. 

3  King  to  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  January  18,  1722-23, 

*  King's  Life,  p.  207, 


58  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

Trade  between  the  British  Isles  and  the  American 
colonies  went  very  largely  to  the  Delaware  and 
Chesapeake  Bay.  Tobacco-laden  ships  sailed  for 
Dublin,  Liverpool,  Belfast  or  Glasgow ;  returning  to 
America  with  trifling  cargoes  of  dress-goods,  farm 
tools,  and  similar  necessities,  they  gladly  added  to 
their  revenues  by  transporting  an  occasional  set- 
tler. There  were  few  large  parties  of  emigrants; 
if  we  except  those  who  went  to  Williamsburg  in 
South  Carolina,  few  came  to  the  South  through  con- 
certed action  until  toward  the  middle  of  the  eight- 
eenth century.  Few  were  led  by  ministers,  but  when 
they  had  settled  along  the  banks  of  Christiana  Creek, 
the  Octorara,  or  the  Neshaminy,  they  accepted  min- 
isters who  had  come  to  serve  English  Presbyterians, 
or  they  sent  to  Ireland  for  others. 

The  relations  between  New  England  and  Ireland, 
on  the  other  hand,  were  almost  entirely  intellectual 
and  religious.  There  was  no  intercourse  in  trade 
to  stimulate  colonization.  The  migration  of  1718 
was  so  thoroughly  a  deliberate  undertaking,  clearly 
conceived  and  organized,  that  an  agent  was  sent  out 
to  prepare  the  way.  Ships  were  chartered  for  the 
voyage  and  their  holds  were  filled  with  the  house- 
hold goods  of  the  Bann  Valley  emigrants.  It  was 
this  initiative  in  1718  which  led  to  an  active  but 
short-lived  passenger  trade  between  Irish  ports  and 
Boston.  In  this  enterprise  the  Eev.  William  Homes  's 
son,  Captain  Eobert  Homes,  played  a  considerable 


ECONOMIC  CONDITIONS  59 

part.  The  next  year  the  more  favorable  conditions 
for  settlement  south  and  west  of  Philadelphia  began 
to  tnrn  a  large  part  of  the  traffic  away  from  New 
England  to  Pennsylvania,  and  the  Carolinas.  This 
passenger  traffic  grew  so  rapidly  that  merchandise 
which  had  been  of  primary  importance  in  Ulster's 
trade  with  the  South  ceased  to  be  vital  to  the  success 
of  a  voyage  across  the  ocean. 


IV 

POLITICAL  AND  RELIGIOUS  CONDITIONS  IN 
ULSTER,  1714-1718 

We  now  turn  to  the  political  oppression  which  was 
another  cause  for  discontent  in  northern  Ireland.  In 
the  early  days  of  the  London  settlement  and  the 
succeeding  Scotch  migration  when  linen  took  the 
place  of  woolen,  the  new  settlers  felt  that  superior- 
ity which  men  who  have  a  strong  government  behind 
them  are  wont  to  feel.  They  were  independent,  and 
even  contemptuous  of  "the  mere  Irish."  Under 
Cromwell  they  grew  in  strength  until  there  were 
about  eighty  churches  represented  in  the  presbytery. 
With  the  return  of  Charles  II,  religious  and  political 
restrictions  began  to  be  felt.  In  Ulster  sixty-one 
ministers  were  ejected  from  their  churches,  and 
curates  were  appointed  to  conduct  Episcopal  serv- 
ices; uniformity  in  church  worship  again  became 
a  dogma  of  the  State. 

It  must  not  be  assumed  that  the  disabilities  under 
which  Presbyterians  in  Ireland  labored  were  pecul- 
iar to  the  time  or  place.  It  was  held  by  many  to  be 
for  the  best  interest  of  the  State  that  people  should 
worship  God  in  the  accustomed  way;  and  in  Queen 


POLITICS  AND  BELIGION  61 

Elizabeth's  time1  all  persons  had  been  commanded 
to  attend  church  on  Sundays  and  holy  days  where 
the  Book  of  Common  Prayer  was  used.  This  was  no 
more  tyrannical  than  the  policy  of  the  non-conform- 
ing assembly  in  Scotland,  which  was  to  induce  Crom- 
well to  make  the  Presbyterian  religion  paramount 
in  England,2  nor  more  exacting  than  the  aim  of  the 
Presbyterians  in  Ireland  who,  as  soon  as  they  felt 
their  strength,  asked  to  have  the  army  under  Pres- 
byterian influences  only.  The  same  strong  spirit 
prevailed  in  early  orthodox  New  England ;  and  the 
present  large  but  empty  churches  there,  with  ample 
but  idle  horsesheds,  testify  to  a  more  effective  and 
perhaps  more  wholesome  spiritual  and  social  life 
in  country  towns  of  old  under  the  despotism  of  Cot- 
ton Mather  and  his  immediate  successors. 

Eoman  Catholic  supremacy  in  Ireland  under 
James  II  came  to  an  end  with  the  arrival  of  William 
and  Mary  in  1688.  In  1691  Parliament  decreed3 
that  the  statute  of  Queen  Elizabeth's  time  relating 
to  uniformity  of  church  services  should  not  apply 
to  Ireland,  thus  permitting  attendance  at  non-con- 
formist chapels.  After  January  1,  1691-2,  all  candi- 
dates for  civil,  military  and  ecclesiastical  offices  were 
to  take  oaths  of  allegiance  to  the  royal  family,  and 

x2  Elizabeth  2,  Section  3;  also  35  Elizabeth  1. 
2  See  life  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Blair,  in  Dictionary  of  National 
Biography. 
8  3  William  and  Mary,  Chapter  2.     (English  Statutes.) 


62 


SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEERS 


to  make  declarations  against  transubstantiation  in 
the  mass,  and  adoration  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  provi- 
sions intended  to  bar  Roman  Catholics  from  office. 
Dissenters  now  had  liberty  to  worship  in  their  own 
chapels,  and  were  not  compelled  to  partake  of  the 
Lord's  Supper  according  to  the  rites  of  the  Estab- 
lished church  in  order  to  hold  office.  But  they  still 
had  disabilities  which  could  be  made  to  bear  heavily 


Presbyterian   Meeting  House  at  Dungannon,   County  Tyrone 
Built  Before  the  Year  1725 


upon  them ;  indeed  if  the  magistrate  chose,  they  suf- 
fered more  than  the  Roman  Catholics.  The  Synod 
which  met  at  Antrim  in  1698  declared  its  grievances 
to  be  an  inability  in  many  places  to  bury  the  dead 
until  the  Established  service  had  been  read,  the 
requirement  that  school-masters  partake  of  the 
Lord's  Supper  according  to  the  customary  rites, 
and  the  pressure  to  serve  as  church-wardens.  Id 
1699  the  Synod  being  asked  for  advice  as  to  mar- 
riages decided  that  ministers  had  better  continue  to 


POLITICS  AND  BELIGION  63 

perform  the  ceremony  "in  an  orderly  way,"  as  of 
old.  In  1710  the  Synod  decided  that  it  might  be  wise 
in  some  places  to  leave  the  performance  of  the  cere- 
mony to  the  Episcopal  clergy.  In  the  second  year 
of  Queen  Anne's  reign  (1703)  a  penal  statute  was 
carried  by  the  help  of  the  Bishops,1  and  they  ob- 
tained in  return  for  their  support  the  introduction  of 
a  clause  compelling  in  Ireland  the  sacramental  test 
for  office  holders.  This  Irish  Test  Act  seems  to  have 
been  used  unscrupulously  as  a  weapon  to  place  the 
Presbyterians  on  a  level  of  disability  with  the  Eoman 
Catholics.  Their  ministers  were  almost  everywhere 
turned  out  of  their  pulpits  or  threatened  with  legal 
proceedings.  Dissenters  were  debarred  from  teach- 
ing schools  and  the  legality  of  their  marriages  was 
denied.  In  1716  Samuel  Smith,  Jr.,  and  John  Kyle 
of  Belfast  were  called  upon  to  defend  their  mar- 
riages in  court.  These  were  test  cases,  followed 
however  by  others.  The  Synod  determined  to  stand 
by  the  defendants  with  the  church's  funds,  but 
threats  from  prominent  supporters  of  the  denom- 
ination to  withhold  contributions  in  the  future  if  the 
course  were  persisted  in,  caused  the  Synod  to  aban- 
don the  attempt  to  uphold  its  claims  in  this  way. 

The  Eegium  Donum,  an  annual  government  gift  to 
non-conformist  clergy  in  Ireland,  in  recognition  of 
the  Protestant  defence  of  Ulster  in  1688,  was  sus- 
pended.   In  short  the  hardships  inflicted  under  this 

1  C.  G.  Walpole's  History  of  the  Knigdom  of  Ireland,  p.  359, 


64  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

law  of  Queen  Anne  from  1703  to  1719  had  much  to  do 
with  the  migration  to  New  England. 

The  Government  found  it  impossible  to  pass  a 
more  moderate  act  to  quiet  discontent  until  vacan- 
cies in  the  ranks  of  the  bishops  could  be  filled  by 
more  tolerant  men,  and  the  Toleration  Act1  of  1719 
was  the  first  measure  of  relief  that  could  be  obtained. 
The  oath  still  required  loyalty  to  a  King  when 
excommunicated  by  the  Pope;  and  the  customary 
provisions  to  disfranchise  Roman  Catholics,  namely : 
a  declaration  that  in  the  Sacrament  of  the  Lord's 
Supper  there  is  no  transubstantiation  of  the  elements 
of  bread  and  wine  into  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ, 
and  that  the  adoration  of  the  Virgin  Mary  and  other 
saints,  and  Sacrifice  of  the  Mass  are  superstitious 
and  idolatrous.  There  were  exemptions  for  dis- 
senters who  did  not  favor  baptism  in  infancy,  and 
for  Quakers,  and  there  was  no  requirement  to  attend 
the  Lord 's  Supper ;  but  the  thirteenth  article  of  the 
act  shut  out  all  from  its  benefits  who  did  not  believe 
in  the  Trinity.  This  article  struck  a  blow  at  Presby- 
terian Antrim  which  was  just  then  divided  over  the 
doctrine  of  Christ's  divinity,  and  weakened  the  non- 
conformist strength,  although  the  act  was  con- 
sidered by  Archbishop  King  "such  a  wide  Tolera- 
tion as  ...  is  not  precedented  in  the  whole 
Earth."  King  George  pressed  the  measure  vigor- 
ously and  the  clergy  which  had  been  transplanted 


1  6  George  I,  Chapter  5, 


POLITICS  AND  KELIGION  65 

from  England  helped  to  pass  it  through  the  Irish 
parliament. 

This  concession  did  little  to  allay  the  fever  for 
migration  to  America,  which  by  1728  aroused  the 
fears  of  Archbishop  Bonlter  of  Armagh,  and  occa- 
sioned a  series  of  letters,  chiefly  of  defence  against 
the  charge  that  excessive  tythes  rather  than  rents 
caused  the  exodus.  Extracts  from  these  letters  fol- 
low, but  it  should  be  recalled  that  their  author  was 
not  so  much  in  sympathy  with  Ireland  as  was  Arch- 
bishop King  of  Dublin.1 

Archbishop  Boulter,  writing  to  Lord  Carteret 
from  Dublin,  March  8,  1728,  says:  "I  do  not  doubt 
but  some  persons  in  the  North  may  have  been 
oppressed  by  the  farmers  of  tythes.  But  I  have 
at  every  visitation  I  have  held  had  as  great  com- 
plaints from  the  clergy  of  the  hardships  put  upon 
them  by  the  people,  in  coming  at  their  just  dues,  as 
the  people  can  make  of  being  any  ways  oppressed 
by  the  clergy  or  their  tythe  farmers,  and  I  believe 
with  as  much  reason. 

"As  to  the  expensiveness  of  the  Spiritual  courts 
which  they  complain  of,  that  will  be  very  much 
avoided  by  the  act  passed  last  sessions  for  the  more 
easy  recovery  of  the  tythes  of  small  value.     And 

1  Relief  from  many  of  the  penalties  of  Queen  Anne's  act  came  in 
1737  (11  George  II,  Chapter  10),  when  Presbyterian  marriages 
were  declared  legal,  and  in  1755,  when  dissenters  were  permitted 
to  hold  commissions  in  the  militia. 


66  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

indeed  the  gentlemen  have,  ever  since  I  came  hither, 
been  putting  it  into  the  heads  of  their  tenants,  that 
it  was  not  their  rents,  but  the  paying  of  the  tythes 
that  made  them  find  it  hard  to  live  on  their  farms. 
And  it  is  easy  to  see  that  this  was  a  notion  that 
would  readily  take  with  Scotch  presbyterians. ' '  In 
a  letter  to  the  Bishop  of  London1  the  Archbishop 
contends  that  if  the  rent  is  doubled  that  implies  that 
the  value  of  the  tythe  is  doubled ;  so  the  archbishop 
throws  the  responsibility  on  the  landlord.  The 
growth  of  the  country  after  the  wars  of  1688  un- 
doubtedly warranted  somewhat  higher  rents.  He 
continues:  "It  is  not  the  tythe  but  the  increased 
rent  that  undoes  the  farmer.  And  indeed  in  this 
country,  where  I  fear  the  tenant  hardly  ever  has 
more  than  one  third  of  the  profits  he  makes  of  his 
farm  for  his  share  and  too  often  but  a  fourth  or 
perhaps  a  fifth  part,  as  the  tenant's  share  is  charged 
with  the  tythe,  his  case  is  no  doubt  hard,  but  it  is 
plain  from  what  side  the  hardship  arises.  .  .  . 
When  they  find  they  have  7  or  8  £  to  pay,  they  run 
away:  for  the  greatest  part  of  the  occupiers  of  the 
land  here  are  so  poor,  that  an  extraordinary  stroke  of 
8  or  10  £  [judgment]  falling  on  them,  is  certain  ruin 
to  them." 

In  a  letter  to  the  Duke  of  Newcastle,  written  from 
Dublin  March  13,  1728,  Boulter  shows  what  efforts 
were  made  to  better  the  conditions  of  the  moment, 


1  Boulter's  Letters,  Vol.  1,  pp.  291-293,  297. 


POLITICS  AND  RELIGION  67 

but  he  could  scarcely  have  expected  to  upbuild  the 
commercial  well-being  of  Ireland,  whatever  influ- 
ence he  might  have  had,  without  the  enactment  of 
new  laws  relating  to  religious  and  political  equal- 
ity of  dissenter  and  Episcopalian.    He  writes : 

"The  humour  of  going  to  America  still  continues, 
and  the  scarcity  of  provisions  certainly  makes  many 
quit  us:  there  are  now  seven  ships  at  Belfast  that 
are  carrying  off  about  1000  passengers  thither :  and 
if  we  knew  how  to  stop  them,  as  most  of  them  can 
neither  get  victuals  nor  work  at  home,  it  would  be 
cruel  to  do  it: 

"We  have  sent  for  2400  quarters  of  rye  from  Con- 
ingsbery;  when  they  arrive  which  will  probably 
be  about  the  middle  of  May,  we  hope  the  price  of 
things  will  fall  considerably  in  the  north,  and  we 
suppose  they  will  mend  pretty  much  when  our  sup- 
plies arrive  from  Munster." 

The  Established  Church  in  Ireland  was  fortunate 
in  having  several  leaders  during  this  period  who 
were  able  administrators,  and  conscious  of  their 
duty  toward  Ireland.  Archbishops  King  and  Boul- 
ter showed  by  their  correspondence  a  lively  sense  of 
the  deplorable  condition  of  the  people,  both  spirit- 
ually and  as  to  their  worldly  estate.  They  also 
strove  to  bring  the  clergy  to  a  higher  plane.  In  1714 
King  remonstrated  with  Dr.  Ashe,  Bishop  of 
Clogher,  for  his  long  years  of  absence  from  Ireland, 
on  the  ground  that  his  conduct  justified  the  reproach 


68  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

of  Mr.  Boyse,  the  famous  Presbyterian,  that  his 
bishopric  was  "only  a  pompons  sinecure."1  King 
himself  gives  some  explanation  of  this  unfortunate 
habit  of  the  clergy  when  he  says  that  there  was 
little  learning  in  Ireland  and  one  could  do  no 
more  than  eat,  drink  and  sleep.2 

The  archbishop  felt  handicapped  in  trying  to  rival 
the  Presbyterian  influence  in  the  North  by  the  prac- 
tice of  the  rector  who  lived  abroad,  leaving  his  par- 
ish work  to  be  done  by  a  poorly  paid  curate.  He 
writes : 

1 '  The  people  of  the  North  have  a  peculiar  aversion 
to  curates,  &  call  them  hirelings ;  the  difference  in 
point  of  success  amongst  them  is  visible,  between  a 
grave  resident  minister  that  lives  amongst  his  peo- 
ple, &  spends  part  of  what  he  receives  from  them  in 
the  place,  &  a  poor  curate  that  is  not  able  to  keep 
himself  from  contempt.  .  .  .  The  people  of  the 
North  do  not  grudge  their  tithes  to  the  clergy, 
though  they  pay  more  than  all  the  other  provinces, 
because  their  landlords  or  the  clergy  must  have 
them ;  the  first  must  spend  them  in  London  or  Dub- 
lin, whereas  the  clergy  spend  them  on  the  place.  .  .  . 
But  if  the  clergy  live  in  Dublin,  'tis  as  good  for  the 
people  landlords  had  the  tithes.  ...  In  short,  the 
world  begins  to  look  on  us  as  a  parcel  of  men  that 
have  invented  a  trade  for  our  easy  and  convenient 
livine:. '  '3 


*A  great  archbishop  of  Dublin,  William  King  (1906),  p.  249. 

2  King,  p.  227. 

8  King  to  the  Bishop  of  Clogher,  1704. 


POLITICS  AND  EELIGION  69 

In  behalf  of  the  clergy  it  must  be  said  that  they 
were  more  devoted  than  the  landlords,  and  a  fonrth 
or  fifth  of  the  resident  justices  were  taken  from  the 
clerical  ranks  because  no  other  men  of  education 
and  standing  were  to  be  found  in  those  communities, 
if  we  except  the  Presbyterian  ministers  who  were 
barred  by  law  from  holding  the  office. 

Archbishop  King  was  so  devoted  to  Ireland  that 
Boulter  was  chosen  with  a  view  to  counteracting  his 
influence.  King  was  no  less  devoted  to  his  church. 
He  went  from  town  to  town  in  his  "  parish  visita- 
tion, "  exhorting  his  clergy  to  hold  conferences  with 
dissenters  to  bring  them  to  conformity,  making  ad- 
dresses to  the  public  which  "seemed  to  flow  from  the 
occasion,  rather  than  by  design,' '  and  obtaining 
results  which  seemed  to  him  encouraging.1 

King,  in  his  struggle  with  the  Scotch  in  Ulster, 
wrote  a  very  able  book  which  caused  a  bitter  contro- 
versy for  a  generation,  covering  the  period  before 
the  migration  of  1718.  The  book  bore  the  title  "A 
discourse  concerning  the  Inventions  of  Men  in  the 
Worship  of  God,"  and  attempted  to  prove  that  the 
Presbyterians,  who  prided  themselves  on  their  devo- 
tion to  Scripture,  worshipped  in  direct  opposition 
to  its  mandates,  and  rarely  read  it  in  their  meetings. 
When  the  book  appeared  in  print  they  were,  as  he 
said,  "irate  and  excited  almost  to  fury."  The  Eev. 
Joseph  Boyse  of  Dublin,  a  grandson  of  Matthew 

'King,  p.  35. 


70  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

Boyse  who  lived  for  a  time  at  Eowley  in  New  Eng- 
land, and  the  Eev.  Eobert  Craighead,  whose  son 
migrated  to  New  England  and  Pennsylvania,  replied 
at  great  length.  King  had  charged  the  Presbyterians 
with  failure  to  attend  public  worship  regularly, 
with  neglect  of  the  celebration  of  the  Lord's  Sup- 
per, and  with  being  contented  with  scant  instruc- 
tion in  Christian  principles.  Boyse,  as  the  ablest 
of  several  defenders  of  the  dissenters,  made  the  best 
attempt  to  refute  these  charges.  The  dissenters  felt 
the  weakness  of  their  Bible  training,  but  so  many 
ministers  had  been  admitted  to  preach  with  insuffi- 
cient education  that  it  was  difficult  to  raise  the 
requirements.  The  proposition  to  have  candidates 
for  the  ministry  study  the  Psalter  in  Hebrew  came 
before  the  Synod  year  after  year  and  failed  to  pass. 
Finally  Hebrew  was  deemed  necessary,  and  in  1709 
and  1710  the  Synods  voted  that  the  Eev.  Fulk  White 
of  Braid  be  paid  £10  a  year  for  teaching  Hebrew. 
Candidates  for  the  ministry  were  urged,  also,  to 
study  the  New  Testament  in  the  original  Greek. 

Archbishop  King  by  the  publication  of  his  book 
started  a  discussion  which  undoubtedly  awakened 
the  minds  of  the  people,  and  must  have  done  good. 
He  said,  "Our  people,  who  before  almost  in  silence 
endured  the  scoffings  and  continual  disputations  of 
the  dissenters,  their  ears  deafened  with  frequent 
arguments,  and  scornful  attacks;  neither  in  meet- 
ings, drinking  parties,  nor  feasts,  could  they  any- 


POLITICS  AND  RELIGION  71 

where  rest,  but  conquered  and  helpless,  remained 
silent;  now  reviving  as  with  new  spirits,  and  in 
their  turn  attacking  the  adversaries."1 

It  must  be  granted  that  the  Established  church, 
even  with  its  endowments,  had  a  difficult  field  for  its 
labor.  The  Eoman  Catholics  dominated  the  lower 
provinces,  and  in  Ulster  the  Scotch  Presbyterians 
outnumbered  the  English  Episcopalians,  while 
together  the  Protestants  scarcely  exceeded  the 
Roman  Catholic  population.  The  "estated  gentle- 
men^ largely  belonged  to  the  Established  church, 
and  it  was  feared  that  their  dissenting  tenants,  if 
granted  privileges,  would  transfer  their  loyalty  from 
landlord  to  dissenting  minister.  While  the  dominant 
class  did  not  have  the  courage  to  be  generous,  it  is 
not  unfair  to  assume  also  that  the  Presbyterians 
were  at  times  strangers  to  conciliation. 

In  an  address  which  came  before  the  House  of 
Lords  at  Dublin  in  1711,  relating  to  the  "disturb- 
ance of  the  peace"  at  Drogheda  by  two  Presbyteri- 
ans who  wished  to  gather  a  church,  the  following 
charges  are  made: 

1.  Dissenters  have  refused  to  take  apprentices 
that  will  not  covenant  to  go  to  their  meetings. 

2.  When  in  a*  majority  in  Corporations  they  ex- 
cluded all  not  of  their  persuasion. 

3.  They  oblige  those  of  their  Communion  married 
by  our  Liturgy  to  do  publick  Penance. 

1King,  p.  38,  Quaedam. 


72  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

4.  Episcopal  order  hath  been  stiled  Anti-Scrip- 
tural; our  worship  called  superstitious  &  idola- 
trous. 

5.  Ministers  openly  and  violently  assaulted.  Al- 
though Episcopalians  have  endeavored,  by  gentle 
Usage,  to  melt  them  down  into  a  more  soft  and  com- 
plying temper. 

6.  They  seek  to  enlarge  their  borders  by  misap- 
plying that  Bounty  of  £1200  a  year,  extended  to 
them  for  charitable  purposes : — 

to  the  propagation  of  schism', 
to  maintain  agents, 

to  support  lawsuits  against  the  church, 
to  form  seminaries  to  the  poisoning  of  the  prin- 
ciples of  our  youth, 

to  set  up  synods  and  judicatories. 

The  most  unfortunate  result,  however,  of  a  con- 
tentious spirit  among  Irish  Presbyterians  appeared 
when  shades  of  belief  became  through  violent  de- 
bates among  themselves  the  source  of  irreconcilable 
feuds,  to  be  maintained  with  Scotch  stubbornness. 

Presbyterianism,  which  should  have  been  strong 
in  Ulster,  was  by  virtue  of  its  Scotch  origin  deprived 
of  its  united  force  through  the  great  theological 
schism  of  the  time:  in  other  words,  through  the 
ascendancy  of  what  we  should  now  call  Unitarian- 
ism,  or  the  growing  disinclination  of  ministers  to 
subscribe  to  the  Westminster  Confession. 


y  "**«* 


A  \A  ^^ 


K  /'(     ' 


o     o 


I— I  oi 


£    a 

o      ffl 


POLITICS  AND  BELIGION  75 

The  master  mind  of  this  time  in  Scottish  theology 
was  Professor  Simson,  who  began  his  instruction 
in  Divinity  at  Glasgow  a  century  after  the  death  of 
the  Dutch  theologian  Arminius,  that  is  in  1708.  His 
liberal  views  were  espoused  by  Professor  Hamilton 
at  Edinburgh,  and  by  a  leader  in  Ulster  thought, 
the  Eev.  John  Abernethy  of  Antrim  in  Ireland. 
Abernethy,  a  friend  of  Simson,  founded  the  Belfast 
Society  which  rapidly  gained  prominence  as  the  sup- 
porter of  ministers  in  Ireland  who  would  not  sub- 
scribe to  the  Westminster  Confession.  In  1707  a 
minister  in  the  Synod  of  Aberdeen  had  been  sus- 
pended for  asserting  that  virtue  was  more  natural 
to  man  than  vice.  The  opposition  of  Arminius  to  the 
doctrine  that  God  had  selected  his  chosen  few  for 
the  Kingdom  of  Heaven,  leaving  by  predestination 
the  unfortunate  and  sinful  majority  of  mankind  to 
an  eternity  in  hell,  became  the  basis  of  the  liberal 
movement  under  Simson  and  the  younger  clergy 
of  western  Scotland  and  Ulster.  In  their  platform 
were  many  beliefs  that  have  since  then  influenced  all 
creeds :  that  man  is  naturally  able  through  his  own 
powers  to  seek  saving  grace ;  that  corruption  which 
overcame  the  soul's  purity  was  due  to  the  body 
inherited  from  Adam ;  that  the  wish  for  happiness 
should  inspire  Christian  living ;  that  effective  pun- 
ishment for  sin  must  be  eternal,  but  that  infants 
would  be  saved,  and  even  the  heathen  would  be 
judged   according  to   their   opportunity  for  light. 


76  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

And,  most  important  of  all,  the  elect  would,  it  was 
hoped,  outnumber  the  damned.1 

With  these  liberalizing  theories  went  a  change  in 
preaching.  Dogma  became  less  important  than  con- 
duct, and  the  younger  ministers  turned  to  ethics  and 
morality  for  their  themes,  drifting  away  from  the 
homely  exhortation  to  worship  and  follow  Christ. 
The  "non-subscribers"  to  the  Westminster  Con- 
fession were  joined  to  the  Presbytery  of  Antrim,  and 
then  in  1726  were  made  independent.  In  1736,  after 
years  of  bitter  discord,  the  Assembly  ruled  that 
ministers  insist  on  supernatural  revelation,  that  they 
base  their  sermons  on  Gospel  subjects  and  "let  their 
hearers  know  that  they  must  first  be  grafted  into 
Christ  as  their  root  before  their  fruit  can  be  savoury 
unto  God."  County  Antrim  was  a  theological  bat- 
tle-ground during  these  opening  years  of  the  eight- 
eenth century  when  the  doctrinal  articles  were  by 
many  abandoned. 

The  theological  disputes  of  the  time  left  their  im- 
press upon  the  emigrants  to  America.  To  them 
religion  was  a  vital  subject,  for  constant  thought 
and  frequent  discussion.  In  New  England  this  earn- 
est discussion  grew  into  a  spirit  of  discord  which 
weakened  the  Presbyterian  influence  there.  At  the 
South  the  Presbyterians  were  of  a  milder  temper, 
possibly  because  their  greater  numbers  gave  them 
less  provocation  to  religious  contention;    possibly 


See  Mathieson's  Scotland  and  the  Union,  p.  224. 


POLITICS  AND  EELIGION  77 

also  because  the  milder  English  Presbyterianism  had 
taken  root  early,  and  made  itself  felt  even  when  the 
Scotch  Irish  had  overrun  the  country. 

Their  devotion  to  self-government  made  them  the 
pioneers  in  the  movement  for  political  independ- 
ence. Eeferring  to  the  Mecklenburg  declaration  a 
North  Carolinian  once  said:  "Och,  aye,  Tarn  Polk 
declared  independence  lang  before  anybody  else!" 
This  Colonel  "Tarn"  or  Thomas  was  the  great  uncle 
of  President  Polk.  He  was  a  leader  among  the 
Scotch  Irish  of  North  Carolina,  and  the  opening 
paragraph  of  the  "Declaration"  which  he  read  from 
the  steps  of  the  Court-house  in  Charlotte  on  a  May 
afternoon  in  1775  exhibits  the  courage  of  the  race 
from  Ireland.  These  are  the  opening  words  which 
he  read : 

"Resolved,  That  whosoever  directly  or  indirectly 
abetted,  or  in  any  way,  form,  or  manner,  counte- 
nanced the  unchartered  and  dangerous  invasion  of 
our  rights,  as  claimed  by  Great  Britain,  is  an  enemy 
to  this  country — to  America — and  to  the  inherent 
and  inalienable  rights  of  man. ' ' 

As  the  reading  continued,  and  Colonel  Polk's 
voice  declared  for  a  dissolution  of  the  political  bonds 
with  the  mother  country,  "that  nation  who  have 
wantonly  trampled  on  our  rights  and  liberties,  and 
inhumanly  shed  the  blood  of  American  patriots  at 
Lexington,"  there  was  breathless  silence  followed  by 
loud  and  long  cheers.  The  Polks  from  Donegal  were 
doing  their  part  in  America. 


78  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

The  Scotch  Irish  puzzled  the  traveller.  Crevecceur1 
speaks  of  the  varying  ability  and  thrift  shown  by  the 
settlers.  He  adds:  "One  would  think  on  so  small 
an  island  an  Irishman  must  be  an  Irishman,  yet  it  is 
not  so;  they  are  different  in  their  aptitude  to,  and 
in  their  love  of  labour. ' ' 

If  the  Scotch  Irish  differed  from  the  Irish  they 
were  not  more  like  the  Germans.  The  fundamental 
reason  was  a  racial  one,  although  the  Scotch  Irish 
selected  slaty  lands  along  the  river  banks  where  the 
soil  is  less  productive  than  the  lime-stone  formations 
chosen  by  the  Germans.2  If  we  study  the  bio- 
graphical dictionary,  however,  to  compare  Scotch 
Irish  civic  achievement  with  German  participation 
in  public  life,  we  shall  find  the  slaty  field  obstructed 
by  stumps  a  more  productive  nursery  of  statesmen 
than  the  well-cleared  field  of  loam  that  delighted  the 
German  heart. 


1  Letters  from  an  American  Farmer,  N.  Y.     1904,  p.  83. 

2  Faust's   German  element,   1909,   Vol.   1,   p.   132.     See  also   B. 
Rush's  Essays,  1798,  pp.  224,  228. 


EEV.  WILLIAM  HOMES  AND  REV.  THOMAS 
CRAIGHEAD 

The  migration  from  the  vicinity  of  Londonderry 
and  from  northern  Tyrone  to  New  England  was 
mnch  influenced  by  two  Presbyterian  ministers  who 
had  emigrated  from  Ireland  a  short  time  before,  and 
were  in  sympathy  with  the  Rev.  Cotton  Mather  in 
his  desire  for  the  settlement  of  Protestant  families 
from  Ulster. 

William  Homes,  the  first  of  these  ministers,  was 
born  in  the  north  of  Ireland  in  1663,  of  a  family 
which  had  been  of  consequence  there  for  several  gen- 
erations. There  was  a  Thomas  Homes  at  Strabane, 
County  Tyrone,  in  1619;  and  at  the  time  of  which 
we  write  another  Rev.  William  Homes,  living  at 
Urney,  a  few  miles  south  of  Strabane,  was  so  well 
known  that  our  William  was  called  "the  meek"  to 
distinguish  him.1 

He  had  a  happy  combination  of  gentleness  and 
ability  which  made  his  career  in  the  ministry  less 
eventful  than  that  of  the  second  minister  referred 
to  above,  the  Rev.  Thomas  Craighead.     The  boy 


1  William  Homes,  Junior,  of  Urney  was  ordained  in  1696,  and 
was  probably  a  cousin. 


80 


SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEERS 


Homes  was  carefully  educated,  and  about  1686  lie 
came  over  to  Martha's  Vineyard  where  he  obtained 
a  position  to  teach  school.  His  teaching  was  accept- 
able, and  he  was  urged  to  remain  there,  but  a  desire 
to  preach  led  him  in  July,  1691,  to  return  to  Ire- 
land. He  was  reported  from  Lagan  meeting  in  1692 
as  "on  trial  in  order  to  ordination, 9 '  and  having 
gone  through  his  second  trials  he  was  ordained  De- 
cember 21,  1692,  as  pastor  of  a  church  at  Strabane 


Holy  Hill  House,  Strabane,  County  Tyrone 
Standing  when  the  Rev.  William  Homes  preached  at  Strabane 


in  the  Presbytery  of  Convoy.  Strabane  was  at  the 
time  a  small  village  whose  chief  importance  lay  in 
its  situation  at  the  point  where  the  Mourne  and  the 
Finn  join  to  form  the  river  Foyle.  In  the  centre  of 
the  town  there  was  a  neat  but  plain  market  house, 
and  farther  down  the  road  were  two  good  gentle- 


HOMES  AND  CRAIGHEAD  81 

men's  country  houses,  facing  each  other.     In  this 
town  he  was  to  begin  his  labors. 

Mr.  Homes  received  his  degree  of  Master  of  Arts 
at  the  University  of  Edinburgh  in  1693.  Craighead 
had  preceded  him  in  1691,  and  the  names  of  several 
others  of  note  later  in  America  appeared  on  the 
college  rolls  soon  after.  From  a  copy  of  Mr. 
Homes 's  diary,  preserved  by  the  New  England  His- 
toric Genealogical  Society,  many  facts  in  regard  to 
his  family  may  be  gleaned.  William's  father  came 
from  Donaghmore,  county  Donegal,  a  village  a  mile 
or  more  west  of  Castlefinn,  and  an  hour's  drive 
south  west  of  Liiford  on  the  road  to  Donegal  and 
Ballyshannon.  In  the  family  lot  there  William's 
brother  John,  who  was  killed  by  lightning  in  1692  in 
the  parish  of  Raphoe,  was  buried;  this  John  left 
five  children,  Margaret,  John,  Jolnot  (?),  Jane  and 
Eebecca.  Mary  Ann,  a  sister  of  William,  died  in 
1705.  William  married  September  26,  1693,  Kath- 
erine,  daughter  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Craighead,  a 
venerable  and  distinguished  minister  of  London- 
derry.1 


1  Their  children  as  far  as  known  were : 

Robert,  born  July  23,  1694,  at  Stragolan,  County  Fermanagh,  sev- 
eral miles  south  of  Omagh.  He  came  to  New  England,  and 
married  Mary  Franklin  of  Boston,  April  3,  1716.  She  was  a 
sister  of  Benjamin  Franklin,  the  scientist  and  statesman. 
Robert  was  engaged  for  years  as  captain  of  a  ship  in  trans- 
porting emigrants  to  America. 

Margaret,    born   February    28,    1695-96,    at    Strabane;    married, 


82  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

The  Rev.  William  Homes  and  his  brother-in-law 
the  Rev.  Thomas  Craighead,  with  their  families,  ar- 
rived in  Boston  the  first  week  in  October,  1714,  from 
Londonderry,  on  the  ship  "Thomas  and  Jane"  of 
which  Mr.  William  Wilson  was  then  master.  Homes 
brought  four  written  testimonials,  from  the  elders 
and  overseers  of  his  congregation  at  Strabane,  from 
the  Presbytery  of  Convoy,  from  the  Synod,  and  from 
eight  presbyterian  ministers  at  Dublin,  including 
the  Rev.  Joseph  Boyse,  a  famous  preacher  and 
writer.  The  first  testimonial  was  printed  in  the  Bos- 
ton Gazette  for  August  26,  1746;  of  this  issue  no 
copy  is  known  to  exist. 


March   1,   1715-16,   at  Chilmark    [Colonel]    John   Allen.     She 
died  April  26,  1778. 

William,  born  ;  died  February  18,  1699-1700. 

Katiierine,  born  March  20,  1698-99;  baptized  by  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Craighead  at  Strabane;  married,  May  30  (?),  1721,  at  Chil- 
mark, Captain  Samuel  Smith. 

John,  born  July  30,  1700;  baptized  at  Strabane  by  the  Rev.  Samuel 
Haliday  of  Ardstraw ;  died  October  14,  1732,  at  Chilmark. 

Jane,  born  August  30,  1701;  baptized  at  Strabane  by  the  Rev.  Wil- 
liam Homes  of  Urney;  married,  July  1,  1725,  Sylvanus  Allen  of 
Chilmark ;  died  December  17,  1763,  at  Chilmark. 

Agnes,  born  May  31,  1704;  baptized  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Homes  of 
Urney;  married,  December  14,  1725,  Joshua  Allen. 

Elizabeth,  born  September  15,  1705;  married  by  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Prince,  February  5,  1729-30,  to  James  Hutchinson. 

Hannah,  born  January  31,  1708-09. 

Margery,  born  January  23,  1710-11 ;  married,  June  11,  1734,  Ben- 
jamin Daggett. 
See  also  a  memoir  of  Mrs.  Sarah  Tappan. 


HOMES  AND  CEAIGHEAD  83 

The  testimonial  from  Convoy  was  printed  as  part 
of  the  preface  written  by  Joseph  Sewall  and  Thomas 
Prince  for  Homes 's  "The  Good  Government  of 
Christian  Families  Becommended, ' '  a  memorial  vol- 
ume issued  in  1747.  It  was  signed  by  Francis  Laird 
at  Donaghmore1  July  12,  1714. 

It  will  be  seen  that  Homes  came  well  recom- 
mended. He  was  of  gentle  spirit,  although,  some- 
thing of  a  leader,  having  served  in  Ireland  as  mod- 
erator of  the  general  Synod  of  1708  which  met  at  Bel- 
fast with  fifty-four  ministers  and  forty  ruling  elders 
present.  He  was  a  student  of  administration.  His 
work,  entitled  "  Proposals  of  Some  Things  to  be 
done  in  our  administring  Ecclesiastical  Govern- 
ment^ (Boston,  1732)  favored  a  council  or  presby- 
tery of  churches  to  check  the  friction  which  became 
evident  on  several  occasions  among  New  England 
ministers  and  people.  The  Eev.  John  White  of 
Gloucester  replied  two  years  later  in  "New  Eng- 
land's Lamentations,"  contending  that,  excepting 
ruling  elders  and  the  "third  way  of  communion,' ' 
the  Congregationalists  and  Presbyterians  stood  on 
common  ground.  White  held  that  no  church  in  the 
whole  consociation  of  churches  would  be  so  stub- 
born as  to  "sustain  the  dreadful  sentence  of  non- 
communion."  Nevertheless  he  felt  secure  in  Con- 
gregational polity  after  reading  the  fifth  chapter 

1  Laird  was  succeeded  there  in  1744  by  the  Rev.  Benjamin 
Homes. 


84  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEEES 

of  first  Corinthians,  where  "the  Brethren''  are  ad- 
monished to  come  together  and  subject  their  sinning 
members  to  discipline. 

Samuel  Sewall  welcomed  Mr.  Homes  upon  his 
arrival,  and  showed  him  many  marks  of  respect.  In 
his  diary  on  October  5,  1714,  Sewall  wrote:  "I  wait 
on  the  Lient.  Govr,  visit  Mr.  William  Homes,  Mr. 
Thomas  Craighead,  Ministers,  in  order  to  know 
what  was  best  to  be  done  as  to  the  ship 's  coming  up. 
Carried  them  a  Bushel  Turnips,  cost  me  5s  and  a 
Cabbage  cost  half  a  Crown.  Dined  at  the  Castle,  Ll 
Govr  also  invited  Mr.  Homes."  On  December  2d 
he  records  a  gift  of  "an  angel"  (ten  shillings)  to 
Mr.  Homes  and  Mr.  Craighead,  and  in  correspond- 
ence later  he  showed  his  good  will. 

The  pulpit  at  Chilmark  in  Martha's  Vineyard  be- 
ing vacant,  Homes  returned  to  the  scene  of  his 
youthful  labors.  There  he  remained,  faithful  and 
honored,  until  his  death  June  27,  1746,  in  his  eighty- 
fourth  year.  Mrs.  Homes  died  April  10,  1754,  in  her 
eighty-second  year.  Thus  were  lost  to  the  upbuild- 
ing of  Ireland  two  worthy  characters. 

Parker  says1  that  a  young  man  named  Homes,  son 
of  a  Presbyterian  clergyman,  first  brought  reports 
to  the  people  in  Ireland  of  opportunities  in  New 
England.  This  was  probably  Captain  Robert 
Homes,  son  of  the  Rev.  "William  Homes ;  he  had  an 
unusual    opportunity    for    intercourse     with     his 


History  of  Londonderry,  p.  34. 


HOMES  AND  CEAIGHEAD  85 

father's  former  parishioners  through  his  voyages  to 
Ireland.  In  1717  two  men  with  names  later  signifi- 
cant in  the  Worcester  and  Falmouth  settlements, 
called  to  see  the  minister  at  Chilmark;  they  were 
John  McClellan  and  James  Jameson.  Three  weeks 
later  (November  24th)  Mr.  Homes  writes  in  his 
diary:  "This  day  I  received  several  letters,  one  from 
Doctor  Cotton  Mather,  one  from  severall  gentlemen 
proprietors  of  lands  at  or  near  to  Casco  Bay,  and 
one  from  son  Eobert." 

The  above  quotation  points  strongly  to  a  confer- 
ence held  at  Boston  in  November  between  Captain 
Eobert  Homes,  recently  from  Ireland  and  interested 
in  transporting  Scotch  Irish  families,  the  Eev.  Cot- 
ton Mather,  eager  to  see  the  frontiers  defended  by  a 
God-fearing,  hardy  people,  and  the  third  party  to 
the  conference,  the  men  who  were  attempting  to 
plant  settlements  along  the  Kennebec.  They  must 
have  talked  over  the  project  for  a  great  migration 
(they  all  had  written  to  the  minister  at  Chilmark), 
and  undoubtedly  Captain  Eobert  Homes  sent  over 
letters  and  plans  to  friends  at  Strabane,  Donagh- 
more,  Donegal  and  Londonderry.  Perhaps  no  one 
in  Boston  had  so  many  relatives  among  the  clergy 
in  Ulster,  and  as  a  sea-captain  he  had  a  still  fur- 
ther interest  in  the  migration.  Eobert  himself  sailed 
for  Ireland  April  13,  1718,  and  returned  "full  of 
passengers' '  about  the  middle  of  October. 

The  Eev.  Mr.  Homes  in  his  diary  describes  his 


86 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


journey  to  Boston  on  this  great  occasion.  He  lodged 
with  his  son  and  preached  twice,  from  Philemon  i. 
21,  for  the  Rev.  Cotton  Mather  at  the  North  meet- 
ing honse,  and  from  Proverbs  xii.  26  for  the  Rev. 
John  "Webb  at  the  New  North;  neither  text  seems 
to  have  had  any  special  significance. 

The   Rev.   William   Homes   had   two   prominent 


Donegal,  County  Donegal 
Home  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Craighead 

brothers-in-law,  Robert  and  Thomas  Craighead. 
The  Rev.  Robert  Craighead  studied  divinity  at  Edin- 
burgh and  Leyden  and  had  a  conspicuous  career  at 
Dublin  from  1709  until  1738,  when  he  died.  In  1719, 
when  the  Presbyterian  church  in  Ireland  was  in  pro- 
longed debate  over  the  deity  of  Christ  and  subscrip- 
tion to  the  Westminster  Confession  of  Faith,  he 
served  as  moderator  of  the  Ulster  Synod.     The  Rev. 


HOMES  AND  CEAIGHEAD  87 

Thomas  Craighead  was  educated  in  Scotland,  but 
later  entered  upon  his  trials  for  the  ministry  as  a 
probationer  in  the  Presbytery  of  Strabane  in  1698. 
He  settled  at  Donegal.  Here  he  remained  until  he 
removed  with  his  brother-in-law  Homes  to  America 
in  1714',  being  succeeded  by  the  Eev.  John  Homes, 
who  enjoyed  a  long  pastorate  at  Donegal.1 

The  Eev.  Thomas  Craighead  had  the  unhappy  gift 
of  discord  and  he  led  a  somewhat  stormy  life,  al- 
though he  was  a  fearless  and  a  useful  minister.  For 
some  time  all  went  well  at  Freetown.  Mr.  Craig- 
head, when  he  settled  there,  had  agreed  to  subsist 
on  voluntary  contributions  from  his  flock.  Probably 
his  manner  did  not  attract,  and  the  support  became 
gradually  reduced  until  he  was  obliged  to  petition 
the  General  Court  for  a  grant  of  money.  They  al- 
lowed ten  pounds  in  June,  1718,  for  half  a  year's 
services.  This  was  probably  not  the  first  grant  of 
the  kind  to  Mr.  Craighead.  In  1719  he  brought 
his  plight  to  the  notice  of  the  Justices  of  the  Peace 

*By  his  wife,  Margaret,  Mr.  Craighead  had: 
Thomas,   born  in  1702;   married  Margaret,  daughter  of  George 

Brown,   merchant   of   Londonderry,   Ireland.       A   farmer   at 

White  Clay  Creek,  Delaware. 
Andrew,  died  unmarried. 
Alexander,  died  in  March,  1766 ;  an  eloquent  minister  who  lived 

in  Pennsylvania,  Virginia  and  North  Carolina. 
John,  of  Cumberland  County,  Pennsylvania. 
Jane,  married,  October  23,  1725,  the  Rev.  Adam  Boyd,  pastor  of 

a  church  at  the  forks  of  the  Brandywine.    Their  son  edited 

the  Cape  Fear  Mercury. 


88  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

for  Bristol  County,  and  at  a  Court  of  General  Ses- 
sions of  the  Peace  the  town  was  ordered  to  lay  a 
rate  for  his  support.  Many  refused  to  comply  and 
were  thrown  into  jail.  A  petition  to  the  General 
Court  asking  to  have  the  men  liberated,  the  rate  de- 
clared annulled  and  Craighead 's  election  as  minister 
at  Freetown  void,  was  granted  June  19,  1719.  The 
unfortunate  minister  then  petitioned  for  relief,  hav- 
ing for  four  and  a  half  years  preached  at  Freetown, 
three  of  these  years  without  pay,  and  being  then 
deeply  in  debt.  In  December  he  was  granted  twenty 
pounds.1  Among  his  enemies  John  Hathaway,  a 
kinsman,  was  a  conspicuous  figure,  and  to  him  Cot- 
ton Mather  addressed  a  stirring  letter,  as  a  last 
effort  to  restore  peace.  It  was  written  July  21, 
1719: 

"21  d  Vml719 
"You  cannot  be  insensable  that  the  minister  whom 
ye  glorious  Lord  hath  graciously  sent  among  you 
is  a  man  of  Excellent  Spirit,  and  a  great  Blessing 
to  your  plantation.  Mr.  Craighead  is  a  man  of  Sin- 
gular piety  and  Humility  &  meekness,  &  patience 
&  self  denial  and  industry  in  the  work  of  God.  All 
that  are  acquainted  with  him,  have  a  precious  esteem 
of  him.  And  if  he  should  be  driven  from  you,  it 
would  be  such  a  Damage  [to]  you,  such  a  Ruine  to 
your  plantation,  as  ought  not  without  Horror  to  be 
thought  upon. 


Province  Laws  1719-20,  Chapters  43,  110. 


HOMES  AND  CRAIGHEAD  89 

"But,  we  are  given  to  understand,  from  some  who 
are  the  spectators  of  what  is  done  among  you,  That 
Mr.  Hath  way 's  Coming  unto  a  good,  friendly  & 
Christian  Frame  towards  Mr.  Craighead  would 
much  Contribute  unto  his  Comfortable  Coun- 
tenance Among  you.  We  do  therefore,  Exceed- 
ingly importune  you,  to  put  away  Evil  Differences 
towards  that  faithful  Servant  of  God.  and  Come 
unto  such  a  frame,  as,  if  you  now  felt  the  last  Pangs 
of  Death  upon  you  (which  Cannot  be  put  off)  you 
would  chuse  to  dy  withal. 

"It  will  be  not  a  little  for  your  own  Eeputation 
with  Godly  &  Worthy  Men,  that  your  disaffection  for 
that  Valuable  man  were  laid  aside  And  if  once 
you  come  to  sit  lovingly  together,  the  more  you 
know  him  the  more  will  you  Love  him." 

Craighead  soon  left  Freetown,  and  in  the  spring 
of  the  year  1723  moved  his  family  southward  into 
"the  Jerseys,"  as  President  Stiles  of  Yale  makes 
record.  He  joined  Newcastle  presbytery  January 
28,  1724,  and  on  the  22nd  of  the  next  month  was 
installed  minister  of  the  church  at  White  Clay  Creek 
in  Delaware.  There  Mr.  Craighead  preached  elo- 
quently for  seven  years,  enjoying  frequent  revivals 
and  building  new  churches  through  his  zeal.  In 
1733  he  moved  to  Lancaster  County,  Pennsylvania, 
and  joined  Donegal  presbytery  September  3rd.  He 
was  pastor  of  the  church  at  Pequea  from  October 
31,  1733,  to  September,  1736.     Changing  his  resi- 


90  SCOTCH   IBISH   PIONEEES 

dence  once  more  he  settled  at  Hopewell  in  1738,  and 
preached  nntil  he  died  while  pronouncing  a  bene- 
diction, in  April,  1739;  his  last  church  was  within 
the  bounds  of  the  present  town  of  Newville,  a  few 
miles  west  of  Harrisburg,  Pennsylvania.  While 
serving  in  these  pastorates  he  was  known  as 
" Father' '  Craighead,  and  attained  a  wide  reputa- 
tion, rising  soon  to  be  moderator  of  the  Synod. 

Craighead  came  of  a  distinguished  family,  and 
is  the  ancestor  of  many  ministers  in  the  southern 
states.  Having  relatives  in  Londonderry  and  Dub- 
lin he  was  able  by  correspondence  to  stir  the  spirit 
of  migration.  He  stands  as  a  link  between  New  Eng- 
land and  the  colonies  south  of  the  Hudson.  Many  of 
the  Scotch  Irish  went  from  the  Kennebec  settle- 
ments to  happier  surroundings  in  Pennsylvania. 
They  left  brothers  and  cousins  throughout  Massa- 
chusetts and  New  York.  Their  ties  of  sympathy, 
faith  and  blood,  helped  to  bind  the  colonies  together 
in  1775.  Tidings  of  the  fight  at  Lexington  stirred 
North  and  South  Carolina  profoundly  for  there 
were  kinships  along  the  entire  coast. 


VI 


ULSTER  AND  THE  PRESBYTERIAN 
MINISTRY  IN  1718 

In  the  early  years  of  the  Colonies,  that  is,  before 
1718,  an  occasional  party  of  emigrants  went  ont 
from  Ireland  in  the  ships  which  sailed  to  sonthern 
ports  for  tobacco  and  cotton.  Through  them  the  Car- 
olinas  became  in  a  few  years  familiar  to  the  people 
of  Ulster.  New  England  on  the  other  hand  received 
scarcely  any  immigration  before  1718,  and  there 
was  very  little  intercourse,  unless  we  except  that 
of  a  theological  and  literary  nature  which  existed 
between  leaders  of  thought  in  Dublin  and  Boston. 
This  was  perhaps  the  chief  reason  which  led  to  the 
appointment  of  an  agent  by  the  Banj^iallejf  colo- 
nists. 

This  agent,  the  Rev.  William  Boyd,  was  ordained 
at  Macosquin  in  January,  1709-10.  The  Rev. 
Thomas  Boyd,  probably  his  father,  was  an  Episco- 
pal clergyman  at  the  neighboring  town  of  Aghado- 
wey,  and  although  deposed  in  1661  for  non-conform- 
ity, continued  to  preach  there  until  his  death  in 
1699,  holding  services  also  at  Macosquin  for  the 
last  ten  years  that  he  lived. 

When  the  Rev,  William  Boyd  had  fulfilled  his 


92  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEEES 

mission  in  Boston  and  was  ready  to  return  to  Ma- 
cosquin,  he  preached  a  "return"  sermon  at  the 
weekly  lecture  on  the  19th  of  March,  1718-19.  It 
was  printed  in  1719  with  the  title  "God's  way  the 
Best  way"  (Jeremiah  vi.  16).  The  introduction  by 
the  Rev.  Increase  Mather  tells  in  rather  quaint 
language  so  much  of  interest  relating  to  Mr.  Boyd 
and  his  mission  to  New  England  that  it  is  given  in 
part  just  as  he  wrote  it:  "It  was  not  before  the  last 
Summer  that  he  Arrived  among  us.  He  had  his 
Education  in  the  University  of  Edinburgh  in  Scot- 
land; and  there  commenc'd  Master  of  Arts:  and 
afterwards  Read  Divinity  in  the  Famous  Colledge 
and  University  in  Glasgow1  under  the  care  of  Mr. 
Widrow,  then  Professor  of  Divinity  there.  Has 
been  Ordained  a  Minister  of  the  Gospel,  and  Pastor 
of  a  Church  at  Macasky  in  Ireland.  Many  in  that 
Kingdom  having  had  thoughts  of  a  remove  to  this 
part  of  the  World,  have  considered  him  as  a  Person 
suitably  qualify  'd  to  take  a  Voyage  hither,  and  to 
make  Enquiry  what  Encouragement  or  otherwise, 
they  might  expect  in  case  they  should  engage  in  so 
weighty  and  hazardous  an  Undertaking,  as  that  of 
Transporting  themselves  &  Families  over  so  vast  an 
Ocean.  The  issue  of  this  Affair  has  a  great  depend- 
ence on  the  Conduct  of  this  Worthy  Author.     The 


^mong  the  Fasti  are  William  Boyd,  1709,  and  Adam  Boyd, 
1711.  References  to  the.  Boyds  may  be  found  in  Miss  Leavitt's 
The  Blair  Family  (1900). 


PEESBYTEEIANS  IN  ULSTER  93 

Lord  direct  him  in  it.  Since  his  being  in  New-Eng- 
land (as  well  as  afore  that)  by  the  Exemplary  holi- 
ness of  his  Conversation,  and  the  Eminency  of  his 
Ministerial  Gifts,  he  has  obtained  a  good  Eeport 
amongst  all  Good  Men.    .    .    . 

"It  is  justly  observed  in  the  Sermon  Emitted 
herewith,  that  Antiquity  alone,  is  not  a  sufficient  Jus- 
tification of  any  Practice ;  Altho '  Truth  is  more  An- 
cient than  Error.' ' 

Cotton  Mather  with  his  unfailing  kindness  sent 
Mr.  Boyd  away  with  a  generous  letter  of  commenda- 

tion:  ' l  Boston,  N.  E. 

20  d  ii  m  1719 

"It  is  hereby  Certified  on  Behalf  of  ye  Eeverend 
Mr.  William  Boyd  That  which  he  has  Commenced 
among  us,  he  has,  as  far  as  we  Could  know  or  learn 
Adorned  Ye  Doctrines  of  God  or  Saviour,  with  un- 
blemished Conversation,  and  improved  ye  Charac- 
ter given  him  in  ye  recomendations  which  he  brought 
hither  from  Ireland  with  him.  And  that  his  public 
Labours  in  ye  ministry  of  the  Gospel,  have  been  De- 
sired and  Accepted  among  the  people  of  God  in  this 
Country:  with  whom  he  now  leaves  a  very  Good 
Name,  &  Eeputation,  At  his  Departure  from  us. 

"Having  furnished  this  Or  worthy  Brother  with 
Such  a  Testimony,  we  earnestly  Comend  him  to  y6 
Conduct  &  Blessing  of  or  glorious  Lord,  in  ye  Voy- 
age that  is  now  before  him. ' n 


American  Antiquarian  Society  Manuscripts, 


94  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

Before  further  reference  is  made  to  Mr.  Boyd's 
subsequent  career  and  the  lives  of  his  contempora- 
ries, something  must  be  said  of  the  Presbyterian 
church  in  Ulster,  its  organization,  its  work  and  its 
ministry,  for  the  ministers  were  closely  allied  with 
the  first  plan  to  form  a  Scotch  Irish  colony  in  Amer- 
ica. The  General  Synod  of  the  Presbyterian  church 
^#  in  Ulster  was  held  usually  in  June  of  each  year.  The 
Synod  of  1717  is  especially  interesting  for  its  long 
and  important  sessions,  in  which  Boyd,  McGregor, 
Cornwall  and  others  who  were  interested  in  America 
took  part.  Nine  presbyteries  were  represented, 
Down,  Belfast,  Antrim,  Tyrone,  Armagh,  Coleraine, 
Derry,  Convoy,  and  Monaghan;  one  hundred 
churches  sent  their  ministers  and  in  most  instances 
also  a  ruling  elder.  The  aged  David  Cargill  had 
come  with  the  Eev.  Mr.  McGregor  from  Aghadowey ; 
they  were  both  appointed  by  the  Synod  members 
of  the  Committee  "on  funds. "  Matthew  Clark 
and  James  Woodside  were  absent;  Clark  was  ex- 
cused, but  Mr.  Woodside  did  not  have  so  good  a  rea- 
son for  absence  and  was  not  excused. 

The  records  of  the  Synod  show  among  other  ac- 
tivities an  increasing  interest  in  the  Irish  language, 
some  ministers  being  able  to  read  and  others  to 
preach  in  Irish.  The  Synod  of  Argyle  also  expressed 
a  desire  to  aid  Ulster  in  the  conversion  of  the  Irish, 
and  there  is  mention  of  a  Celtic  catechism,  ready  to 
be   printed.    Of   still   greater   importance,   if   Mr, 


PRESBYTERIANS  IN  ULSTER  95 

McGregor  was  already  thinking  and  speaking  of  re- 
moval to  America,  was  his  appointment  to  travel 
abont  the  counties  of  Londonderry,  Antrim  and 
Tyrone  on  a  mission  to  convert  the  Celtic  Irish. 

The  Synod  declined  after  much  discussion  to 
transfer  the  Rev.  Robert  Craighead,  brother  of  the 
minister  soon  to  be  in  Massachusetts,  from  Dublin 
to  Londonderry.  Many  other  cases  of  ministerial 
transfers  were  discussed,  including  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Cornwall's  request  to  be  relieved  of  his  work  at 
Augher  (near  Clogher)  on  account  of  ill-health,  the 
distance  of  his  house  from  the  church,  and  the  inabil- 
ity of  the  congregation  to  meet  expenses.2 

A  young  man  who  wished  to  enter  the  ministry 
was  examined  by  the  Presbytery  of  Antrim  which 
now  reported  to  the  Synod  "that  he  hath  neither  a 
natural  capacity  nor  learning  any  way  equal  to  the 
work  of  the  Ministry,' '  and  was  advised  to  lay 
aside  his  purpose. 

•  There  are  also  in  the  records  many  discussions  of 
charities,  assignments  to  preach,  admonitions  to 
thoughtless  or  possibly  sinful  brothers.  Taking 
them  all  in  all,  the  records  of  the  Ulster  Synod  are 

1 A  second  opportunity  for  the  spread  of  the  "fever"  for  emigra- 
tion was  offered  by  the  appointment  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Cornwall  to 
preach  in  August  before  the  new  Presbytery  of  Augher,  erected 
from  parts  of  the  counties  of  Monaghan  and  Tyrone.  The  next 
year  four  young  men  were  presented  by  this  Presbytery  for  their 
"second  trials,"  and  it  was  announced  that  they  were  "designed  for 
America," 


96  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

orderly,  concise,  and  sane — a  monument  to  a  century 
and  more  of  religious  work  in  Ireland.  They  con- 
vince the  reader  that  a  man  privileged  to  take  part 
in  the  meetings  of  his  congregation,  of  his  presby- 
tery, or  of  the  General  Synod  had  an  opportunity 
to  fit  himself  for  self-government.  Indeed,  the  com- 
mittee work  and  the  exercise  in  speaking  which  these 
assemblies  offered  prepared  the  leading  Presby- 
terian laymen  in  Ulster  to  participate  in  county  and 
town  affairs  in  America  on  equal  terms  with  their 
neighbors.  The  Scotch  Irish,  from  minister  to  la- 
borer, were  bred  in  an  atmosphere  of  self-reliance, 
and  they  carried  this  force  with  them  to  the  New 
World. 

The  emigrants  of  the  year  1718  came  largely  from 
the  Bann  Valley.  The  Valley's  chief  town,  Cole- 
raine,  still  gloried  in  its  buildings  of  the  Elizabethan 
period,  grouped  along  a  good  road  leading  to  the 
square  (now  called  the  Diamond),  and  onward  to 
the  bridge  across  the  Bann  water.  John  Barrow,  a- 
traveller  of  a  later  date,  writes : 

' '  Standing  on  this  bridge,  the  spectator  has  a  fine 
view  of  the  Bann  on  both  sides  of  it;  that  to  the 
northward  embraces,  among  a  number  of  decent- 
looking  villas  or  farm-houses,  a  very  pretty  man- 
sion and  grounds  on  the  left  bank,  close  to  the  sub- 
urb, called,  from  the  owner  I  imagine,  Jackson  Hall ; 
and  the  view  in  the  contrary  direction,  or  up  the 
river,  exhibits  many  neat  villas,  well  planted  with 


53     ** 
O      <n 

o    K 


o 

W 


PRESBYTERIANS  IN  ULSTER  99 

wood.  Among  them  a  parkish-looking  place,  on  the 
left  bank,  canght  my  attention,  and  I  walked  along 
a  good  road,  not  merely  to  get  a  nearer  view  of  it, 
bnt  also  to  take  a  look  at  the  salmon-leap,  which  I 
knew  to  be  abont  the  spot.  This  place  is  named  Som- 
erset. .  .  .  The  little  cottages  belonging  to  the 
weavers,  are,  like  those  of  Antrim,  bnilt  of  stone,  and 
have  a  neat  appearance ;  but  there  is  this  distinctive 
character  which  makes  them  differ  from  an  English 
cottage, — that  they  are  all  open  to  the  road  in  front, 
and  want  that  little  paled-off  garden  enclosure,  so 
common  to  our  meanest  cottages."1 

The  Presbyterian  ministers  of  this  region  in  1718 
were  the  Rev.  William  Boyd  at  Macosquin,  a  village 
three  miles  out  of  Coleraine  on  the  road  to  Aghado- 
wey;  the  Rev.  James  McGregor  at  Aghadowey; 
and  a  short  distance  south  the  Rev.  James  Woodside 
at  Garvagh;    all  on  the  west  side  of  the  Bann. 

1  Barrow's  Tour  Round  Ireland,  p.  88.  Thackeray  in  "The  Irish 
Sketch  Book"  speaks  of  Coleraine  "with  a  number  of  cabin  sub- 
urbs belonging  to  it,  lying  picturesquely  grouped  on  the  Bann 
River."  Farther  on  occurs  his  poem,  "Peg  of  Limavaddy,"  be- 
ginning : 

Riding  from  Coleraine 

(Famed  for  lovely  Kitty) 
Came  a  cockney  bound 
Unto  Derry  City; 

Weary  was  his  soul, 

Shivering  and  sad  he 
Bumped  along  the  road 

Leads  to  Limavaddy. 


100  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

Farther  south,  near  the  Bann,  the  Rev.  Matthew 
Clark,  a  survivor  of  the  siege  of  Londonderry  and 
a  military  man,  preached  at  Kilrea;  and  the  Rev. 
John  Stirling  was  at  Ballykelly,  county  London- 
derry, a  dozen  miles  west  of  Coleraine.  At  Oole- 
raine  was  the  Rev.  Robert  Higinbotham,  famous  in 
his  day  for  his  futile  attempt  to  change  his  mind 
after  having  honored  Mrs.  Martha  Woods  with  the 
offer  of  his  hand ;  and  about  six  miles  south  of  Cole- 
raine at  Ballymoney,  just  across  the  river  from 
Aghadowey,  was  the  Rev.  Robert  McBride.  Eight 
or  ten  miles  north  east  of  Coleraine  at  Billy  or 
Bushmills  was  the  Rev.  John  Porter,  said  by  con- 
temporaries to  have  been  a  ' '  sprightly  orator, ' '  and 
four  miles  to  the  south  west  of  Bushmills  the  Rev. 
Henry  Neill  was  at  Ballyrashane. 

At  Londonderry  no  one  at  the  moment  held  the 
pulpit  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Craighead,  who  died  Au- 
gust 22,  1711.  At  Donegal,  a  few  miles  west  of  Lif- 
ford  and  Strabane,  was  the  Rev.  John  Homes,  and 
at  Donaghmore  the  Rev.  Benjamin  Homes.  In 
County  Tyrone  the  Rev.  Samuel  Haliday,  father  of 
the  famous  Dr.  Haliday,  was  six  miles  south  of 
Strabane  at  Ardstraw;  the  Rev.  William  Cornwall 
was  twenty  miles  farther  south  at  Clogher ;  he  was 
thinking  of  America,  and  no  doubt  in  communication 
with  the  Homes  family.  At  Kilmore,  county  Down, 
was  the  Rev.  Thomas  Elder,  and  at  Magherally  the 
Rev.  Samuel  Young. 


PRESBYTERIANS  IN  ULSTER         101 

All  these  ministers  are  known  to  have  had  some 
interest  in  or  sympathy  with  a  proposal  for  migra- 
tion to  New  England ;  bnt  when  Boyd  was  about  to 
sail  for  Massachusetts  Bay  and  a  petition  for  lands 
for  Scotch  Irish  settlers  was  prepared  for  him  to 
present  to  Governor  Shute,  only  four  ministers,  Hig- 
inbotham,  Porter,  Neill,  and  Elder,  added  their  sig- 
natures, and  not  one  who  signed  came  over  to  New 
England  to  live. 

The  petition  is  headed  by  the  Rev.  James  Teatte, 
probably  the  James  Tate  who  served  at  Killeshan- 
dra,  near  the  town  of  Cavan,  from  1705  to  1729.  If 
he  had  any  ties  with  the  Coleraine  presbytery  to 
which  most  of  the  clerical  signers  belonged  we  have 
now  no  means  of  discovering  them. 

Of  the  other  clerical  signers  of  this  petition  a  few 
words  only  are  necessary.  Thomas  Cobham  was  or- 
dained at  Clough,  a  village  south  of  Ballymoney  in 
county  Antrim,  in  March,  and  only  a  few  days  be- 
fore the  petition  was  drawn  up.  Robert  Neilson,  an 
aged  minister,  whose  trembling  hand  wrote  a  signa- 
ture which  Mr.  Parker  in  his  "Londonderry' '  very 
naturally  printed  " Houston,' '  held  no  parish  al- 
though long  identified  with  Kilraughts  in  the  Pres- 
bytery of  Route  (later  the  Presbytery  of  Coleraine). 
William  Leech  was  the  minister  of  Ballymena, 
county  Antrim,  1698-1738,  although  the  historians 
Killen  and  Hanna  speak  of  the  minister  there  as 
Thomas  Leech.    Robert  Higinbotham  of  Coleraine, 


102  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEERS 

John  Porter  of  Bushmills  and  Henry  Neill  of  Bally- 
rashane  were  all  members  of  the  Presbytery  of  Cole- 
raine.  The  next  signer,  Thomas  Elder,  was  from 
Connty  Down,  although  he  may  have  lived  at  one 
time  in  the  Coleraine  presbytery,  since  one  of  the 
same  name  accompanied  the  Rev.  Mr.  Neill  to  the 
Synod  of  1716.  James  Thomson  was  to  become  min- 
ister at  Ballywillan,  near  Coleraine,  in  a  few  weeks. 
Alexander  Dunlop,  a  signer,  was  not  a  minister  in 
Ulster,  nor  were  two  other  clerical  signers  of  the 
petition  to  Shnte,  Archibald  McCook  and  Samnel 
Wilson,  of  whom  nothing  is  known  in  the  Presby- 
terian annals  of  Ulster.  Dunlop,  McCook  and  Wil- 
son were  Masters  of  Arts ;  all  the  others  were  Min- 
isters of  the  Word  of  God,  signing  themselves 
V[erbi]  D[ei]  Mfinister].  The  more  one  studies 
the  list  the  more  one  is  puzzled  by  its  composition. 
It  appears  to  have  been  prepared  in  some  haste  by 
ministers  in  the  Bann  Valley?  possibly  at  a  presby- 
tery gathering  which  Tate,  Leech,  and  Elder  had 
attended. 

The  names  of  the  other  signers  are  also  for  the 
most  part  well  written  and  still  easily  to  be  read. 
They  have  not  as  familiar  a  sound  as  one  might  ex- 
pect, but  if  we  recognize  in  one  column  Randall  Alex- 
ander, in  another  Andrew  McFadden,  and  in  a  third 
Matthew  Slarrow,  we  may  assume  that  most  of  the 
names  were  gathered  in  the  Bann  Valley  towns.  All 
the  names  doubtless  looked  impressive  to  Governor 


PRESBYTERIANS  IN  ULSTER         105 

Shute,  even  if  upon  us  the  significance  of  many  of 
them  is  lost.  And  perhaps  both  the  Governor  and 
Cotton  Mather  were  no  wiser  than  we  are. 

The  petition  to  Governor  Shute  was  engrossed  on 
a  sheet  of  parchment  twenty-eight  inches  square, 
and  is  now  deposited  with  the  New  Hampshire  His- 
torical Society,  at  Concord,  where  it  may  be  seen.1 

The  ministers  who  accompanied  the  first  colonists 
in  1718  were  worthy  men,  but  their  departure  from 
Ulster  did  not  deprive  the  Presbyterian  Church  of 
any  of  its  real  leaders. 

The  Rev.  William  Boyd  upon  his  return  to  Macos- 
quin  continued  his  work  there  until  1725,  when  Mon- 
reagh  in  County  Donegal  called  him.  This  parish, 
on  the  west  bank  of  the  Foyle  between  Londonderry 
and  Lifford,  promised  to  build  a  meeting  house  and 
to  secure  to  him  £40  per  annum.  He  was  installed 
April  25, 1725,  and  died  there  in  service  May  2,  1772, 
leaving  children.  He  last  attended  a  synod  in  1762, 
when  he  was  probably  in  feeble  health.  His  career 
was  a  troubled  one,  on  account  of  a  rival  minister 
who  built  a  church  at  St.  Johnstown  within  his  juris- 
diction, and  alienated  many  of  his  people.  The  Gen- 
eral Synod  took  his  part  steadily,  but  was  finally 
forced  to  recognize  the  new  organization. 

Monreagh  was  in  Boyd's  time  also  called  Taboin 
or  Taughboyne.  The  McClintocks  were  prominent 
Presbyterians  in  Taughboyne,  and  William  McClin- 

1  See  Appendix  II. 


106  SCOTCH   IRISH*  PIONEERS 

tock,  father  of  the  Rev.  Samuel  of  Portsmouth,  New 
Hampshire,  may  have  been  of  this  race. 

The  Rev.  James  McGregor  or  McGregore  fol- 
lowed the  Rev.  Thomas  Boyd  at  Aghadowey,  a  small 
Londonderry  village  whose  name  means  " Duffy's 
field.' '  He  was  ordained  there  June  25,  1701,  came 
to  Boston  August  4,  1718,  and  died  at  the  American 
Londonderry  of  a  fever  after  a  short  illness  March 
5,  1729.1  A  widow  and  seven,  it  is  said,  of  their  ten 
children  survived  him.  The  widow,  Mary  Ann  Mc- 
Gregor, was  married  January  9,  1733,  by  the  Rev. 
John  Moorhead  of  Boston,  to  Mr.  McGregor's  Lon- 
donderry successor,  the  Rev.  Matthew  Clark,  a  vig- 
orous and  picturesque  preacher. 

Little  is  known  of  McGregor's  education  and 
early  life;  his  name  does  not  appear  on  the  mem- 
bership rolls  of  the  universities,  but  he  was  a  man 
of  good  abilities.  He  came  possibly  from  the  Scotch 
highlands,  for  his  knowledge  of  Celtic  enabled  him 
to  take  a  leading  part  in  the  movement  to  draw  into 
the  Presbyterian  Church  those  of  highland  and  Irish 
descent.    It  was  found  that  both  peoples  could  read 

1  Boston  News-Letter,  March  27,  1729.  I  have  discovered  very- 
little  about  Mr.  McGregor's  children.  Mr.  Otis  G.  Hammond 
kindly  searched  the  deeds  and  found  mention  of  a  daughter  Jane, 
wife  of  Alexander  Clark  of  Portsmouth,  physician;  a  daughter 
Margaret,  wife  of  Alexander  Caldwell  of  Portsmouth,  shop- 
keeper ;  and  sons  David  of  Londonderry,  clerk  or  minister ;  James 
of  Londonderry,  yeoman ;  and  Alexander  of  Rhode  Island,  school- 
master. Parker's  Londonderry,  p.  280,  mentions  also  Robert, 
Daniel,  Mary,  Elizabeth  and  John. 


PEESBYTEEIANS  IN  ULSTER         107 

the  Bible  in  Celtic,  and  Presbyterians  vied  with 
Churchmen  in  establishing  missions.  Two  dissent- 
ing societies  were  organized  in  1716  to  study  the 
language,  and  McGregor  was  appointed  to  preach  to 
one  of  them  at  a  meeting  in  Dungiven  in  August.1  A 
few  years  earlier  he  had  become  associated  in  this 
work  with  the  Rev.  Archibald  Boyd,  and  we  find 
them  both  as  followers  of  the  Rev.  William  Boyd  on 
New  England  soil  in  1718.  McGregor's  coming  was 
doubtless  hastened  by  the  poverty  of  his  parish, 
which  owed  him  eighty  pounds  at  the  time  of  his  de- 
parture. The  General  Synod  brought  pressure  to 
collect  half  the  sum,  but  with  what  result  we  cannot 
tell,  for  Aghadowey  was  reported  in  1728  to  be 
religiously  and  financially  in  "  a  sinking  state. ' ' 

The  rigid  standards  of  the  dissenters  at  this 
period  bring  the  sins  of  the  clergy  into  relief.  In 
1700  they  were  censured  by  the  Synod  because  they, 
their  wives  and  children,  were  " gaudy  and  vain"  in 
their  manner  of  dress.  They  were  cautioned  to 
avoid  "powderings,  vain  cravats,  half  shirts,  and 
the  like,"  as  well  as  " sumptuous,  prodigal  dinners" 
at  ordinations.  McGregor  and  Boyd,  the  apostles 
to  the  Irish,  withstood  the  allurements  of  fashion, 
but  were  found  wanting  in  other  virtues.  McGregor, 
having  taken  several  cans  of  ale  at  Coleraine  where, 
as  he  said,  "less  might  have  serv'd,"  was  in  1704 
after  a  vote  of  "not  proven"  severely  admonished 

1  Records  of  the  General  Synod  of  Ulster. 


108  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEERS 

before  the  whole  Synod  of  Ulster.  Curiously  enough 
the  chief  of  his  accusers  bore  the  surname  of  Love. 
McGregor's  after  life  appears  to  have  been  exem- 
plary. Archibald  Boyd  was  deposed  for  sins  against 
morality  in  1716;  he  appeared  in  Boston  in  1718, 
but  no  reference  was  made  to  his  former  ministerial 
position. 

McGregor's  son  David  became  even  better  known 
than  his  father  as  a  Presbyterian  leader,  while  set- 
tled at  Londonderry,  New  Hampshire.  He  was  a 
controversialist  and  speaker  whose  influence  was  felt 
for  many  years  in  New  England. 

The  weakness  for  excessive  drinking  affected  men 
of  all  classes  in  Ireland.  The  archbishops  admon- 
ished the  clergy  of  the  Established  Church,  and  the 
Synod  labored  with  the  dissenters.  John  Gamble  in 
his  travels  in  the  north  of  Ireland  in  1810  refers  to 
a  certain  Presbyterian  clergyman  who  could  lecture 
"on  the  seven  churches,  and  on  the  seven  candle- 
sticks, as  pat  as  if  it  was  the  Gospel  o'  St.  Luke. 
Has  but  one  fault  in  the  world— he's  our  fond  of  the 
wee  drap."  The  Congregation  were  tolerant  of  this 
failing  in  their  pastor,  but  a  parishioner  said :  "Ogh 
aye,  man,  the  Papists  and  the  high  kirk  hold  out 
their  fingers  at  us,  and  gibe  us,  sore,  on  his  ac- 
count. ' n 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Clark,  mentioned  above,  was  at  Kil- 


1  Gamble's  Sketches  of  History,  Politics  and  Manners  in  Dublin, 
and  the  North  of  Ireland  in  1810,  New  Ed.,  London,  1826,  p.  244. 


PRESBYTERIANS  IN  ULSTER         109 

rea ;  his  connection  with  the  congregation  there  was 
severed  April  28,  1729.  A  few  miles  to  the  north- 
west the  Eev.  James  Woodside  had  for  many  years 
preached  at  Garvagh.  His  arrival  in  New  England 
will  be  described  in  an  account  of  the  Brunswick 
settlement.  But  a  letter  of  encouragement  from  the 
Rev.  Cotton  Mather,  written  in  February,  1718-19, 
has  several  interesting  passages,  and  is  given  in  full 
from  the  draft  in  the  American  Antiquarian  Society : 

[To  the  Rev.  James  Woodside]         < < 3d  XIIm  1718 

"Tis  more  than  Time  that  your  Brethren  here 
should  bid  you  welcome  to  the  western  side  of  Ye 
Atlantic  and  make  you  a  Tender  of  all  the  Brotherly 
Assistance  that  we  are  capable  of  giving  you ;  espe- 
cially under  ye  Difficulties  which  at  your  first  Ar- 
rival you  cannot  but  meet  withal.  The  Glorious 
providence  of  God  or  Saviour,  which  has  been  at 
work,  in  the  Removal  of  so  many  people,  who  are 
of  so  Desirable  a  character  as  we  see  come  &  coming 
from  ye  North  of  Ireland,  Unto  ye  North  of  New 
England,  has  doubtless  very  great  Intentions  in  it ; 
and,  what  He  does,  we  know  not  now,  but  we  shall 
know  hereafter. 

1 1  He  who  Defeated  ye  purposes  of  such  a  removal 
attempted  by  some  excellent  persons  of  your  Nation 
&  Spirit,  more  than  four  score  years  ago,  now  seems 
to  favor  us.1    Is  it  not  because  He  has  a  work  to  do 


1  The  "Eagle  Wing"  left  Ireland  in  1636. 


110  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

which  we  are  not  yet  aware  of!  Happy  and  Hon- 
oured, those  of  us  Christians  [?]  by  whom  or  glori- 
ous Lord  comes  to  have  these  ends  of  ye  earth  for 
His  possession! 

"The  people  who  are  upon  this  Transportation, 
are  of  such  principles,  &  so  Laudable  for  their  sobri- 
ety, their  Honesty,  their  Industry,  that  we  cannot 
but  embrace  you  with  a  most  fervent  charity,  and 
cherish  hopes  of  noble  settlements  to  be  quickly 
made  in  a  Region,  which  has  hitherto  been  a  Reputed 
Aceldama.1. 

' '  The  people  who  were  formerly  taking  Root  there, 
carried  not  ye  ministry  of  ye  Gospel  with  ym,  and 
were  once  and  again  suddenly  cursed  of  God.  The 
Indians  have  never  yett  been  permitted  of  Heaven 
to  break  up  a  Town  that  had  a  minister  of  ye  gospel 
in  it.  It  is  a  vast  encouragement  unto  or  expecta- 
tions of  a  smile  from  God  on  the  plantation  now  go- 
ing forward,  that  we  see  a  Woodside  as  well  as  a 
Cornwal,  appearing  there;  and  we  have  a  prospect 
of  more  such  ministers  coming  over,  as  will  be  ye 
Beauty  &  ye  Safety  of  that  Countrey,  and  be  ye  very 
life  of  yr  colonies  that  will  be  under  their  watchful 
&  [illegible]  Influences." 

The  Rev.  William  Cornwall,  mentioned  by  Mather, 
belonged  to  a  family  not  unknown  in  the  ministry. 

1  Acts  i,  19.  The  potter's  field  near  Jerusalem,  said  to  have  been 
purchased  by  Judas  with  money  received  for  the  betrayal  of 
Jesus. 


PRESBYTEEIANS  IN  ULSTER         111 

Thomas  Cornwall  graduated  at  Edinburgh  in  1694, 
and  William  "of  Ireland"  matriculated  at  Glasgow 
in  1687.  They  were  possibly  sons  of  Gabriel  Corn- 
wall who  preached  in  1656  at  two  villages  a  few 
miles  northeast  of  Coleraine,  Ballywillan  and  Bush- 
mills. The  Rev.  William  Cornwall  returned  to  Ire- 
land after  a  winter  of  hardship  in  Casco  Bay,  and 
settled  at  Taughboyne  in  1722.  He  died  March  13, 
1734-5. 

Two  ministers  whose  names  will  always  be  associ- 
ated with  the  early  life  of  the  Scotch  Irish  settlers 
in  Worcester  were  the  Rev.  Edward  FitzGerald  and 
the  Rev.  William  Johnston. 

The  Rev.  Edward  FitzGerald,  leader  of  the  com- 
pany which  settled  in  Worcester  in  1718,  deserves 
notice,  but  his  history  has  not  been  found.  An  influ- 
ential man  of  the  same  name  was  an  original  settler 
of  Boscawen,  New  Hampshire,  in  1734.1  The  last 
record  of  the  Rev.  Edward  FitzGerald  in  Worcester 
is  in  1725,  when  £2  were  recorded  in  the  Town  Treas- 
urer 's  report  as  due  "to  ye  Revd  Mr.  Fits  Gearld."2 
The  town  had  called  the  Rev.  Isaac  Burr  in  Febru- 
ary, 1725,  and  it  would  appear  that,  being  in  need 
of  a  temporary  preacher,  Mr.  FitzGerald  had  been 

1  Another  FitzGerald,  Richard  by  name,  married  at  Scituate  in 
1729,  and  was  a  Latin  schoolmaster  in  Hanover,  Massachusetts, 
from  1734  to  1746.  The  presence  of  two  educated  men  of  the  name 
in  New  England  at  this  time,  both  probably  Protestants,  suggests 
some  kinship  with  the  Rev.  Edward  FitzGerald  of  Worcester. 

3  Collections  Worcester  Society  of  Antiquity,  Vol.  2,  p.  41. 


112  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

engaged  until  the  ordination  of  Mr.  Bnrr  in  October. 
This,  however,  is  merely  a  conjecture. 

The  Rev.  William  Johnston,  born  at  Mullagh- 
moyle,  County  Tyrone  (?),  in  1710,  was  the  son  of 
William  and  Elizabeth  (Hoey)  Johnston.  After 
seven  years  at  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  he  came 
to  Worcester.  The  Presbyterians  there  endeavored 
in  March,  1736-7,  to  become  exempt  from  taxation 
for  the  support  of  the  town  church  that  they  might 
maintain  Mr.  Johnston  in  the  ministry.1 

Failing  in  this,  he  removed  to  Windham,  New 
Hampshire,  where  he  became  the  first  minister  of 
the  town  in  July,  1742.  In  July,  1752,  the  parish  had 
become  so  poor  that  he  voluntarily  withdrew  and 
settled  in  New  York  State,  dying  at  Florida,  Mont- 
gomery county,  May  10,  1782,  after  many  years  of 
service  in  various  places.2 

Of  other  Presbyterian  ministers  who  came  from 
Ireland  in  1718  or  possibly  the  year  following,  the 
most  important  in  the  Connecticut  valley3  were  the 
Rev.  John  McKinstry4  of  Sutton,  Massachusetts  and 
Ellington,  Connecticut,  the  Rev.  James  Hillhouse  of 
New  London,  and  the  Rev.  Samuel  Dorrance  of  Vol- 


1  Collections  Worcester  Society  of  Antiquity,  Vol.  2,  p.  106. 

2  See  a  sketch  of  him  in  Morrison's  Windham,  p.  607. 

3  See  an  excellent  paper  on  "The  Irish  Pioneers  of  the  Connecti- 
cut Valley"  in  Connecticut  Valley  Historical  Society  Papers,  Vol. 
2,  pp.  175-213. 

*The  genealogy  of  the  McKinstrys  has  been  published  by  the 
Hon.  William  Willis  of  Portland,  Maine. 


PRESBYTERIANS  IN  ULSTER         113 

untown.  McKinstry  was  born  at  Brode1  on  the  east- 
ern shore  of  Antrim,  near  Carrickfergus,  in  1677, 
and  took  his  Master  of  Arts  degree  at  Edinburgh  in 
1712.  Willis  believes  that  he  came  in  1718,  but  I  find 
no  record  of  him  so  early.  The  town  of  Sntton  voted 
December  25,  1719,  to  call  him  to  be  pastor  at  the 
meeting-house  which  the  people  had  recently  com- 
pleted. Later  he  moved  to  Ellington,  where  he  died 
January  20,  1754. 

The  Rev.  James  Hillhouse  was  born  about  1688, 
the  son  of  John  and  Rachel  Hillhouse,  owners  of  a 
large  estate  called  Freehall,  in  County  Londonderry. 
He  studied  at  Glasgow  under  the  famous  Professor 
Simson,  and  was  ordained  by  Derry  presbytery 
October  15,  1718.  Coming  to  America  in  1720,  he 
was  called  to  a  church  in  the  second  parish  of  New 
London  in  1722,  where  he  died  December  15,  1740. 
His  son  William  was  a  member  of  the  Continental 
Congress,  and  William's  son  James  was  a  Senator 
of  the  United  States.2  Mr.  Hillhouse 's  widow  Mary 
married  the  Rev.  John  Owen  of  Groton,  Connecticut, 
who  may  have  been  of  the  Scotch  Irish  connection. 
Her  third  choice  was  also  a  minister,  so  that  she  was 
said  to  have  spent  her  life  "near  the  altar.' '  This 
third  husband,  the  Rev.  Samuel  Dorrance,  was  en- 


1  Brod  appears  in  the  Hibernian  Atlas,  but  does  not  appear  in  the 
printed  list  of  townlands. 

2  See  Bacon's  Sketch  of  the  Hon.  James  Hillhouse,  New  Haven, 
1860.  James,  uncle  of  the  emigrant,  was  mayor  of  Londonderry 
in  1693.     Abraham  Hillhouse  was  at  the  siege. 


114 


SCOTCH   IEISH  PIONEERS 


tered  as  an  Anglo -Hibernian  at  Glasgow  University 
in  1709.  He  is  said  to  have  studied  divinity  at  Edin- 
burgh, although  his  name  does  not  appear  in  the 
printed  list  of  graduates ;  was  licensed  by  Dunbar- 
ton  presbytery  in  Scotland,  and  in  1719  was  re- 
ported as  received  by  the  Presbytery  of  Coleraine, 
his  testimonials  having  been  read  by  the  Synod  of 
Derry.  He  settled  in  Voluntown,  now  Stirling,  Con- 
necticut, bringing  with  him  several  brothers  and 
friends  who  became  leaders  in  the  community.  Dor- 
rance  was  ordained  in  1723,  not  without  opposition 
from  those  who  opposed  Presbyterian  proclivities. 

1  Signers  of  the  Westminster  Confession  at  Voluntown: 


Samuel  Dorrance 
Robert  Gordon 
Thomas   Cole 
John    Kasson 
John  Campbell 
Robert    Campbell 
Samuel  Campbell 
John  Gordon 
Alexander   Gordon 
Ebenezer   Dow 
John  Keigwin 
William  Hamilton 
Robert  Hopkin 
John  Smith 
Daniel  Dill 
Thomas  Welch 
Jacob  Bacon 
^=^».Daniel  Cass 
John  Dorrance 

— Larned's 


George  Dorrance 
Samuel  Church,  Jun. 
John  Dorrance,  Jun. 
Nathaniel  Deane 
Vincent   Patterson 
Robert  Miller 
Patrick  Parke 
Samuel   Church 
Adam  Kasson 
William  Kasson 
David  Hopkins 
Charles  Campbell 
Nath.  French 
John  Gibson 
James  Hopkins 
John  Parke 
Robert  Parke 
William  Rogers 
John  Gallup 
Windham  County,  Conn.,  Vol.  1,  p.  250. 


PRESBYTERIANS  IN  ULSTER         115 

In  1750  this  opposition  became  aroused,  but 
again  subsided,  and  their  pastor  was  allowed  to 
serve  until  March  5,  1771,  when  he  was  dismissed. 
Dorrance  died  November  12,  1775,  at  the  age  of 
ninety,  leaving  a  large  family.  The  first  members  of 
the  church  were  asked  to  subscribe  to  the  Westmin- 
ster Confession  of  Faith.  The  English  settlers  held 
aloof,  but  the  Scotch  friends  of  Mr.  Dorrance  very 
generally  signed.  One  might  properly  ask  whether 
Dorrance  had  been  long  enough  in  Ireland  to  gather 
a  following,  or  whether  the  Voluntown  settlers  came 
from  Scotland.  Since  he  was  accepted  by  the  Pres- 
bytery of  Coleraine  it  seems  probable  that  he  came 
there  to  live,  and  finding  many  bent  on  migration 
joined  in  their  well  matured  plans.1 

Two  of  the  earliest  Scotch  Irish  ministers  in  west- 
ern Massachusetts,  where  Presbyterian  influences 
grew  rapidly,  were  the  Rev.  John  Harvey  and  the 
Rev.  Robert  Abercrombie.  Harvey  was  ordained  at 
Palmer,  then  known  as  "The  Elbows,"  June  5, 1734, 
and  resigned  in  1747,  when  he  removed  to  Bland- 
ford  to  be  with  his  Scotch  Irish  friends  in  that  set- 
tlement. 

The  Rev.  Robert  Abercrombie  came  to  Boston  late 
in  1740  with  testimonials  from  the  Presbytery  of 
Kirkcaldy  in  Scotland,  and  from  the  Rev.  Mr.  Wil- 
son of  Perth.  He  settled  in  Pelham  in  1744  and 
after  a  useful  but  somewhat  troubled  career  died 
during  the  Revolutionary  period. 


116  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

Of  the  many  ministers  who  served  the  Maine  coast 
settlers  several  deserve  notice.  The  Rev.  William 
Cornwall  who  spent  the  winter  of  1718-19  at  Fal- 
mouth, and  the  Rev.  James  Woodside,  an  early  min- 
ister at  Brunswick,  have  both  been  mentioned.  Lit- 
tle is  known  at  present  of  the  Rev.  Hugh  Campbell, 
Master  of  Arts  at  Edinburgh  in  1714,  who  spent 
a  year  at  Scarboro,  Maine,  in  1720,  and  was  followed 
by  the  Rev.  Hugh  Henry  in  June,  1722.  The  Rev. 
Robert  Rutherford,  perhaps  a  student  at  Glasgow 
in  1708,  was  ordained  at  Ahma-Carte  March  23, 
1714,  came  over  with  the  Dunbar  migration  in  1729, 
and  preached  at  Bristol,  Nobleboro,  and  Boothbay 
in  Maine.  He  was  minister  at  Brunswick  from  about 
1735  to  1742,  and  died  at  Thomaston  October  18, 
1756,  aged  68.  The  Rev.  Robert  Dunlap  of  Bruns- 
wick, Maine,  was  born  in  County  Antrim,  Ireland,  in 
August,  1715.  He  studied  at  the  University  of  Edin- 
burgh, received  his  Master  of  Arts  degree  about 
1734,  and  embarked  for  America  in  the  spring  of 
1736.  He  was  wrecked  on  the  Isle  of  Sable  and 
landed  at  the  Isle  of  Canso.  In  December,  1746, 
Brunswick  voted  to  invite  Mr.  Dunlap  to  preach  on 
probation.  He  was  ordained  at  the  Protestant 
French  Church  in  Boston  the  next  year,  and 
preached  at  Brunswick  until  October,  1760.  He 
died  June  26,  1776.  The  Rev.  William  Mc- 
Clanethan  of  Georgetown,  Maine,  was  employed 
to  preach  for  several  years,  beginning  in  1734,  but 


PEESBYTERIANS  IN  ULSTER         117 

having  no  settlement.  He  moved  to  Blandf  ord,  Mas- 
sachusetts, in  1744.  The  Rev.  Alexander  Boyd  of 
New-Castle,  Maine,  labored  there  first  in  1754.  The 
presence  of  many  Congregationalists  raised  dissen- 
tion  soon  after,  and  he  was  removed  in  1758.  He 
had  studied  divinity  at  Glasgow,  and  being  approved 
by  the  Boston  presbytery  in  1749  he  preached  at 
Georgetown,  Maine,  and  elsewhere  on  the  Kennebec 
for  a  year  or  two.1 

In  looking  back  over  this  rather  cursory  survey  of 
the  Ulster  clergy  we  find  that  the  migration  of 
1718-20  did  not  noticeably  injure  the  Presbyterian 
ministry  in  Ireland  where  the  Churches  were  well 
organized,  and  the  leaders  as  a  whole  intelligent, 
prosperous  and  reasonably  free  from  tyranny  of 
law.  If  it  had  any  effect  it  was  upon  the  growing 
tide  in  later  years.  Men  like  McGregor  and  Homes 
represented  a  worthy  standard,  and  their  example 
must  have  influenced  many  in  Ulster.  A  few,  com- 
ing without  proper  credentials,  or  under  a  cloud, 
were  less  worthy  of  favor,  but  they  had  little  effect 
upon  public  opinion.  Other  considerations  often 
prejudiced  the  native  clergymen  and  laymen. 

The  New  England  people  after  a  century  out  of 

Jonathan  Greenleafs  Ecclesiastical  Sketches,  pp.  77-79.  The 
Rev.  John  Murray  of  Boothbay,  Maine,  first  began  a  brilliant  min- 
istry there  in  1763,  a  period  rather  too  late  to  have  influenced 
events  described  in  these  pages.  His  early  life  was  less  to  his 
credit,  and  President  Stiles  of  Yale  devoted  much  space  in  his 
Diary  to  a  review  of  Murray's  sins. 


118  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

England  were  still,  as  Professor  Wendell  has  said, 
essentially  Elizabethan ;  their  speech  and  their  hab- 
its, their  polity  and  their  ideals  conld  not  be  in  har- 
mony with  Scotch  character  developed  on  Irish 
soil,  for  the  Scotch  Irish  were  of  the  Hanoverian 
age.  Where  the  early  settlers  were  in  a  minority 
they  tolerated  a  Presbyterian  minister,  or  even  came 
to  love  him;  but  Presbyterianism  did  not  thrive  in 
New  England,  where  the  English  stock  and  the  Con- 
gregational polity  were  all-powerful. 


VII 
AGHADOWEY  AND   THE   SESSION  BOOK 

The  Presbyterian  records  of  Ulster  will  in  good 
time  yield  a  great  store  of  information,  of  interest 
alike  to  the  student  of  religion  and  genealogy.  The 
official  minutes  of  the  Synod  of  Ulster  are  in  print 
and  have  been  invaluable  in  the  preparation  of  these 
pages.  But  the  records  of  the  smaller  organization, 
the  presbytery,  and  the  accounts  of  local  congrega- 
tions have  never  been  published.  These,  when  gath- 
ered together  and  made  accessible  to  the  student, 
will  reveal,  with  a  wealth  of  detail,  the  incidents  of 
village  life  in  Protestant  Ireland  at  a  period  when 
out  of  almost  every  family  group  some  member 
crossed  the  ocean  to  seek  his  fortune  in  America. 

The  records  of  the  Presbytery  of  Coleraine,  if 
they  survive,  will  one  day  throw  light  on  the  migra- 
tion to  America.  The  most  important  town  in 
certain  respects  of  all  those  in  the  Presbytery  was 
Aghadowey,  the  home  of  the  Eev.  James  McGregor. 
In  his  day  the  people  were,  many  of  them,  very  poor. 
Today  smoke  curls  from  the  same  gable-end  chim- 
neys to  tell  of  a  more  contented  life  within  the  an- 
cient walls.  The  dark  thatch  of  the  cottages  is  in 
picturesque  contrast  to  their  white  walls,  and  the 


120 


SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 


white  gates  mark  openings  in  the  long,  thrifty 
hedges.  Sometimes  bounds  of  field  stone  take  the 
place  of  hedges ;  and  there  are  fine  trees  arching  over 
excellent  roads.     An  American,  looking  at  the  eager 


in  J 


Wall  and  Ikon  Gates  Enclosing  the  Site  of  the 

Rev.  James  McGregor's  Meeting  House 

The  present  Presbyterian  Church  in  the  Distance 

young  faces  that  crowd  the  cabin  doorway,  might  ask 
if  a  torrent  of  rain  must  not  send  its  flood  over  the 
slightly  raised  threshold  onto  the  stone  floor  within. 
But  there  each  generation  has  kept  a  fire  upon  the 
hearth  and  broth  in  the  kettle.  And  are  not  these  the 
best  answers  to  any  doubting  traveller? 


AGHADOWEY'S  SESSION  BOOK       121 

The  importance  of  Aghadowey  and  the  Eev. 
James  McGregor  in  the  history  of  Scotch  Irish 
emigration  gives  prominence  to  the  Aghadowey 
Session  Book,  recently  presented  by  the  Misses 
Thompson  of  Cullycapple,  Aghadowey,  to  the  Pres- 
byterian Historical  Society  of  Ireland,  and  pre- 
served at  Belfast.  This  long  ledger-like  book  pre- 
serves the  records  from  the  end  of  1702  to  the  year 
1733,  covering  the  ministry  of  McGregor  and  the 
larger  part  of  the  troubled  non-snbscribing  career  of 
the  Rev.  John  Elder.  McGregor  acted  as  clerk  from 
1704  to  the  time  of  his  departure.  He  was  quartered 
with  one  of  the  elders,  and  had  a  protracted  strug- 
gle to  obtain  from  his  poor  flock  a  separate  roof  for 
his  increasing  family  and  bread  for  their  main- 
tenance. 

The  twenty-first  session,  and  the  first  to  be  noticed 
in  this  book  of  records,  was  held  December  1,  1702, 
with  these  members:  "Mr.  James  McGregore,  Da- 
vid Miller,  Hugh  Eeed,  John  Shirila  [Shirley],  Dan- 
iel McRelis,  Robert  Archbold,  Mosses  Dillape  [Dun- 
lap],  Arthur  Bapti,  David  Cargill,  and  Hugh  Ken- 
nedy.' '  Dunlap  and  Cargill  were  absent.  The  next 
entry  reads : 

' '  Directions  from  (        A  letter  from  the  presbtry  to 

ye  Presbtry      |   be  comunicated  concerning  the 

payment  of  steipends  &  a  f  [arm]  &  lodgings  to  our 

minister  this  session  apoin[ts]  the  former  colectors 


122  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEERS 

to  use  there  u[tmost]  diligence  to  gett  in  the  Re- 
mainders of  the  steipends  &  Resolves  npon  another 
Method  for  the  Holintyde  steipends  &  that  this  allso 
to  [be]  mannaged  wt  all  diligence.  As  to  the  farm 
they  promise  to  nse  there  endeavours  to  pro  [cure] 
a  farm  as  soone  as  possible  &  that  they  [are]  agreed 
that  his  Quarters  be  where  formerly.' ' 

More  members  of  the  session  were  needed,  and  the 
following  who  were  "judged  fitt  for  the  work"  were 
warned  to  be  present:  "John  Given,  Thomas  Will- 
son,  John  Shirila,  Junyr,  John  Browstr  [Brewster], 
John  Buy  [Boyce?],  John  Thomson,  John  Gold  [or 
Gould],  Thomas  Nickel,  and  Hugh  Hendry  [or 
Henry  ]." 

At  the  twenty-second  session,  held  January  26, 
1702-3  "at  the  little  house,' '  the  list  of  grants  to  the 
poor  seems  to  justify  a  remark  in  Mr.  J.  W.  Kerno- 
han's  description  of  the  manuscript,  written  for  the 
December  number  (1909)  of  the  Irish  Presbyterian. 
"At  one  point,"  he  says,  "a  wail  is  uttered  by  the 
Session  about  the  extraordinary  number  of  poor,  for 
at  every  meeting  there  was  a  regular  distribution  of 
charity. ' '  The  records  state  that  grants  were  made 
to 

S.  D. 

James  Boyd  for  burial  of  daughter         1-6 
Grany  OCahan  1-6 

Jenet  Brown  8 


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AGHADOWEY'S  SESSION  BOOK       125 


William  Anderson 
Eobert  Alison 
John  Gillmore 
Nealy  0  Cahan 
Jean  Kearns 
Margaret  Miller 


S.   D. 

6 

3-0 

1-0 

1-0 

8 

8 

10-6 


To  raise  the  money  needed  for  these  benefactions 
required  collectors  for  each  quarter,  ' l  North,  South, 
East  and  West."  Those  appointed  were  Kennedy, 
Cargill,  Miller,  Archbold,  Nickel,  Dunlap,  Henry, 
William  Wallace  and  Eobert  Hunter. 

At  the  Session  held  December  19, 1715,  the  follow- 
ing grants  were  recorded : 

Silvanus  Brooks  1-6 

Marth  McLevenny  1-0 

Eliz  Murch11  1-0 

George  McFarland  1-0 

Jen*  McElchiner  1-0 

Will.  Bouie  1-6 

Jas.  Gilmor  8 

Hugh  Millar  1-0 

Isab.  Porter  1-6 

Alice  Higins  8 

Hellen  Gilmor  1-0 


126  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

The  records  which  cover  the  period  of  Mr.  Mc- 
Gregor's ministry  throw  many  side  lights  on  social 
life.  Complaint  was  made  that  Captain  Hngh  Blair, 
who  moved  into  town  in  1703-4,  did  not  present  a 
certificate  of  his  membership  elsewhere.  He  came 
to  occupy,  perhaps,  the  famons  Aghadowey  or 
Blair's  House  which  stood  near  the  church.  Dr. 
Hugh  S.  Morrison,  in  a  letter  dated  December  25, 
1909,  speaks  of  a  visit  to  this  house  the  day  before, 
of  its  modern  stone  finish  with  bow  windows,  and  its 
walls  in  parts  six  feet  thick,  showing  marks  of  port 
holes  which  have  been  filled  up.  In  the  garret  are 
two  large  chests  or  ' l  arks, ' '  lined  with  tin,  and  bound 
with  primitive  wrought  iron  bands  and  hinges.  Here 
meal  was  stored,  perhaps  for  the  defenders  of  Derry. 

Lapses  from  the  standards  imposed  by  social  life 
are  the  source  of  many  entries  in  the  records.  In 
1702-3  Mary  Clark  was  ordered  to  appear  publicly 
before  the  Congregation  to  confess  her  too  free  con- 
duct with  James  Cochran,  a  soldier  in  the  year  1689. 

At  the  twenty-fourth  session,  in  1704,  the  old 
adage  "the  better  the  day  the  better  the  deed" 
seems  to  have  been  disregarded:  "It  haveing  been 
evident  to  this  session  that  John  Boyd  did  Joyn  in 
company  wt  David  Lawson  to  bring  away  Mr  Wil- 
liam Hustown's  daughter  unknown  to  her  parrents 
upon  the  sabath  day  in  order  to  be  Maryed  to  the 
said  Lawson  &  being  very  Active  in  this  Affair  upon 
the  sabath  day,  this  being  a  general  offence  to  this 


AGHADOWEY'S  SESSION  BOOK       127 

session  and  to  all  good  people,  this  session  apoints 
Hugh  Hendry  to  cite  John  Boyd  to  our  next  session, 
the  foresd  Lawson  not  receeding  in  this  congrega- 
tion we  cannot  cite  him." 

During  the  spring  of  the  year  1715  Hugh  Mont- 
gomery, the  same  Hugh  who  came  to  New  England, 
was  paying  his  court  to  Miss  Jane  Cargill,  whose  sis- 
ters, Mrs.  McGregor  of  Aghadowey,  Mrs.  Gregg  of 
Macosquin,  and  Mrs.  McKeen  of  Ballymoney  (as- 
suming that  they  all  were  married  at  this  time) 
formed  an  influential  family  circle.  Perhaps  Hugh 
found  some  difficulty  in  getting  within  this  circle.  At 
any  rate,  he  and  Miss  Jane  got  beyond  the  circle's 
outer  bound  and  found  themselves  in  far  off  Bally- 
mena.  There  they  were  married  on  the  22d  of  May, 
not  by  a  minister  but  by  the  faith's  arch  enemy 
Eobert  Donald,  "curate  of  Bellymenoch.,,  All  of 
which  is  sworn  to  by  John  Freeland  and  William 
Hodge,  as  if  Mr.  Donald's  certificate  was  not  evi- 
dence enough.  The  records  state  that  Hugh  "ac- 
knowledgth  the  disorder  of  his  marriage  &  profess- 
eth  his  sorrow  for  it,"  glad  we  may  be  sure  that  this 
confession  was  permitted  to  be  made  before  the  Ses- 
sion instead  of  to  the  Congregation. 

Others  mentioned  the  same  year  were  Thomas 
Turner  and  Marion  Hunter,  and  also  Hugh  Tor- 
rence. 

Mr.  McGregor's  last  appearance  at  a  Session  was 
on  April  11,  1718.    The  next  meeting  was  held  April 


128 


SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 


Residence  of  Db.  Hugh  S.  Morrison  at  Aghadowey,  Ireland 

29,  1719,  when  the  business  referred  altogether  to 
settlement  of  the  accounts  of  the  Congregation, 
showing  a  balance  of  Is.  Od.  remaining  in  David 
Millar's  hands.  "This  is  in  his  hand  when  all  the 
Accounts  are  settled  since  our  Minist.  Left  us 
as  wittnes 

Mat  Clerk.' ' 


The  village  street  in  Aghadowey  is  now  called 
Ardreagh.  Near  it  there  is  a  tall  chimney  of  a 
bleaching  green.  The  thatched  cottages  along  the 
road  were  built  between  1690  and  1700,  yet  they  are 


AGHADOWEY'S  SESSION  BOOK       129 

tidy  and  comfortable,  and  are  still  occupied  by  the 
heirs  of  the  Scotch  Irish  who  did  not  cross  the  At- 
lantic. There  are  in  Aghadowey  several  country 
mansions,  including  the  residence  of  Dr.  Hugh  S. 


Lizard  Manor,  Aghadowey 

Home  of  Charles  E.   S.  Stronge,  Esq.,  J.  P.,  D.  L. 

(From  a  photograph  by  Miss  Stronge) 

Morrison,  near  Two  Bridges,  and  the  seat  of  Charles 
E.  S.  Stronge,  Esq.,  known  as  Lizard  Manor,  once 
the  Manor  House  of  the  Worshipful  Company  of 
Ironmongers,  of  London. 


VIII 

THE  AEEIVAL  OF  "FIVE  SHIPS' '  IN 
AUGUST,  1718 

It  would  not  be  difficult  to  picture  to  ourselves  the 
excitement  produced  by  the  preparations  of  those 
who  contemplated  removing  to  America.  Families 
were  closely  allied  in  Ulster,  and  the  affairs  of  each 
one  interested  a  wide  circle.  The  itinerant  weaver 
brought  from  Dublin  tales  of  the  New  World,  more 
or  less  accurate  accounts  of  the  life  across  the  At- 
lantic, derived  from  ship  captains,  or  even  from 
American  students  at  the  University  there.  The 
frequent  assignment  of  ministers  for  temporary 
service  in  other  parishes  than  their  own  was  a  means 
of  carrying  the  news.  A  few  years  after  Boyd  set 
forth  Archbishop  Boulter  said  that  the  desire  for 
emigration  had  gone  through  Ulster  like  a  fever; 
and  we  may  well  believe  that  letters  from  Cotton 
Mather,  William  Homes  and  Thomas  Craighead  had 
great  influence. 

There  was  much  to  be  done  by  a  family  before 
removal.  A  supply  of  food,  clothing  and  bedding 
was  necessary;  and  the  house-hold  goods  had  to  be 
packed  for  the  long  voyage.  The  land,  the  farm  ani- 
mals and  the  heavier  tools  must  be  sold.    These  were 


ARRIVAL  OF  FIVE  SHIPS  181 

busy  days,  and  the  partings  must  have  been  hard 
for  all,  nnless  friends  hoped  to  follow  soon.  In  leav- 
ing their  Churches  the  emigrants  did  not  fail  to  pro- 
cure testimonials  of  good  standing  to  be  used  in 
forming  fresh  religious  ties  in  New  England.  We 
find  mention  of  these  testimonials  at  Rutland,  at 
Needham,  Middleboro  and  elsewhere,  but  rarely  the 
actual  text.  That  brought  over  by  William  Cald- 
well, one  of  the  defenders  of  Londonderry,  was  lost 
only  a  few  years  ago.  It  was  written  on  parchment 
the  size  of  a  half  sheet  of  note  paper  i1 

"The  bearer,  William  Caldwell,  his  wife  Sarah 
Morrison,  with  his  children,  being  designed  to  go  to 
New  England  in  America — These  are  therefore  to 
testifie  they  leave  us  without  scandal,  lived  with  us 
soberly  and  inoffensively,  and  may  be  admitted  to 
Church  priviledges.  Given  at  Dunboe  Aprile  9, 1718, 
by  Jas.  Woodside,  Jr.  Minister."2 

Parker,  in  his  History  of  Londonderry,  says  that 
the  pioneers  ' '  embarked  in  five  ships  for  Boston,  and 
arrived  there  August  4,  1718.' '  This  statement  has 
been  repeated  wherever  the  Scotch  Irish  have  been 
mentioned,  but  with  no  added  information  since 
Parker 's  day.  In  one  place  only  can  the  names  of 
the  ships  be  found,  and  it  is  not  a  little  strange  that 
no  student  of  the  subject  up  to  this  time  has  had  the 


1  Mr.  Edmund  M.  Barton  obtained  these  facts  from  Mrs.  Charles 
E.  Stevens,  daughter  of  Seth  Caldwell  of  Barre. 

2Barre  Anniversary,  1874,  p.  205.  The  "Jr."  is  omitted  here- 
after. 


132  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

curiosity  to  bring  these  names  to  light.  They  are  to 
many  thousands  of  people  as  important  as  the  May- 
flower and  the  Speedwell  are  to  those  of  pilgrim 
descent.  Only  one  newspaper  was  being  issued  in 
North  America  in  1718,  and  of  the  files  for  July, 
August  and  September  but  one  copy  of  each  issue  is 
known  to  exist.  At  the  rooms  of  the  Massachusetts 
Historical  Society  I  examined  these  papers,  and  here 
print  every  known  detail  regarding  arrivals  from 
Ireland  at  the  port  of  Boston  for  these  three  months. 

It  is  our  phenomenal  good  fortune  that  at  this 
precise  moment  a  gentleman  in  Boston  was  watch- 
ing each  ship  as  it  discharged  its  passengers,  and 
was  writing  his  impressions  to  Governor  Winthrop 
of  Connecticut.  The  Scotch  Irish  had  no  "William 
Bradford  nor  John  Winthrop  to  chronicle  their 
transplanting,  but  the  Boston  News-Letter  and 
Thomas  Lechmere's  letters  give  us  a  not  unworthy 
picture  of  the  arrival  nearly  two  centuries  ago.  To 
these  sources  let  us  add  the  diary  of  Cotton  Mather, 
the  patron  of  the  "poor  Scotch.' ' 

The  News-Letter  for  July  21-28  mentions  the 
arrival  from  Ireland  of  the  ship  "William  and 
Mary,"  James  Montgomery,  master;  the  issue  for 
August  25-September  1  states  that  she  had  cleared 
for  Dublin. 

The  "William  and  Mary"  brought  over  the  Rev. 
William  Boyd  of  Macosquin,  the  leader  of  the  move- 


ABEIVAL  OF  FIVE  SHIPS  133 

ment ;  and  Cotton  Mather  writes  July  25th :  "  A  min- 
ister arrived  from  Ireland,  wth  Instructions  to  en- 
quire after  ye  circumstances  of  this  countrey1  in 
order  to  ye  coming  of  many  more,  gives  me  an  oppor- 
tunity for  many  services.' ' 

The  next  day  Mather  says : 

"The  many  Families  arriving  from  Ireland,  will 
afford  me  many  opportunities,  for  kindness  to  ye 
Indigent."  Mather  here  uses  "arriving"  to  mean 
"about  to  arrive,' '  having  found  through  conversa- 
tion with  Mr.  Boyd  that  many  settlers  were  on  their 
way  from  Ireland. 

The  first  of  the  Scotch-Irish  emigrant  ships  is  re- 
ferred to  in  the  News-Letter  of  July  28-August  4 
as  from  Londonderry,  John  Wilson,  master,  but  the 
ship's  name  is  not  given.  She  probably  came  in  on 
the  28th,  for  Lechmere,  having  been  instructed  by 
his  brother-in-law  Winthrop  to  find  a  suitable  miller 
among  incoming  passengers,  wrote  on  the  28th  at 
"Eleven  of  ye  Clock  at  night":  "Shipps  are  come- 
ing  in  hourly,  but  no  news ;  Irish  f amilys  enough ; 
above  200  souls  are  come  in  allready,  &  many  now 
hourly  expected ;  so  that  I  wish  you  were  here ;  they 
are  none  to  be  sold,  have  all  paid  their  passages 
sterls  in  Ireland;  they  come  upon  some  encourage- 
ment to  settle  upon  some  unimproved  Lands,  upon 
what  other  Towns  I  know  not. "... 


1This  seems  to  disprove  the  theory  referred  to  by  Professor 
Perry  that  Boyd  "stayed  the  summer  in  Boston." 


134  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEERS 

Tlie  next  issue  of  the  News-Letter  seems  to  refer 
to  this  arrival  in  the  following  advertisement : ' '  Sun- 
dry Boys  times  for  Years  by  Indentures,  young 
Women  and  Girls  by  the  Year,  portable  Linnen, 
Woolen  and  Beef  to  be  disposed  of  by  Mr.  William 
Wilson  at  his  Warehouse  in  Merchants  Row,  Bos- 
ton." 

It  may  seem  difficult  to  harmonize  the  varying 
views  of  Mather  and  Lechmere  as  to  the  standing  of 
these  emigrants,  but  Lechmere  was  interested  in  the 
better  class,  men  with  trades  who  had  left  remuner- 
ative occupations  to  come  to  New  England,  and 
they  of  course  paid  their  passage-money  before  their 
arrival  here.  In  the  same  ships  came  kinsmen  who 
had  no  property  and  could  cross  the  ocean  only  by 
agreeing  to  work  out  their  passage-money.  The 
passengers  of  this  kind  probably  became  the  Worces- 
ter Colony.  And  with  them  were  a  few  ignorant 
adventurers  who  came  over  as  indentured  servants 
to  try  their  fortunes ;  in  these  Mather  as  a  minister 
felt  a  kindly  interest.  But  there  is  evidence  that  in 
several  of  the  ships  of  July  and  August  there  were 
many  prosperous,  religious  families  from  the  coun- 
ties of  Londonderry  and  Antrim,  influenced  to  mi- 
grate by  Boyd,  McGregor,  McKeen,  Gregg  and  other 
leaders. 

The  second  emigrant  ship  reached  Boston  on  the 
4th  of  August,  the  traditional  date  of  arrival  among 
the  descendants  of  the  settlers  of  the  New  Hamp- 


AERIVAL  OF  FIVE  SHIPS  135 

shire  Londonderry.  The  vessel  is  referred  to  in  the 
News-Letter  of  August  4-11  as  the  brigantine  "  Rob- 
ert,' '  James  Ferguson,  master,  "from  Glasgow  and 
Belfast  in  Ireland. ' '  The  same  day  Lechmere,  writ- 
ing to  Winthrop  for  himself  and  his  wife  Ann,  says : 
"I  have  this  day  according  [to]  yor  directions  made 
Enquiry  after  a  miller,  &  a  Vessel  comeing  in  this 
day  from  Scottland,  I  find  there  is  a  young  fellow  of 
about  24  years  of  age.  .  .  .  This  day  are  likewise 
Severall  Vessells  come  in  from  all  Parts,  but  no 
News ;  I  am  of  Opinion  all  the  north  of  Irland  will 
be  over  here  in  a  little  time,  here  being  another  Ves- 
sell  y*  is  a  Third,  with  Irish  familys  come  in,  &  5 
more,  as  they  say,  expected,  &  if  their  report  be  true, 
as  I  this  day  heard,  if  the  Encouragem"  given  to 
these  be  liked  at  Irland ;  20  ministers  with  their  con- 
gregations in  generall  will  come  over  in  Spring;  I 
wish  their  comeing  so  over  do  not  prove  f  atall  in  the 
End."  Lechmere 's  letter  settles  the  point  that  the 
ship  which  arrived  about  the  25th  with  Mr.  Boyd  did 
not  bring  Scotch  emigrants.    We  have  then: 

July  28th!  ,  John  Wilson,  from  London- 
derry. 

August  4th.  Robert,  James  Ferguson,  from  Glas- 
gow and  Belfast. 

August  4th.  William,  Archibald  Hunter,  from 
Coleraine. 

The  third  Scotch  Irish  emigrant  ship,  the  "Wil- 
liam, ' '  set  sail  from  Coleraine,  the  heart  of  the  dis- 


136  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

trict  from  which  most  of  the  early  settlers  came. 
The  News-Letter  of  August  4r-ll  mentions  the  ship 
" William,' '  Archibald  Hunter,  from  Coleraine;  she 
cleared  for  Ireland  the  last  week  in  August.  Lech- 
mere  refers  to  her  as  the  third  ship  with  Irish  fam- 
ilies that  had  arrived,  and  states  that  she  and  the 
" Robert"  entered  on  the  same  day. 

Cotton  Mather's  dream  of  a  great  migration  from 
Protestant  Ireland  was  coming  true.  On  the  7th  of 
August  he  writes :  "But  what  shall  be  done  for  the 
great  Numbers  of  people,  that  are  transporting 
themselves  thither  from  ye  North  of  Ireland : — Much 
may  be  done  for  ye  Kingdom  of  God  in  these  parts 
of  ye  world,  by  this  Transportation. "  A  month 
later,  September  13th,  he  says:  "Among  ye  Fam- 
ilies arrived  from  Ireland,  I  find  many  &  wondrous 
objects  for  my  compassions.  Among  other  meth- 
ods of  helping  ym,  I  would  enclose  a  sum  of  money 
wth  a  Nameless  Letter,  unto  one  of  their  ministers  to 
be  distributed  among  ym." 

Although  these  emigrants  were  viewed  with  dis- 
trust by  most  New  Englanders,  the  two  chief  figures 
in  Boston  at  this  time,  Mather  and  fiflirmeljjjewall, 
showed  their  ministers  marked  courtesy.  On  the 
9th  of  August,  Sewall  writes  in  his  diary  that  at 
seven  "Mr.  Macgregor  and  Mr.  Boyd  dine  with  me 
and  my  Son  J.  S.  and  James  Clark.  Gave  the  Scots 
Ministers  each  of  them  one  of  my  Proposals.' ' 

Meanwhile  Winthrop  wrote  from  Connecticut  that 


The  Winthkop  Mill  at  New  London 


AEEIVAL  OF  FIVE  SHIPS  139 

the  miller  whom  Lechmere  had  selected  was  too  ex- 
pensive and  hinted  that  his  brother-in-law  had  been 
overreached.  Lechmere  was  an  improvident  aristo- 
crat, brother  to  Lord  Lechmere,  and  Winthrop  had 
reason  at  this  time  and  later  on  to  question  the  judg- 
ment of  this  husband  of  his  sister.  Lechmere  replied 
rather  hotly,  and  his  estimate  of  the  Scotch  Irish, 
while  not  entirely  reliable  under  these  circumstances, 
is  worthy  of  record.  The  letter  is  dated  at  Boston 
August  11,  1718,  and  reads:  "As  to  ye  Miller,  the 
price  is  really  as  you  are  informed  &  whoever  tells 
you  that  Servants  are  cheaper  now  then  they  were, 
it  is  a  very  gross  mistake,  &  give  me  leave  to  tell 
you  your  Informer  has  given  you  a  very  wrong 
information  about  ye  cheapness  thereof,  for  never 
were  they  dearer  then  now,  there  being  such  demand 
for  them,  &  likewise  pray  tell  him  he  is  much  out  of 
the  way  to  think  that  these  Irish  are  Servants,  they 
are  generally  men  of  Estates,  &  are  come  over  hither 
for  no  other  reason  but  upon  Encouragement  sent 
from  hence  upon  notice  given  ym  they  should  have  so 
many  acres  of  Land  given  them  gratis  to  settle  our 
frrontiers  as  a  barrier  against  ye  Indians ;  therefore 
ye  notion  given  you  hereof  is  absolutely  groundless ; 
the  price  of  the  Miller  as  proposed  was  20£  &  did 
not  think  of  selling  his  time  under  sd  sum,  but  since 
I  wrote  you  he  tells  me  would  not  stand  with  me  for 
20  or  30  £ — thinking  I  should  pay  him  ready  money 
for  him.    It  is  now  too  late  to  think  any  thing  farther 


140  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

of  him.  Many  inquireing  after  him,  &  lie  was  kept 
for  yor  answer,  which  I  think  is  somewhat  darke,  but 
lett  that  be  what  it  will,  could  I  advance  so  much 
bank  stock,  wh  is  very  low,  I  should  still  endeavr  to 
gett  him,  &  so  it  being  out  of  my  power  I  must  wholly 
desist  from  any  such  thought.  I  know  yor  necessity 
is  such  I  would  willingly  do  anything  for  yr  interest 
was  I  capable.    .    .    . 

Yor  Very  Affect6  Bro  &  Serv* 

Thos  Lechmere 

I  should  be  glad  you  would  send  my  Gunn  down  by 
some  body  or  other.  These  confounded  Irish  will 
eat  us  all  up  provisions  being  most  extravagantly 
dear  &  scarce  of  all  sorts.' ' 

The  News-Letter  which  notices  the  arrival  of  the 
ship  "William"  mentions  also  the  ship  "Mary 
Anne,"  Andrew  Watt,  master,  from  Dublin;  she 
cleared  about  a  fortnight  later  for  Great  Britain.1 

It  is  doubtful  if  the  "Mary  Anne"  brought  any 
Scotch  Protestants  from  Dublin  as  part  of  the  Bann 
Valley  company.  But  the  emigrants  on  the  other 
ships  beheld  what  must  have  been  an  unprecedented 


xThe  same  issue  of  the  News-Letter  has  this  advertisement: 
"Newly  Imported  and  to  he  disposed  of  at  reasonable  Rates  by 
Messieurs  Tho  Steel  and  Geo  Bethune,  at  their  Warehouse  in 
Merchants  Row,  Boston,  sundry  European  Goods,  viz  Iron,  Cord- 
age, Broadcloths,  Stuffs,  Linnens  and  Madera  Wines:  Also 
Servants  bound  by  Indenture,  some  four  and  some  for  five  Years 
to  be  seen  on  board  the  'Mary  Anne'  Andrew  Watt  Commander 
now  at  Anchor  near  the  end  of  the  Long  Wharff,  Boston." 


AEEIVAL  OF  FIVE  SHIPS  141 

sight  in  Boston  harbor,  five  ships  from  Ireland  lying 
at  anchor  at  the  same  time,  the  "  William  and 
Mary,"  the  ship  of  the  unknown  name,  the  "Rob- 
ert,"  the  ' 'William' '  and  the  "Mary  Anne."  This 
doubtless  made  a  deep  and  lasting  impression  upon 
minds  alert  to  every  new  sight  and  thought  as  the 
emigrants  were  borne  slowly  up  the  beautiful  bay. 

A  month  later  a  second  ship  from  Dublin,  the 
"Dolphin,"  John  Mackay,  master,  came  in.  The 
News-Letter  which  notices  her  arrival  has  this  to  say 
of  her  cargo : 

"Just  arrived  the  Pink  'Dolphin'  John  Mackay, 
Master,  with  Servants,  Boys,  Tradesmen,  Husband- 
men, and  Maids,  to  be  disposed  of  by  Mr  John 
Walker,  at  his  Warehouse  at  the  lower  end  of  Wood- 
mansy  WharfT  in  Merchants  Row,  or  at  Mr  Benja- 
min Walker's  House  over  against  the  Town  House, 
Boston." 

There  were  few  if  any  Scotch  Irish  on  the  "Dol- 
phin," but  on  the  first  of  September  a  fourth  emi- 
grant ship  arrived,  the  "Maccallum,"  James  Law, 
master,  from  Londonderry.  Lechmere  states  that 
she  brought  "20  odd  familys,"  and  among  the  pas- 
sengers was  probably  a  Scotch  schoolmaster  to 
whom  Mather  refers  September  6th  as  here  from 
Ireland  and  wanting  employment.  From  Lech- 
mere's  letter  it  may  be  questioned  whether  the  com- 
pany on  the  "Maccallum"  was  closely  allied  with 
those  on  the  ships  from  Belfast  and  Coleraine.    He 


142  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

writes:  "This  day  a  Ship  arrived  from  Irland  wth 
20  odd  f amilys ;  they  were  first  bound  for  N  London 
bnt  haveing  a  long  Passage  the  Mrs  perswaded  ym  to 
putt  in  here,  so  the  poor  Creatures  are  left  in  ye 
Lurch. ' '  From  the  statement  that  their  destination 
was  not  that  of  the  other  emigrants  although  they 
must  have  embarked  at  about  the  same  time,  it  would 
seem  that  they  had  other  plans  in  view,  and  had  not 
come  under  the  immediate  influence  of  Boyd  and 
McGregor.  This  company  probably  came  with  the 
Eev.  James  Woodside  of  Garvagh,  in  the  Bann  Val- 
ley. 

The  bargaining  which  went  on  for  a  week  between 
Captain  Law  of  the  "Maccallum"  and  Captain  Rob- 
ert Temple,  later  a  famous  colonizer  in  Maine,  came 
to  naught.  Temple  could  not  persuade  Law  and 
his  company  to  continue  their  voyage  to  Connecti- 
cut, and  on  the  eighth  of  September  the  "Maccal- 
lum"  sailed  out  of  Boston  harbor,  for  the  territory 
owned  by  the  Gentlemen  Proprietors  of  Eastern 
Lands,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Kennebec  River.  Law 
then  perhaps  satisfied  his  desire  to  take  on  a  load 
of  staves  at  or  near  Kittery  on  the  Piscataqua  and 
returned  to  Boston  by  October  7th,  when  he  ap- 
peared in  court  to  give  surety  for  several  of  his 
passengers.  He  cleared  for  Londonderry  the  first 
week  in  December,  1718. 

Lechmere's  letter  describing  the  affair  is  so  good 
an  account  of  the  trials  of  the  bewildered  and  nearly 


AEEIVAL  OF  FIVE  SHIPS  143 

helpless  emigrants  that  I  continue  the  quotation 
begun  above:  .  .  .  " Pray  if  any  thereof  should 
still  have  any  inclination  to  come  yor  way  to  settle 
in  Connecticut,  I  should  be  glad.  You  would  aggree 
to  their  Settling  about  Tantiusques,  wh  in  my  Opin- 
ion is  ye  best  place,  &  Mr.  Temple  is  doeing  what  he 
can  still  to  perswade  ye  Mr.  to  proceed  for  yr  place, 
he  intends  to  load  Bolts  &  Staves  home  for  Ireland 
&  when  I  saw  him  among  other  talke  I  assured  him 
he  might  load  cheaper  wth  you  then  at  Piscataqua ; 
how  sd  Mr.  Temple  will  worke  on  him  I  know  not. 
Ye  method  they  go  in  wth  ye  Irish  is  they  sell  ym  so 
many  Acres  of  Land  for  12d  ye  acre  &  allow  ym  time 
to  pay  jl  in.  I  know  Land  is  more  Valuable  wth  you, 
&  therefore  I  am  afraid  'twill  be  ye  more  difficult  to 
aggree  with  ym.  Ye  only  thing  I  can  think  off  is  yr 
Quantity  you  allow  ym  must  be  the  less,  you  are  the 
best  judge  so  I  leave  it  wholly  to  you,  tho  at  same 
time  should  be  glad  of  yr  Thought  thereof,  &  assure 
you  yu  in  my  opinion  it  would  be  greatly  for  yr 
Interest.' ' 

Lechmere's  next  letter  shows  Temple  working  to 
induce  the  company  to  settle  at  Merrymeeting  Bay 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Androscoggin.  In  this  he  was 
successful,  and  it  is  possible  that  the  experience  first 
turned  his  mind  seriously  to  the  transportation  of 
Ulstermen  to  these  Eastern  lands.  During  the  next 
two  years  several  ships  came  over  under  his  man- 
agement with  settlers  for  the  Kennebec.  The  letter 
follows : 


144  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEERS 

"Boston  Sepf  8th  1718. 

"As  to  y*  Irish,  I  have  acquainted  Mr.  Temple  with 
what  yon  write,  he  seeni's  not  willing  they  should 
take  up  wth  y"  proposall  you  mention ;  y*  Gent.  Pro- 
priety of  ye  Eastern  Lands  hearing,  I  was  talkeing 
with  ym  about  Settling  some  of  them  have  (as  I  hear) 
made  new  proposalls  to  them  wherupon  they  have 
resolved  with  sd  Mr  Temple  to  visitt  said  Lands 
whither  they  are  bound  this  afternoon;  what  they 
will  conclude  on  I  know  not." 

The  deposition  of  David  Dunning  of  Brunswick1 
in  1767  states  that  "on  or  about  the  year  1718  he 
came  first  to  Boston  in  the  same  vessel  with  Andrew 
McFadden  and  wife  (now  a  widow)  ;  soon  after  we 
came  in  the  same  vessel  down  together  to  the  east- 
ern country,  and  I  have  lived  in  Brunswick  ever 
since  1718."  Jane  McFadden  stated  that  they  moved 
down  to  the  Kennebec  Biver  and  up  Merrymeeting 
Bay  to  a  place  called  Cathance  (now  Bowdoinham). 
Here  we  seem  to  trace  the  company  which  came  over 
in  the  ' '  Maccallum ; ' '  if  the  inference  is  correct  this 
company  left  a  record  on  Cyprian  Southack's  map 
of  1720  as  "the  Irish  new  settlement."  McFadden 
came  from  Garvagh  in  the  Bann  Valley,  and  was 
probably  of  the  Rev.  James  Woodside's  company. 
We  should  expect  all  emigrants  from  the  Bann  to 
be  followers  of  the  Rev.  TVilliam  Bovd.  who  had 


1  New  England  Historical  and  Genealogical  Register,  Vol.  39,  p. 
184. 


ARRIVAL  OF  FIVE  SHIPS  145 

come  out  to  Governor  Shute  as  their  accredited 
agent,  but  it  is  possible  that  Boyd  and  Woodside 
were  not  in  sympathy,  since  Woodside 's  company 
intended  to  settle  in  New  London  —  a  town  never 
mentioned  by  Boyd  or  McGregor.1 

The  News-Letter  for  September  22-29,  1718, 
prints  a  report  that  a  vessel  had  arrived  at  Casco 
Bay  from  Ireland,  with  several  passengers  on  board, 
and  a  minister.  This  report  refers  no  doubt  to  this 
company  which  sailed  out  of  Boston  harbor  on  Sep- 
tember 8th. 

The  followers  of  McGregor  and  James  McKeen, 
also  from  the  Bann  Valley,  must  have  sailed  later 
in  the  season,  for  their  ship  upon  arriving  at  Casco 
Bay  was  frozen  in.  Major  Samuel  Gregg  in  his  rem- 
iniscences says  that  his  grandfather  James  Gregg, 
a  bleacher  of  linen  cloth,  in  the  Rev.  Mr.  Boyd's 
parish  of  Macosquin,  near  Coleraine,  landed  at  Bos- 
ton August  4th  "with  several  other  passengers  that 
came  in  other  ships.  The  ship  that  they  [Gregg's 
immediate  neighbors]  came  in  as  passengers  went 
down  East  and  spent  the  winter  at  Casco  which  is 
now  called  Portland.' ' 

This  incident  is  so  well  established  in  the  tradi- 
tional history  of  the  Londonderry  Scotch-Irish — 
it  accords  so  well  with  the  known  facts — that  we  may 
accept  the  statement  that  Gregg  and  his  friends  who 


1  It  is  just  possible  that  Lechmere  was  misinformed  and  that  the 
'Maccallum"  never  intended  to  go  to  New  London. 


146  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

went  to  Casco  Bay  sailed  in  the  ship  in  which  they 
had  crossed  the  ocean.  These  men  under  the  imme- 
diate leadership  of  the  Eev.  James  McGregor  came 
from  Coleraine  and  neighboring  towns  in  the  Bann 
^Valley,  and  the  next  spring  (1719)  they  founded 
Nutfield,  now  Londonderry,  New  Hampshire.  It 
would  seem  to  be  a  reasonable  assumption  that  the 
Nutfield  colony,  including  the  few  who  remained  at 
Casco  Bay,  had  crossed  the  sea  on  the  ship  "Wil- 
liam," which  left  Coleraine  in  April  or  May,  or  on 
the  brigantine  "Bobert"  from  Belfast,  a  more  at- 
tractive port  of  departure,  or  in  both  ships.  The 
"William"  is  reported  as  "cleared"  in  the  News- 
Letter  for  August  25-September  1  and  as  "outward 
bound"  September  15-22.  She  seems  to  have  re- 
turned to  Ireland. 

Ferguson,  captain  of  the  "Bobert,"  was  in  town 
October  7th  to  attend  court;  and  this  suggests  that 
he  may  have  lain  in  the  outer  harbor  during  the  time 
intervening  between  his  clearing  from  Boston  and 
his  attendance  at  court.  With  him  on  the  voyage 
from  Ireland  came  John  Armstrong,  his  wife  and 
five  children,  who  were  unable  to  convince  the  au- 
thorities in  Boston  that  they  were  self-supporting. 
Captain  Ferguson  was  ordered  before  the  Court  of 
General  Sessions  of  the  Peace  to  answer  "for  bring- 
ing in  his  vessell  and  landing  in  this  Town  John 
Armstrong,  his  wife  and  five  children  who  cannot 
give  Security  to  Indemnify  the  Town  as  the  Law 


k. 


k  p.  H|;' 


1  >  v  v  m 


\. 


AEEIVAL  OF  FIVE  SHIPS  149 

requires."  Ferguson's  explanation  that  three  of 
the  children  were  servants  by  indenture  did  not  en- 
tirely satisfy  the  Court,  and  it  was  "  Ordered  that 
the  sd  fferguson  carry  the  sd  Armstrong  wife  &  two 
youngest  Children  out  of  the  Province  or  Indemnify 
the  Town."  Finally  the  Captain  and  William  Wil- 
son, at  whose  wharf  they  probably  landed,  became 
sureties  in  £100  each  that  the  Armstrong  family, 
would  not  come  back  upon  the  town  for  support.1  If 
this  is  the  same  John  Armstrong  who  later  in  the 
year  heads  a  petition  from  the  Scotch  Irish  set- 
tlers at  Falmouth,  this  is  very  good  evidence  that 
he,  who  certainly  came  over  from  Belfast  in  the 
brigantine  "Bobert,"  soon  after  went  in  her  to 
Casco  Bay  with  the  little  company  from  the  Bann 
Valley.  On  the  whole  this  seems  probable,  and  it 
would  follow  that  the  Eev.  James  McGregor  and  his 
well-to-do  connection,  the  Greggs,  McKeens  and 
others  who  according  to  Major  Gregg  crossed  the 
ocean  in  the  ship  which  afterward  carried  them  to 
Casco  Bay,  journeyed  a  few  miles  to  Belfast  to  take 
passage  in  the  "Bobert,"  while  the  families  in  more 
moderate  condition,  with  the  heavier  freight,  came 
down  the  Bann  from  Coleraine  in  the  larger  ship,  the 
"William." 

We  get  some  impression  of  the  appearance  of 
these  ships  from  the  view  of  Boston  drawn  by  Wil- 

1  Records  Court  of  General  Sessions  of  the  Peace,  Suffolk  County, 
October  7,  1718. 


150 


SCOTCH   IRISH  PIONEERS 


liam  Burgis  in  1722  and  commonly  called  Price's 
View.  Lying  off  Boston  are  many  forms  of  craft, 
some  at  anchor  and  others  bending  to  a  good  breeze. 
In  the  foreground  are  two  stately  vessels,  one  like 
the  " William,' '  a  ship  with  full  body,  a  blunt  bow 
and  high  stern,  three  masts  and  a  wealth  of  rigging ; 


A  Brigantine  of  1718 


another  like  the  * '  Robert, ' '  with  more  rounding  bow 
and  stern,  a  foremast  square  rigged  like  those  of  the 
ship,  but  with  the  main  mast  fore-and-aft  rigged  like 
a  sloop.  The  "Robert"  we  think  of  as  a  herma- 
phrodite brig,  but  the  English  sailor  of  old  would 
have  called  her  a  brigantine,  as  she  was  classed  by 
the  News-Letter. 
It  requires  some  effort  to  realize  that  a  great  part 


ARRIVAL  OF  FIVE  SHIPS  151 

of  our  population  owes  its  place  on  this  side  the 
Atlantic  to  the  slow,  clumsy  but  rather  impressive 
ships  of  the  types  to  be  seen  in  the  drawing  by  Bur- 
gis.  Nor  do  we  easily  comprehend  the  weariness  of 
the  voyage  or  even  its  hazard.  The  Pirate  and  the 
God  of  Storms  shared  an  annual  harvest  of  lives 
and  fortunes.  Let  us  take  two  incidents  in  a  single 
year.  The  ship  "Friends  Goodwill"  left  Larne  on 
the  coast  of  Antrim  about  the  first  of  May  in  the 
year  1717.  Meeting  constant  head  winds  the  ship 
made  very  poor  progress,  and  food  ran  so  low  that 
the  fifty-two  persons  on  board  came  to  want.  Cap- 
tain Gooding  or  Goodwin  fortunately  fell  in  with 
another  vessel  and  obtained  provisions.  Continual 
bad  weather  brought  further  delay,  and  hunger 
again  threatened.  Short  allowance  of  water,  bread, 
and  meat  brought  only  a  temporary  reprieve  from 
starvation,  and  the  crew  soon  were  set  to  catching 
dolphins  and  sharks  which  a  "good  Providence" 
placed  in  their  path.  Eains  came  and  the  water  was 
gathered  from  the  decks  to  quench  the  thirst.  When 
May,  June  and  July,  months  of  constant  anxiety,  had 
passed  August  brought  so  great  a  storm  that  the 
ship  lay  like  a  thing  deserted,  her  decks  awash,  her 
sailors  weak  and  exhausted.  With  September  the 
sun  shone,  but  their  hunger  increased,  and  in  des- 
peration they  began  to  speak  of  drawing  lots  to  de- 
cide whom  should  be  eaten  first.  The  Captain  how- 
ever now  held  out  hope  of  land  and  about  the  sec- 


152  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

ond  week  of  September  the  "Friends  Goodwill" 
crept  up  Boston  harbor  with  only  one  of  her  com- 
pany dead.1 

A  pirate  conld  hardly  do  greater  damage.  Cap- 
tain Codd  who  came  into  Philadelphia  from  Dublin 
in  October  with  one  hundred  and  fifty  passengers, 
many  of  them  servants,  reported  having  been  taken 
off  the  Capes  by  Teach  of  "the  Pirate  sloop  Revenge 
of  12  Guns  and  150  men. ' '  Teach  took  two  snows ; 
from  one  he  threw  overboard  a  great  load  of  staves 
and  crowded  her  with  the  passengers  and  crews  of 
subsequent  captures ;  from  the  other  he  cast  a  load 
of  grain  and  turned  her  into  a  pirate  ship.  Out  of  a 
sloop  bound  from  Madeira  Teach  took  twenty-seven 
pipes  of  wine,  cut  down  her  masts,  and  left  her  to 
drift.  From  another  he  took  two  casks  and  sank  her. 
Other  captures  were  made  before  Codd  was  per- 
mitted to  complete  his  voyage.  During  this  enforced 
delay  the  victims  saw  much  of  Captain  Bennet  who 
had  relinquished  the  command  of  the  " Revenge' '  to 
Teach  on  account  of  his  slow  recovery  from  wounds 
received  in  a  recent  fight  with  a  Spanish  Man  of 
War.  Bennet  took  a  walk  in  his  "morning  gown" 
after  each  day's  breakfast,  and  then  devoted  his 
time  to  study,  surrounded  by  his  books,  of  which  he 
had  a  good  library  on  board.    The  pirate,  with  his 


1  News-Letter,  September  9-16,  1717;  November  25-December  2. 
The  New  England  Weekly  Journal,  November  10,  1729,  describes 
another  voyage  of  even  greater  hardships. 


AEEIVAL  OF  FIVE  SHIPS  153 

guns  and  his  books,  was  more  than  the  average  mer- 
chantman could  hope  to  resist.  He  added  terror  to 
the  long  voyage  of  the  emigrant  from  Ireland.1 

1  News-Letter,  November  4-11,  1717.^  The  researches  made  by 
Mr.  Edwin  M.  Bacon  and  Mr.  John  H.  Edmonds  have  very  gen- 
erously been  placed  at  my  disposal  in  preparing  this  chapter. 


IX 

THE  WINTER  OF  1718-19  IN  BOSTON 

In  July  and  August,  1718,  from  five  to  seven  hun- 
dred Protestant  immigrants  from  Ireland  entered 
the  port  of  Boston.  Several  followers  of  the  Rev. 
Mr.  McGregor  set  out  early  in  the  autumn  for  And- 
over  where  they  spent  the  winter.  Others  as  we 
have  seen  went  to  Casco  Bay  and  the  Kennebec 
River. 

Family  ties  no  doubt  drew  some  into  the  neighbor- 
ing towns,  although  all  trace  of  these  influences  have 
been  lost. 

Among  the  early  emigrants  who  came  probably 
from  the  north  of  Ireland  many  were  scattered 
through  towns  not  known  thereafter  as  distinctly 
Scotch  Irish  settlements.  Where  we  find  one  family 
others  are  almost  certainly  to  be  found,  disguised  it 
may  be  by  an  English  name.  The  following  names 
are  given  as  an  indication  of  the  wide  distribution  of 
the  emigrants.  Some  families  are  merely  known 
to  be  Scotch,  others  are  Presbyterians  who  brought 
their  babies  to  the  Rev.  Mr.  Moorhead  in  Boston  for 
baptism,  while  in  still  other  instances  the  home  town 
in  Ireland  has  been  or  can  be  found  by  reference  to 


THE  SCOTCH  IRISH  IN  BOSTON       155 

the  local  church  records.1  James  Long  was  in 
Charlestown,  John  Tom  in  Cambridge,  Thomas 
Karr  or  Carr,  John  Pike,  James  Lindsay,  James 
Taggart  and  John  Brownlie  in  Roxbury,  Robert 
Burns  and  James  Aull  in  Medford,  James  Moor  in 
Chelsea,  Jeremiah  Smith  and  John  Longhead  in 
Milton,  Archibald  Thompson  and  Thomas  Henry  in 
Bridgewater,  and  John  Kennedy,  with  Abraham 
Hunter,  at  Braintree.  At  Concord  lived  Samuel 
Henderson;  Robert  Wilson  was  at  Maiden,  Alex- 
ander Smith  at  Billerica,  Thomas  Little,  Charles 
Richards,  John  Moor  and  James  Gordon  at  Shirley, 
Daniel  Ritter  and  Thomas  Harkness  at  Lunenburg, 
Thomas  Bogle  at  Sudbury,  John  McClure  at  Woburn 
and  James  Wilson  at  Lexington.  Dugall  McCombs 
was  at  Western,  John  McAllister  at  Westboro,  Da- 
vid McClure  at  Brookfield,  Andrew  McElwain  at 
Bolton,  James  Cargill  at  Mendon,  Walter  Beath  at 
Lunenburg  and  at  Boothbay  in  Maine,  William  Le- 
man  at  Wiscasset,  and  Mrs.  James  at  Annapolis. 
John  Nichols  lived  at  Freetown,  John  Wood  and 
James  Henry  at  Providence,  and  Archibald  Mac- 
Kaye  at  Pomfret  in  Connecticut. 

With  James  Glasford  at  Leicester  was  Matthew 
Watson  who  came  from  Coleraine  in  Ireland.  James 
Smith  of  Needham  brought  a  letter  from  the  church 

XI  am  indebted  to  my  sons  Stanwood  and  Geoffrey  for  many 
references  to  Scotch  Irish  in  country  towns. 


156  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

in  Ballykelly.  At  Middleboro1  was  William  Stro- 
bridge  or  Strawbridge,  from  Donagh  (also  called 
Cardonagh),  Donegal,  where  the  Eev.  Thomas 
Strawbridge  was  minister  from  1721  to  1762.  At 
Lancaster  there  was  a  group  of  immigrants,  Eobert 
and  Elizabeth  Bratten  from  the  chnrch  at  Termont 
(or  Clougherny),  Tyrone,  Eobert  Waite  from  Agha- 
dowey,  Jane  Macmnllin  from  Dawsonbridge  (Castle- 
dawson),  William  and  Ellinor  White  from  Dun- 
boe,  Margaret  Stuart  from  Bovedy,  all  in  Connty 
Derry,  as  well  as  Alexander  Scott  and  his  wife 
"from  Ireland.' '  At  Dracut  was  Thomas  Holmes 
from  Coleraine,  with  a  brother  John  at  Boston. 

On  the  other  hand  an  occasional  voyager  drifted 
back  to  Boston,  perhaps  forced  from  town  to  town 
lest  he  become  a  charge  npon  the  rates.  Thomas 
Crook  came  in  the  "Three  Anns  and  Mary,"  Cap- 
tain Eichards,  master,  to  Casco  Bay,  and  from  there 
was  carried  in  a  fishing  sloop  to  Salem  "where  he, 
being  sick,  was  turned  out  of  Doors  from  House  to 
House,  till  at  length  he  got  so  far  as  Lyn,  being  then 
in  a  perishing  condition  &  could  proceed  no  further 
by  reason  of  his  Legs  being  dropsical,  that  at  Lyn 
he  was  put  under  the  Care  &  Direction  of  Dr.  Brom- 
stead.,,2 


1  In  Middleboro  there  may  have  heen  several  Scotch  Irish  set- 
tlers: James  Nealson,  John  McCully,  William  McFall,  Thomas 
Pickens,  John  Montgomery,  and  an  earlier  Scotch  or  Scotch  Irish- 
man Alexander  Canedy.     (Weston's  Middleboro,  p.  434.) 

3  Massachusetts  Resolves,  1719-20,  Chapter  21. 


THE  SCOTCH  IEISH  IN  BOSTON      157 

The  authorities  in  Boston  conld  not  very  well 
warn  from  town  so  great  a  company  as  that  which 
arrived  in  1718,  although  they  shared  Mr.  Surveyor- 
General  Lechmere's  anxiety  lest  the  "confounded 
Irish"  eat  them  out  of  house  and  home.  The  select- 
men met  August  13th  and  impowered  Mr.  John 
Marion  to  appear  before  the  Court  of  General  Ses- 
sions of  the  Peace  for  the  county  of  Suffolk  "to  move 
what  he  Shall  think  proper  in  order  to  Secure  this 
Town  from  Charges  wch  may  hapen  to  accrue  or  be 
imposed  on  them  by  reason  of  the  Passengers  Lately 
arived  here  from  Ireland  or  elsewhere. ' n  During 
the  winter  many  were  warned  to  leave  Boston, 
Thomas  Walker,  John  Eogers,  James  Blare  or 
Blair,  with  Elizabeth  and  Eachel,  who  had  come  over 
from  Ireland  in  August;2  Anne  Hanson  who  came 
down  from  Casco  Bay,  and  Mehitable  Lewis,  from 
Piscataqua;  Eobert  Holmes  and  wife,  William 
Holmes  and  child,  also  from  Casco  Bay ;  and  Alex- 
ander McGregory,  lately  from  Ireland  with  his  fam- 
ily ;  they  were  all  asked  to  leave  or  find  sureties. 

The  selectmen  could  not  hope  to  save  the  town 
from  charges  for  the  support  of  those  who  had 
brought  with  them  their  modest  savings,  if  the  price 
of  grain  continued  to  rise. 

Before  the  Scotch  Irish  arrived  the  town  had  au- 
thorized the  selectmen  to  expend  for  grain  from  time 


1  Selectmen's  Records,  Record  Commission  Reports,  Vol.  13,  p.  41. 

2  Suffolk  Court  Files,  No.  12620. 


158  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

to  time  as  much  as  they  thought  best  out  of  the  sum 
of  £1500  received  from  the  sale  of  lands  at  Blue  Hill. 
In  October  the  following  vote  was  passed  by  the 
selectmen  to  keep  down  the  price  of  Indian  corn: 
" Voted:  that  in  case  any  considerable  quantity  of 
Indian  Corn  be  imported  into  this  Town  before  the 
Shutting  in  of  ye  ensuing  winter  &  exposed  to  Sale, 
In  order  to  check  an  Exorbitant  demand  of  y6  Sellers 
thereof : — 

"Any  four  of  the  Sel.  men  agreeing  may  open  the 
Townes  Granary  and  order  the  Sale  of  corn  at  four 
Shillings  &  Six  pence  p.  bushel. ' ' 

On  the  18th  of  December  it  was  voted  that  "the 
Granaryes  be  opened  for  the  Sale  of  Indian  Corn 
on  Fryday  &  Saterday  next,  viz*  the  South  granary 
on  Fryday,  and  the  North  Granary  on  Satterday, 
and  on  the  next  week  following  on  Tuesday  at  the 
South  and  on  Fryday  at  the  North,  and  Mr.  Galpine 
is  directed  to  Sell  out  to  the  Inhabit48  of  this  Town 
not  exceeding  one  bushel  to  each  buyer,  at  five  Shil- 
lings p  bushel,  and  he  is  directed  to  put  up  before 
hand  one  bushel  in  each  of  ye  Townes  Baggs,  and 
first  receive  each  p'sons  money  and  then  Shift  the 
Corn  into  their  respective  baggs,  the  hours  ap- 
pointed to  attend  the  Same  is  from  nine  to  twelve  in 
the  fore  noon  and  from  two  to  four  in  the  after 
noon  &  he  is  to  Imploy  ye  Cryer  to  cry  at  that  price 
each  buyer  to  bring  good  bill  ready  changed  &  to 
cry  thr°  the  Town  on  thursday." 


THE  SCOTCH  IRISH  IN  BOSTON      159 

The  need  of  wheat  still  pressing,  the  selectmen  on 
December  19th  agreed  with  the  Hon.  Jonathan 
Belcher  for  ten  thousand  pounds  at  forty  shillings 
per  hundred.  The  matter  had  become  of  so  much 
importance  that  the  Governor  and  Council  advised 
the  town  to  purchase  grain  in  Connecticut  if  neces- 
sary in  order  to  avoid  distress.  In  January  eight 
thousand  pounds  had  been  purchased.  At  the  March 
town  meeting,  1719,  the  inhabitants  decided  to  lay 
out  the  entire  sum  of  £1500  in  grain  to  carry  them 
through  the  spring  months,  and  a  committee  of  seven 
was  appointed  "to  consult  together  for  the  Releife 
of  This  Town  under  their  present  distresses.,, 

Through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  Charles  P.  Green- 
ough  I  have  had  access  to  the  account  kept  by  David 
Stoddard  of  his  purchases  in  Boston  during  the 
years  1717,  1718  and  1719.  Mr.  Stoddard  paid  six 
shillings  per  bushel  for  wheat  in  the  spring  of  1717, 
and  three  shillings  for  Indian  corn.  In  the  spring 
of  1719,  with  the  Scotch  Irish  in  Boston,  wheat  had 
nearly  doubled  in  price,  selling  for  ten  shillings  per 
bushel,  while  corn  which  had  brought  three  now 
brought  five  shillings.  A  study  of  the  prices  of  small 
fruits  and  vegetables  shows  no  material  change  due 
to  the  presence  of  the  Scotch  Irish. 

PRICES. 
Before  Arrival.  After  Arrival. 

0-0-9  (May  31,  1718)  1  qt.  gooseberries  0-0-  9  (May  31,  1719) 

0-0-3  (June  25,  1718)  1  qt.  currants  0-0-  3  (June  20,  1719) 

0-1-0  (July    1,  1718)  1  qt.  beans  0-0-  9  (June  27,  1719) 

0-0-3  (June  28,  1718)  1  qt.  cherries  0-0-  3  (July   13,  1719) 


160  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEERS 

The  prices  after  the  arrival  of  the  emigrants  in 
the  snmmer  of  1718,  and  again  twelve  months  later 
when  presumably  many  had  left  Boston,  were: 

PRICES. 

Summer  of  1718.  Summer  of  1719. 

0-1-0  (Aug.  19,  1718)  1  cabbage  0-0-10  (Aug.  13,  1719) 

0-0-2  (Aug.  27,  1718)  1  qt.  Damsons  [plums]  0-0-  3  (Aug.  31,  1719) 
0-0-6  (Sept.  19,  1718)  1  cabbage  0-0-  4  (Sept.  14,  1719) 

0-4-6  (Nov.    4,  1718)  1  bu.  carrots  0-5-  0  (Nov.  16,  1719) 

There  were  many  taverns  in  Boston  at  this  time, 
about  half  of  them  managed  under  the  names  of 
women.  These  became  the  resort  of  numbers  of 
idle  immigrants,  and  the  members  of  the  Council, 
Justices,  selectmen,  and  overseers  of  the  poor  agreed 
among  themselves  in  August  that  for  the  next  eight 
weeks  they  would  walk  the  streets  by  turns  at  night 
to  suppress  disorders,  and  by  their  presence  show 
that  the  land  of  promise  was  not  to  be  a  land  of 
license. 

The  winter  of  1717-18  in  Ireland  had  been  very 
trying;  small-pox,  fevers  and  other  afflictions  pre- 
vailed there  and  especially  in  Ulster.  We  should 
expect  to  find  further  evidence  of  these  conditions 
in  the  health  of  the  passengers  that  left  the  ports  of 
Ireland  in  the  spring  of  1718.  As  early  as  the  year 
1714  the  ship  " Elizabeth  and  Kathrin"  from  Ire- 
land had  landed  sick  persons  on  Spectacle  Island1 
by  order  of  the  Government ;  and  again  in  1716  the 

Province  Laws,  1714,  Chapter  45. 


«V    1    T*w*J»~~ 
16M    I  A, 
./«-/    3  Strut*. CrnmmmrS 

v«sr  5«muw.aiW 

-/<«.?  6  JKi&ap  Jefcv* 

.1770  7     - 

1W  8 

777S  9 

7710 

7a 


Captain  John  Bonner's  Map  or  Boston 


THE  SCOTCH  IRISH  IN  BOSTON      163 

island  was  used  for  the  same  purpose.  In  1717  a 
pest  house  was  built,  but  before  its  completion  some 
eighty  persons  from  Ireland  were  put  ashore.  In 
the  year  1718  " seven  several  companies' '  were  left 
on  Spectacle  Island  before  June  17th,1  a  fact  which 
seems  puzzling,  since  arrivals  from  abroad  between 
January  1st  and  June  17th  of  that  year  were  few; 
but  the  contemporary  record  is  clear  and  beyond 
controversy.  Some  of  these  infected  companies 
must  have  come  from  other  American  ports.  A 
large  ship-load  from  Ireland  was  detained  in  No- 
vember, 1719.2  The  inference  from  these  facts  seems 
to  be  that  if  any  of  the  immigrants  of  July  and  Au- 
gust, 1718,  were  detained  with  contagious  diseases 
they  were  inconsiderable  in  number  and  thus  found 
no  place  in  the  records. 

These  were  busy  days  in  Boston.  The  batteries 
were  repaired  and  the  defences  across  the  Neck  were 
finished.  Streets  were  being  paved,  projects  were  on 
foot  for  bringing  in  coal  by  sea,  the  weight  and  price 
of  loaves  of  bread  were  fixed,  schoolmasters  were 
employed,  and  provision  was  made  for  the  reading 
of  God's  word,  catechising,  and  the  encouragement 
of  good  spelling. 

In  so  large  a  place  it  is  not  easy  to  discover  the 
names  of  those  who  arrived  from  Ireland  in  1718 
and  1719,  and  settled  down  to  remain  there.    It  is 


Province  Laws,  1718-19,  Chapter  19. 
2  Hid,  1719-20,  Chapter  68. 


164  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

said  that  the  Rev.  John  Moorhead,  who  was  born 
near  Belfast,  and  came  to  Boston  in  1727,  was  in- 
duced to  remain  in  town  by  the  kindly  welcome  ex- 
tended to  him  from  resident  families  that  he  had 
known  some  years  before.1 

We  mnst  remember,  however,  that  Mr.  Moorhead 
did  not  arrive  until  the  migration  from  Ireland  had 
been  growing  for  several  years.  The  records  of 
marriages  performed  in  Boston  after  July,  1718, 
show  Scotch  Irish  names,  as  the  following  examples 
indicate : — 

William  Blair  and  Mary  Phillips,  Oct.  29,  1718. 

Cornelius  Campbell  and  Eliza  Short,  September 
17, 1718. 

James  Duncan  and  Eliza.  Bason,  December  16, 
1718. 

It  will  be  found  that  the  Campbells,  Duncans, 
Blacks,  Bethunes  and  others  came  before  1718,  and 
most  of  them  from  Scotland.  The  following  births, 
however,  may  suggest  the  Scotch-Irish  immigration : 

Lydia,  daughter  of  William  Mackinley  and  Lydia, 
born  12  March,  1718-19. 

Lydia,  daughter  of  William  Forbish  and  Sarah, 
born  12  March,  1718-19. 

William,  son  of  William  Doke  and  Lydia,  born  29 
April,  1719. 

But  a  careful  study  of  Boston  birth  and  marriage 
records  for  1718  and  1719  would  seem  to  indicate 


1  A.  Blaikie's  Presbyterian  Church  in  New  England,  p.  62. 


THE  SCOTCH  IRISH  IN  BOSTON      165 

that  the  immigrants  of  these  years  went,  very  gener- 
ally into  the  country.  The  Boston  Scotch  Irish 
came  later. 

We  know  little  of  the  feeling  towards  these  Scotch 
emigrants  from  Ireland  shown  by  Boston  people, 
although  elsewhere  they  were  disliked.  An  impor-  v^ 
tant  incident  of  the  next  winter  throws  some  light 
upon  the  subject,  and  for  that  reason  it  will  be  men- 
tioned here.  Benjamin  Gray,  a  bookseller  and  pub- 
lisher, offered  for  sale  books  on  religion,  and  from 
time  to  time  published  works  by  Scotch  presbyte- 
rians.  Naturally  then  the  Eev.  William  Boyd  be-  __— - 
came  a  frequent  visitor  to  Gray's  shop.  Boyd,  as  a 
leader  of  men,  as  an  able  preacher,  and  as  a  writer, 
was  for  a  few  months  a  prominent  figure  in  Boston. 
At  this  period  he  was  living  in  Charlestown  at  Cap- 
tain John  Long's  hotel,  or  "the  great  tavern,"  as  it 
was  called. 

It  happened  that  Mr.  Boyd  was  in  the  shop  on 
February  7,  1718-19,  a  Saturday,  talking  with 
friends  when  Edward  Ellis,  son  of  Eobert  Ellis,  a 
surgeon,  entered.  Ellis  soon  became  abusive,  and 
singling  out  the  Bev.  Mr.  Boyd  he  said  that  the 
Scotch  Irish  clergyman  was  an  immoral  man,  and 
as  evidence  asserted  that  Boyd  had  had  improper 
relations  with  a  maid-servant  in  Captain  Long's 
employ.  Ellis  was  at  once  arrested  and  his  case 
came  before  the  Court  of  General  Sessions  of  the 
Peace  for  Suffolk  County  on  April  7th.    He  was  con- 


166  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

victed,  sentenced  to  pay  twenty  pounds,  seven  shil- 
lings, and  to  find  sureties  to  be  bound  in  twenty  five 
pounds  each  that  he  would  be  of  good  behavior  for 
six  months,  and  he  was  ordered  also  to  pay  all  the 
costs  of  the  prosecution.  The  prominence  of  Ellis 
is  made  clear  by  the  fact  that  the  men  who  came  to 
his  assistance  as  sureties  were  both  well  known,  Rob- 
ert Auchmuty,  Esquire,  and  Thomas  Phillips,  Inn- 
holder.     Ellis  was  discharged  November  10,  1719. 

Over  against  this  incident  we  may  place  the  fol- 
lowing sentence  from  the  Rev.  Increase  Mather's 
Preface  to  Boyd's  farewell  sermon  which  was  deliv- 
ered March  19,  1719 :  '  *  Since  his  being  in  New  Eng- 
land (as  well  as  before  that)  by  the  Exemplary  holi- 
ness of  his  Conversation,  and  the  Eminency  of  his 
Ministerial  Gifts,  he  has  obtained  good  Report 
amongst  all  Good  Men." 

At  the  close  of  the  sermon,  mentioned  above,  the 
Governor  invited  Mr.  Boyd  to  dine,  the  company  in- 
cluding the  Rev.  Cotton  Mather,  the  Rev.  James 
Woodside  who  had  ordained  Mr.  Boyd  in  Ireland, 
Samuel  Sewall,  and  a  Mr.  Stanton. 

The  Rev.  John  Moorhead,  son  of  a  respected 
farmer  at  Newton,  near  Belfast,  county  Down,  was 
born  there  in  1703.  He  studied  at  the  University 
of  Edinburgh,  and,  upon  his  return  to  Newton,  ac- 
counts that  he  heard  of  New  England  led  him  to  emi- 
grate to  Boston.  He  arrived  in  1727  and  soon  after 
undertook  services,  the  people  whom  he  gathered 


The  Rev.  John  Moobhead, 

'Minister  of  a  Church  of  Presbyterian  Strangers  in  Boston' 

(Drawn  by  John  Huybers) 


THE  SCOTCH  IRISH  IN  BOSTON      169 

about  him  calling  themselves  the  "  Church  of  Pres- 
byterian strangers."  He  was  ordained  as  their 
pastor  March  30,  1730.  Among  these  people  was 
John  Little,  a  prosperous  gardener,  who  exhibited 
much  interest.  He  had  a  house  on  Milk  Street,  and 
in  May,  1729,  purchased  land  for  a  garden  at  the  cor- 
ner of  Long  Lane  and  Bury  Street.  In  Mr.  Little 's 
barn  which  stood  on  this  land  services  were  held  for 
several  years,  the  congregation  making  additions  to 
the  barn  and  alterations  from  time  to  time.  Elders 
were  first  elected  July  14,  1730,  and  John  Young, 
Robert  Patton,  Samuel  McClure,1  Richard  McClure 
and  Thomas  McMullen  were  chosen  to  fill  this  office. 
They  watched  over  those  who  had  been  baptized, 
cared  for  the  sick  and  needy,  and  reproved  the  err- 
ing. Mr.  Moorhead  visited  each  family,  whether  in 
town  or  country,  once  or  twice  a  year  to  talk  with 
the  parents  and  catechise  children  and  servants.  At 
the  close  of  each  visit  he  knelt  in  prayer  with  the 
family. 

In  June,  1735,  Mr.  Little  conveyed  the  barn  or 
meeting  house  and  land  on  the  north  east  corner  of 
Long  Lane  to  a  Committee  appointed  by  the  Congre- 
gation to  hold  the  property  in  trust.  The  members 
of  this  Committee  were  George  Glen,  a  tailor,  who 
had  come  from  South  Carolina  in  1719,  William 


1  Grandfather  of  the  Rev.  David  McClure,  D.  D.,  whose  Diary 
has  been  published.  David's  son  and  grandson  held  the  same 
offices. 


170  SCOTCH   IKISH   PIONEEKS 

Hall  a  leather-dresser,  William  Shaw  a  tailor,  and 
Andrew  Knox  a  mariner,  all  of  Boston.1  Other 
members  of  the  clmrch  interested  in  the  negotiations 
which  preceded  the  transfer  were  Edward  Allen, 
tailor,  George  Sutherland,  shopkeeper,  Daniel  Mac- 
Neal,  laborer,  Samuel  Miller,  gunsmith,  and  Abra- 
ham All  or  Aul,  tailor.  In  1744  a  large  and  dig- 
nified building  was  erected,  and  in  1788  by  a 
change  of  street  name  the  place  of  worship  became 
the  Federal  Street  church.  Mr.  Moorhead  married 
June  22,  1730,  Sarah  Parsons,  an  English  lady  of 
refinement  and  some  artistic  talent;  they  had  sev- 
eral children,  Alexander,  Parsons,  Mary,  John,  Wil- 
liam, and  Agnes  or  Ann  Agnes.  At  least  one  of 
these,  Agnes,  who  married  Alexander  Willson  of 
Boston,  left  issue.2 

His  health  began  to  fail  a  few  years  before  his 
death;  on  the  last  Sunday  in  November,  1773,  he 
preached  twice,  but  upon  returning  home  he  became 
very  ill  and  died  on  Thursday,  December  2d.3  The 
Eev.  David  McGregor  of  Londonderry  preached  the 
funeral  sermon,  which  was  printed  in  1774.  Moor- 
head was  a  tall  man,  and  rather  corpulent.  His 
character  is  described  in  a  notice  printed  soon  after 
his  death: 


1  Suffolk  Deeds,  Vol.  51,  p.  14. 

2  Mary  Moorhead,  perhaps  a  relative,  married  in  Boston,  April 
3,  1732,  Andrew  Menford. 

3  Massachusetts  Gazette  and  Boston  Weekly  News-Letter,  No. 
3662,  December  9,  1773. 


THE  SCOTCH  IRISH  IN  BOSTON      171 

"Very  few  men  have  left  behind  them  a  fairer  or 
better  character, — charitable  and  liberal  to  the  poor, 
with  a  hearty  disposition  to  render  them  every  serv- 
ice in  his  power, — industrious  and  faithful  in  the 
dispensation  of  the  word,  and  a  most  earnest  desire 
for  the  good  of  souls  which  was  the  actuating  and 
ruling  principle  of  his  life.  His  mind  was  deeply 
impressed  with  the  importance  of  the  truth  of  the 
atonement  of  Jesus  Christ  as  the  only  well  grounded 
hope  of  salvation  and  happiness  in  a  future  state; 
this  made  him  anxiously  desirous  to  communicate 
that  impression  to  others.  With  this  view  his  labors 
were  incessant.  In  all  his  discourses  from  the  sacred 
desk  he  held  up  this  grand  truth  as  the  only  principle 
upon  which  depended  the  very  existence  of  Chris- 
tianity; also  frequently  visiting  the  families  of  his 
flock,  and  endeavoring  to  inspire  them  to  practice 
as  well  as  believe  the  Gospel.  His  honesty  of  heart, 
open  and  frank  manner  of  address,  rendered  him  at 
all  times  an  able  and  faithful  adviser.' n 

The  administrators  of  Mr.  Moorhead's  estate, 
William  McNeil  and  the  unmarried  daughter  Mary 
Moorhead,  reported  £  223  -  3  -  11  to  be  divided  be- 
tween the  son  Alexander  and  the  daughters  Mary 
Moorhead  and  Agnes  or  Ann  Agnes  Willson.2 

John  Little,  the  early  benefactor  of  the  Scotch 


1  Massachusetts  Gazette  and  Boston  Weekly  News-Letter,  Decem- 
ber 9,  1773. 

2  Suffolk  Wills,  Vol.  74,  p.  356. 


172  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

Irish  in  Boston,  was  a  son  of  Archibald  Little  with 
whom  he  came  to  Boston.  John  Little  at  his  death 
in  1741  left  two  minor  sons  John  and  Moses,  a 
daughter  Mary  having  died  in  infancy.  His  will  pro- 
vided for  his  family,  but  in  case  the  sons  were  to  die 
before  marriage  and  before  reaching  the  age  of 
twenty  one,  he  instructed  his  executors  Henry  Der- 
ing  and  Andrew  Cunningham  to  transfer  his  prop- 
erty to  the  Overseers  of  the  Poor  to  be  invested  by 
them  as  a  trust.  The  annual  income  was  to  be  used 
for  the  employment  of  a  schoolmaster  to  teach  read- 
ing, writing  and  arithmetic  to  the  "poor  Protestant 
children  whose  Parents  are  of  the  Kingdom  of  Ire- 
land and  Inhabitants  of  Boston."  Their  books  and 
materials,  with  psalter,  testament  and  Bible,  were  to 
be  furnished  free.  Children  between  the  ages  of 
seven  and  fourteen  were  eligible.1  Had  his  sons 
died  in  childhood  Mr.  Little's  charity  would  have 
aided  the  Scotch  Irish  to  this  day  and  his  name 
would  have  been  known  in  our  annals. 

Among  those  who  came  to  Boston  in  or  about  1727 
Peter  Pelham,  schoolmaster,  painter  and  engraver, 
became  the  most  eminent.  He  had  close  and  kindly 
association  with  the  Scotch  Irish,  and  in  1751  he 
engraved  a  portrait  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Moorhead,  one 
of  the  earliest  of  those  of  the  Boston  clergy  made  by 
him.  John  Little  owed  many  favors  to  the  Pelhams, 
and  in  1741  he  remembered  Peter's  son  Charles  in 


Suffolk  Wills,  Vol.  35,  p.  476. 


THE  SCOTCH  IRISH  IN  BOSTON      173 

his  will  "as  a  token  of  my  love  for  the  Friendship 
receiv'd  from  his  Father  and  Family.,, 

William  Shaw,  a  Boston  tailor  and  a  member  of 
the  committee  to  which  John  Little  deeded  the  Pres- 
byterian meeting  house  in  1735,  died  soon  after,  leav- 
ing a  very  interesting  will.  His  bequest  of  land  in 
Kingsfield  to  a  sister  Jane,  wife  of  "William  Mc- 
Clenenghen"  of  Kingsfield,  suggests  that  Shaw  was 
closely  allied  with  these  settlers,  many  of  whom  came 
from  the  Rutland  company.  The  Shaws  of  Kings- 
field,  an  early  name  for  Palmer,  Massachusetts,  were 
Joshua,  David,  Samuel  and  Seth.  The  last  three 
were  deacons  and  men  of  influence.  If  Deacon  Sam- 
uel is  the  "brother  Samuel' '  Shaw  of  our  William's 
will  we  have  a  numerous  progeny  for  William's 
father  Samuel  Shaw  of  Boston.  Captain  John  Mc- 
Clanathan  married  Martha  Shaw,  perhaps  a  sister 
of  Jane  mentioned  above,  who  married  William 
McClanathan.  It  is  evident  that  William  Shaw  of 
Mr.  Moorhead's  church  was  closely  allied  with 
Palmer;  he  was  a  "petitioner"  there  in  1732  and 
owner  of  a  fifty  acre  home  lot.  Tradition  says  that 
the  Shaws  came  from  Queenstown  in  1720,  but  their 
alliance  with  Rutland  families  may  mean  that  they 
had  lived  in  County  Tyrone  and  merely  took  ship 
from  Queenstown. 

Mr.  Shaw  left  fi.ve  pounds  to  the  Presbyterian  con- 
gregation in  Long  Lane,  and  his  books  to  his  friends. 
The  titles  of  these  volumes  show  what  the  Scotch 


174  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

Irish  pioneer  read :  The  Practical  Sabbatarian,  by 
John  Wells,  minister  of  St.  Olave,  Jewry ;  Lectures 
upon  the  Fourth  of  John,  by  Arthur  Hildersam,  a 
puritan  divine  at  Ashby  de  la  Zouch ;  A  Sacramental 
Directory,  by  John  Willison,  minister  at  Dundee; 
Heaven  upon  Earth,  by  James  Janeway,  a  minister 
at  Rotherhithe;  and  The  Great  Concern  of  Salva- 
tion, by  Professor  Thomas  Halliburton  of  St.  An- 
drews. The  last  volume  Shaw  left  to  Alexander 
Thien.  This  book  was  published  in  1721,  so  that  the 
owner  must  have  purchased  it  in  Boston  if  he  came 
in  1720.  His  great  Bible  and  the  work  by  Janeway 
he  gave  to  Mrs.  "Eupham"  Johnson,  and  to  her  hus- 
band George  his  case  of  bottles — discriminating 
gifts,  we  may  suppose !  To  their  daughter  Mary  he 
left  his  oval  table  and  pocket  Bible  with  silver 
clasps,  as  well  as  the  books  by  Willison  and  Hilder- 
sam, and  his  candlesticks  and  fire-tongs. 

The  clothing  which  he  wore  is  described  at  some 
length:  To  his  brother-in-law  McClanathan  his 
Camblet  coat  lined  with  green,  and  his  black  and 
white  jacket;  to  his  brother  Samuel  Shaw  a  Duroy 
coat,  brown  holland  coat,  and  dimmity  jacket;  to 
Alexander  Thien  his  coat  with  metal  buttons.  The 
father  was  to  have  the  grey  suit  of  clothes  trimmed 
with  black,  his  "Rocquelo"  or  roquelaure,  a  loose 
coat  to  be  thrown  over  the  shoulders,  his  silver  shoe 
buckles,  his  linen,  and  Burkitt's  Expository  notes 
on  the  New  Testament.    To  David  Hoston  or  Huston 


THE  SCOTCH  IRISH  IN  BOSTON      175 

and  wife  he  gave  four  pounds.  The  executors  were 
his  father  and  George  Glen,  tailor,  his  fellow  mem- 
ber on  the  Church  committee.  The  witnesses  were 
William  Hall,  another  member  of  the  above  men- 
tioned committee,  James  Johnson,  and  James  Brad- 
ford.1 

Eobert  Patten  became  an  elder  in  Mr.  Moorhead's 
church.  But  his  father  showed  an  interest  in  Trin- 
ity church  and  in  his  will  remembered  both  faiths; 
he  left  a  gold  ring  and  gloves  to  Mr.  Moorhead,  and 
£  40  to  the  minister,  wardens  and  vestry  of  Trinity.2 

The  Charitable  TTJsh_Society  of  Boston,  instituted  v^ 
in  1737,  was  to  be  composed  of  persons  ' '  of  the  Irish 
Nation  or  extraction" ;  and  since  the  managers  were 
to  be  Protestants  (article  viii)  it  is  probable  that  the 
earliest  members  also  were  of  that  faith.  Those  who 
became  members  before  the  year  1742,  when  Eoman 
Catholics  are  first  supposed  to  have  been  eligible  to 
membership,  number  one  hundred  and  sixteen.3 
Many  of  them  had  been  in  Boston  for  several  years, 
and  had  become  prosperous  merchants  or  mariners. 

The  Scotch  Irish  began  to  arrive  in  Boston  in 
considerable  numbers  as  early  as  1718.  If  we  as- 
sume that  most  of  these  emigrants  moved  into  the 
country  towns  their  whereabouts  is  made  clear.  If, 
however,  any  great  number  remained  in  Boston  we 


1  Suffolk  Wills,  Vol.  32,  p.  179. 
*IMd,  Vol.  69,  p.  268. 
3  See  Appendix  IV. 


176  SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEEES 

may  wonder  that  they  made  no  impress  on  affairs 
before  1730,  when  the  Presbyterian  Church  records 
begin.  The  surnames  mentioned  in  these  records 
give  some  idea  of  Boston  Scotch  Irish  families,  al- 
though parents  came  fifty  miles  for  the  rites  of  bap- 
tism, and  in  some  cases  there  is  no  indication  on  the 
records  that  a  family  lived  out-of-town. 


THE  WINTER  OF  1718-19  IN  WORCESTER 

Cotton  Mather  had  in  mind  very  early  that  the 
emigrants  from  Ulster  would  be  useful  settlers  on 
the  frontier.  In  1718  the  village  of  Worcester  could 
claim  a  position  on  the  Massachusetts  frontier,  al- 
though it  lay  only  forty  miles  from  Boston.  First 
settled  in  1674,  it  was  deserted  in  King  Philip 's  war, 
1675,  and  again  in  Queen  Anne 's  war,  1702.  In  1713 
Jonas  Rice  courageously  built  a  cabin  at  the  north- 
ern end  of  Sagatabscot  Hill,  south  east. of  the  cen- 
tre of  Worcester  and  near  the  Grafton  line.  Two 
years  later  his  brother  Gershom  settled  at  Paka- 
choag  Hill  in  the  south  western  part  of  the  township, 
near  a  corner  of  the  present  Auburn.  These  Eng- 
lish settlers  and  others  built  a  fort  or  garrison 
house  of  logs  in  1717  on  the  west  side  of  the  present 
Main  Street,  near  Chatham  Street.  The  same  year 
Obadiah  Ward  built  his  mill  a  little  south  east  of  the 
garrison  house,  and  a  year  later  Joshua  Rice  fin- 
ished a  garrison  house  on  the  Jo  Bill  road,  north  of 
the  Main  Street  garrison  house.  At  the  north  east 
corner  of  Main  and  Exchange  streets  already  stood 
Daniel  Heywood's  fortified  tavern,  a  landmark  even 


178 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


in  those  days  on  the  great  highway  into  the  wilder- 
ness.1 


'•  /tnh.'m 


♦  Worcester 
•  Leicester 

The  little  company  of  Scotch  Irish  settlers,  poor, 
weary,  laden  with  blankets  and  tools,  flax- wheels  and 


1  Wall's  Worcester,  1877,  Chapter  2.  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Law- 
rence Park  of  Groton  for  aid  in  preparing  this  chapter.  Mr.  Ben- 
jamin Thomas  Hill  of  Worcester  has  read  the  manuscript  and  has 
placed  his  views  of  old  houses  at  my  disposal. 


WOBCESTER  COUNTY  SETTLEMENTS   179 

cradles,  watched  this  sandy  path  as  it  ran  on  through 
woodland  and  meadow,  and  dotted  at  intervals  with 
garrison  houses,  which  must  have  reminded  them  of 
danger.  They  came  to  act  as  a  buffer  against  the 
Indians,  and  instead  of  welcome  they  received  surly 
conversation  from  the  few  inhabitants  who  turned 
out  to  meet  them.  At  the  head  of  the  party  of  emi- 
grants was  the  Rev.  Edward  FitzGerald  from  Lon- 
donderry, of  whom  less  is  known  than  of  the  other 
ministers  of  the  migration.  James  McClellan  was 
one  of  the  leaders,  and  he  may  even  have  been  in 
Worcester  when  the  band  of  emigrants  came  slowly 
out  from  Boston,  if  he  landed  on  July  28th,  as  seems 
possible.  It  was  on  Saturday,  August  9th,  of  the 
week  after  the  ships  entered  the  harbor,  that  McClel- 
lan made  terms  with  Grershom  Rice  of  Worcester  for 
a  farm  of  seventy  five  acres.1  The  price  was  forty 
one  pounds.  The  land  was  bounded  partly  westerly 
by  land  in  the  possession  of  Captain  Prentice,  east- 
erly by  land  of  Mr.  John  Smith,  and  every  where 
else  by  common  land,  a  country  road  six  rods  wide 
running  through  the  farm.  April  23d  of  the  next 
year  McClellan  purchased  from  Nathaniel  Jones 

1  Middlesex  Deeds,  Vol.  19,  p.  328.  In  the  publications  of  the 
Worcester  Society  of  Antiquity,  Vol.  3,  p.  144,  the  early  Pro- 
prietors' Records  are  given.  A  plot  made  November  21,  1718, 
shows  land  laid  out  on  the  right  of  Captain  Thomas  Prentice,  de- 
ceased, and  "Macklelans  land"  is  shown  to  be  on  "the  Comon 
road,"  west  of  the  Captain's  land.  In  1720  William  McClellan's 
land  is  shown  (page  157). 


180  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

another  large  tract  of  land  bounded  on  the  sonth 
by  the  town  line  and  on  the  east  by  G-ershom  Bice's 
land  and  common  land.  These  and  later  purchases 
formed  a  large  farm  between  Pakachoag  Hill  and  the 
Leicester  line. 

McClellan  at  once  became  a  factor  in  the  Worces- 
ter of  1718,  with  its  fifty-eight  dwellings  and  its  two 
hundred  souls.  Log  cabins  were  built  rapidly  on 
the  common  land.  Mr.  Wall  in  his  Reminiscences  of 
Worcester  indicates  on  his  map  the  probable  sites  in 
1718  of  the  homes  of  the  settlers,  most  of  them 
Scotch  Irish  men  who  came  with  their  families  and 
so  had  to  provide  houses  for  them.  Professor  Perry 
thinks  that  at  least  fifty  families  of  the  old  fashioned 
size  settled  in  Worcester  that  autumn,  doubling  the 
population  of  the  town.1 

Eeligious  services  under  the  Rev.  Mr.  FitzGerald 
began  in  a  garrison  house  near  the  intersection  of 
the  Boston  and  Lancaster  roads,2  at  the  north  end 
of  the  town. 

In  the  autumn  of  1718  or  the  summer  of  1719  the 
Presbyterians  began  to  erect  a  church  of  their  own, 
on  the  west  side  of  Lincoln  street,  "near  the  top  of 
the  hill,  a  little  north  of  the  Paine  house. ' '  Through 
ignorance  as  to  the  religious  views  of  the  Scotch 
Irish,  or  more  probably  from  a  desire  to  force  all 
the  inhabitants  of  the  town  to  attend  and  support 


Proceedings  Scotch  Irish  Society,  2d  Congress,  p.  111. 
Lincoln's  Worcester,  p.  163. 


WOECESTER  COUNTY  SETTLEMENTS    181 

one  church,  the  rougher  element  came  together  one 
night  and  destroyed  the  frame  before  mnch  progress 
had  been  made.  It  is  said  that  Deacon  Daniel  Hey- 
wood  of  the  orthodox  chnrch  lent  his  influence  to 
this  movement1  and  that  the  "best  people  in  town" 
were  present.  The  destruction  proved  a  crushing 
blow  to  those  who  clung  tenaciously  to  their  own 
form  of  worship.  Many  moved  north  onto  a  tract 
of  land  known  as  the  settlers'  part  of  the  town. 
When,  in  1722,  forty  or  fifty  families  had  gathered 
there  this  territory,  six  miles  square,  was  incorpo- 
rated asjfrailansU 

Many  also  went  elsewhere,  some  gathering  at  Sut- 
ton to  be  under  the  Rev.  John  McKinstry,  who  began 
his  ministry  there  about  1720;  others  moving  to 
Londonderry  in  New  Hampshire.  The  Scotch  Irish 
did  not  entirely  desert  Worcester,  although  so  few 
remained  that  they  had  no  control  of  affairs  in  the 
annual  town  meetings,  nor  could  they  bear  the  bur- 
den of  a  minister  of  their  own  faith.  The  Rev.  Mr. 
FitzGerald  left  them,  but  returned  occasionally  to 
preach,  being  referred  to  as  late  as  1729.2  A  few 
years  later  the  Presbyterians  again  attempted  to 
form  a  church,  and  they  called  the  Rev.  William 
Johnston  who  is  said  to  have  come  from  Mullow- 
male,  or  Mullaghmoyle,  county  Tyrone. 

In  1737  John  Clark  and  nine  others,  finding  it 

1  Carl's  tour  in  Main  Street,  pp.  8,  146. 

2  Lincoln's  Worcester,  pp.  166,  191. 


182  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEBS 

burdensome  to  support  Mr.  Johnston  and  at  the 
same  time  aid  the  town's  minister,  asked  the  town 
to  free  them  from  taxation  for  the  support  of  reli- 
gious services,  but  "ye  Irish  petition' '  was  voted 
down  by  "a  grate  majority.' '  Evidently  the  desig- 
nation " Irish* '  still  clung  to  these  Scotch  and  Eng- 
lish settlers  from  Ulster.  Through  adversity  and 
isolation  of  old  they  had  grown  clannish  and  they 
did  not  assimilate  well  with  the  older  New  England 
blood. 

If  we  could  go  back  to  these  early  years  we  should 
probably  find  that  after  FitzGerald's  departure  the 
Presbyterians  attended  the  Congregational  or  town 
services,  except  when  an  itinerant  or  a  passing  min- 
ister of  their  own  communion  gathered  the  loyal 
band  in  a  cabin  to  unite  them  in  prayer  or  to  baptize 
their  children.    . 

The  orthodox  church  was  built  in  1719  in  front  of 
the  site  of  the  present  handsome  city  hall.  At  this 
period  it  was  plain,  without  steeple,  and  at  first 
filled  with  benches.  The  committee  on  seating  in 
1724  had  no  Scotch  Irish  members,  nor  did  they 
grant  any  places  for  private  pews  to  these  new  set- 
tlers. In  the  fore  seat  or  bench  was  John  Gray ;  in 
the  third  seat  were  Matthew  Gray,  John  Duncan; 
in  the  fourth  seat  was  William  Gray;  in  the  fifth 
seat  were  James  Hamilton,  William  McNal,  Eobert 
Peables,  J.  McClellan,  Andrew  Farrend,  Alexander 
McConkey,  John  Killough  and  Eobert  Lothridge  or 


WORCESTER  COUNTY  SETTLEMENTS   183 

Lortridge;  and  in  the  sixth  seat  William  McClel- 
lan,  David  Young,  J.  Bety  or  Batty,  W.  Mahan, 
James  McClellan  and  [Thomas]  Beard,  or  Baird, 
all  or  nearly  all  of  them  Scotch  Irish.1 

In  1733  there  were  in  the  "fore  seet"  John  Gray 
with  five  English  sitters ;  in  the  second  seat  William 
Gray,  James  Hambleton,  Andrew  McFarland,  John 
Clerk,  Robert  Peables;  in  the  third  seat,  Matthew 
Gray,  Alexander  McConkey,  William  Caldwell,  John 
Duncan,  William  Gray,  Jr.,  Matthew  Gray,  Jr.,  An- 
drew McFarland,  Jr.,  and  John  Gray,  Jr. ;  in  the 
fourth  seat  Moses  Harper,  James  Thornington  or 
Thornton,  John  Batty,  Oliver  Wallis,  and  Robert 
Blair ;  in  the  fifth  seat  James  Furbush,  Robert  Lort- 
ridge, John  Alexander,  William  Mahan,  John  Stin- 
son,  Duncan  Graham,  John  McFarland,  and  Joseph 
Clerk;  in  the  sixth  seat  John  Patrick,  James  Glas- 
f ord,  John  Sterling,  and  Hugh  Kelso.  In  the  fore 
seat  in  the  long  gallery  were  William  and  James 
McClellan,2  and  Robert  Barber;  in  the  second  seat 
were  Patrick  Peables,  John  McConkey,  John  Pea- 
bles; and  in  the  second  seat  of  the  "frunt  galiry" 
were  Samuel  Gray,  Thomas  Hambleton,  and  Mat- 
thew Clark.  In  most  of  the  seats  were  other  sitters 
who  were  probably  not  of  the  Scotch  Irish  stock.3 

It  will  be  seen  that  in  1733  there  was  a  consider- 


1  Worcester  Society  of  Antiquity,  Vol.  2,  p.  28. 

2  Perry  adds  John  Cishiel. 

8  Worcester  Society  of  Antiquity,  Vol.  2,  pp.  85-86. 


184      .      SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

able  Scotch  Irish  colony  within  a  church-going  ra- 
dius of  the  Worcester  church. 

In  1737  the  Irish  petition  had  been  voted  down. 
The  lands  now  included  in  the  town  of  Pelham  were 
being  opened  for  settlement,  and  on  the  21st  of  Jan- 
uary, 1738-39,  John  Stoddard  arranged  to  settle  a 
number  of  families  ' '  such  as  were  inhabitants  of  the 
Kingdom  of  Ireland  or  their  descendants,  being 
Protestants. ' '  Their  names  were  :x  James  and  John 
Alexander;  Adam  Clark;  Ephraim  and  George 
Cowan,  the  latter  being  of  Concord;  John  and 
Thomas  Dick;  John  Ferguson  of  Grafton;  James 
Gilmore  of  Boston;  John  Gray,  Jr.,  Samuel,  and 
William  Gray,  Jr.;  James  Hood;  Adam  Johnson; 
John  Johnson  of  Shrewsbury;  Robert  Lotheridge; 
Thomas  Lowden  of  Leicester;  Alexander  and  John 
McConkey;  James  McAllach;  Abraham  Patterson 
of  Leicester;  Patrick  and  Robert  Peibols;  John 
Stinson;  James  Thornton;  James  Taylor;  Samuel 
Thomes;  Alexander  Turner.  The  proprietors  reg- 
istered in  1739  included  also  Andrew  McFarland, 
James  Breakenridge,  Robert  Barbour,  William 
Johnson  and  Matthew  Gray.  John  Gray,  Jr.,  had 
3-60  of  the  rights,  Robert  Peibols  5-60  and  James 
Thornton  had  14-60.  All  the  others  had  one  or  two 
rights.  As  the  place  was  to  be  called  Lisburn  after 
the  town  in  County  Antrim  a  natural  inference  would 
be  that  Thornton  came  from  that  "mother  town." 


1  Parmenter's  Pelham,  pp.  17,  24. 


WORCESTER  COUNTY  SETTLEMENTS    185 

He  was  a  man  of  ability  and  his  son  was  a  signer  of 
the  Declaration  of  Indepedence. 

Exact  information  may  be  had  in  regard  to  a 
few  of  the  Worcester  settlers.  James  McClellan, 
whose  early  purchase  of  land  has  already  been  men- 
tioned, was  a  very  religious,  industrious  and  thrifty 
man.  His  will,  on  file  at  the  Middlesex  Probate 
office,  was  signed  September  29,  1729,  when  he  made 
his  mark.  It  was  probated  October  31st.  The  will 
was  written  apparently  by  Samuel  Jenison,  who 
with  Moses  and  Jane  Harper  were  witnesses.  Mc- 
Clellan mentions  "  Margaret  my  dearly  beloved 
wife";  the  son  William  to  have  lands  at  Bogger- 
hoage,1  104  acres  with  buildings,  and  to  give  his 
mother  yearly  100  weight  of  beef  and  100  weight  of 
pork ;  the  son  James  to  have  95  acres  and  one  half 
the  buildings,  the  other  half  to  be  Margaret's  for 
life;  James  to  haul  and  cut  her  fire  wood,  and  to 
provide  yearly  ten  bushels  of  Indian  corn,  three  of 
English  corn,  two  of  malt,  one  barrel  of  cider,  fodder 
for  two  cows,  and  a  horse  in  the  winter  season,  and 
also  to  fit  (!)  him  in  order  whenever  she  wants  to 
ride.  To  Margaret  he  gave  the  use  of  the  orchard 
for  life.  To  William's  children  William,  Samuel  and 
Ann  he  gave  three  pounds  each,  and  to  James's 
children  James  and  Rebecca  like  sums.  James  he 
made  executor.    It  is  an  excellent  will,  clear,  simple, 

1  "The  south  part  of  the  town,  then  known  as  Bogachoag  (now 
Auburn)." — Carl's  tour  in  Main  Street,  p.  119, 


186  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

and  thoughtful  through  all  its  details,  worthy  of  the 
Worcester  colony,  and  of  the  emigrant's  distin- 
guished descendants  General  Samuel  McClellan, 
General  George  B.  McClellan,  and  the  mayor  of 
Greater  New  York. 

The  Young  family1  have  left  on  their  grave  stones 
valuable  evidence  of  their  Irish  home.  John  and 
David  both  came  from  the  Londonderry  neighbor- 
hood, and  this  suggests  that  the  Worcester  company 
was  from  the  valley  of  the  Foyle;  while  the  New 
Hampshire  and  Falmouth  people  were  from  the 
Bann  Valley.  John  Young  was  born  in  the  Isle  of 
Bert  or  Burt  near  Londonderry,  and  died  at  Worces- 
ter June  30,  1730,  aged  107.  David  was  born  in  the 
parish  of  Taughboyne,  Donegal,  between  London- 
derry and  Lifford  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Foyle, 
and  died  December  26, 1776,  aged  94.2 

The  will  of  Daniel  McFarland,  who  died  in 
Worcester  in  1738,  states  that  he  had  a  daughter 
Margaret  Campbell  living  in  County  Tyrone,  Ire- 
land. Daniel  may  have  been  a  brother  of  John  Mc- 
Farland, mentioned  in  a  paper  in  the  Suffolk  County 
Files,  number  163,586,  which  shows  that  three  emi- 
grants of  the  name,  probably  those  of  Boothbay  a 

Professor  Perry  says  that  the  Youngs  were  of  Celtic  origin. 
See  his  article,  p.  110. 

'Worcester  Society  of  Antiquity,  Vol.  1.  In  the  first  cemetery 
in  Worcester,  where  about  seventeen  were  buried  between  1713 
and  1727,  there  are  no  stones.  The  earliest  stone  on  the  Com- 
mon bears  the  date  1727. 


WORCESTER  COUNTY  SETTLEMENTS    187 

little  later,  appear  to  have  come  from  Ardstraw, 
County  Tyrone,  in  1720. 

The  paper  reads : 

"  This  Bill  bindethus 

John  McFarland,  Sr. 

John  McFarland,  Jr. 

Andrew  McFarland 
in  the  sum  of  £  13.  16.  0  for  the  payment  of  £  6.  18.  0 
unto  Rev.  Mr.  Isaac  Taylor  or  order  within  30  days 
after  arrival  at  New  England  for  value  reed.  Dated 
10  August  1720.  In  presence  of  Robert  Temple, 
Alexander  Hamilton."  * 

Taylor  was  assistant  to  the  Rev.  Mr.  Haliday, 
minister  at  Ardstraw,  Ireland.  He  may,  however, 
have  been  at  Brunswick  for  a  few  months  in  1719 
and  1720.1 

Matthew  Gray  who  came  over  as  a  child  in  1718 
and  Robert  who  came  as  a  youth  of  twenty-one  are 
both  referred  to  as  "  of  the  Company  of  immigrants 
who  settled  here  in  1718.' '  John  Gray  had  land  laid 
out  to  him  by  the  town's  committee  November  26, 
1718,  and  these  were  his  children:  Robert  (born 
1697,  ancestor  of  Asa  Gray  the  botanist),  Samuel, 


Barnes,  son  of  Daniel  McFarland  of  Worcester,  was  at  Bruns- 
wick in  1738.  Duncan  McFarland  of  Rutland  was  probably  a 
son  of  Duncan  who  died  in  Boston  in  1696,  although  perhaps 
closely  related  to  the  Worcester  family.  An  Andrew  McFarland 
married  at  Billerica  in  1725, 


188  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

William,  Matthew  (ancestor  of  Professor  Bliss 
Perry),  John,  Mary  (called  wife  of  William  Blair 
of  Aghadowey,  and  later  wife  of  Matthew  Barbour) , 
and  Sarah  (wife  of  Robert  Barbour,  who  was  born 
at  "Koppra,"  County  Tyrone).1 

It  is  evident  that  those  with  families  were  obliged 
to  build  log  cabins  and  clear  spaces  for  planting ;  but 
two  families  no  doubt  often  lived  together  under  the 
same  roof.  There  were  also  many  young  men  and 
girls  who  went  from  place  to  place  in  search  of  em- 
ployment. Some  of  these  in  the  course  of  ten  years 
returned  to  Worcester  to  buy  land.  Others  married 
and  settled  elsewhere.  The  chief  Worcester  Scotch 
Irish  settlers  bore  the  following  names,  but  many 
others  were  transient  dwellers  in  Worcester  and 
will  be  referred  to  under  Rutland,  Pelham  and 
Palmer. 

Thomas  Baird  Rev.  Edward  Fitz  Gerald 

Robert  Barbour  Samuel  Fleming 

John  Batley  [Betty?]  James  Forbush 

Abraham  Blair  Mrs.  Isabel  Gilmore 

Robert  Blair  John  Gray 

William  Caldwell  James  Hamilton 

Robert  Crawford  James  Heart 

John  Duncan  Hugh  Kelso 

William  Dunlap  (1731)  Archibald  Lamond  (1731) 


1  No  place  name  in  Ireland  begins  with  Ko.  Perhaps  Cappagh 
on  the  northern  side  of  the  Mourne,  between  Newtown  Stewart 
and  Omagh,  is  referred  to.    Clogher  was  not  far  away. 


WORCESTER  COUNTY  SETTLEMENTS    191 


Robert  Lollard 
Robert  Lortridge 
James  McClellan 
John  McClintock 
Alexander  McConkey 
John  McConkey 
Daniel  McFarland 
William  McHan 


John  McKachan 
Robert  Peables 
David  Thomas 
James  Thornton 
William  Walker 
Matthias  Wallis 
David  Yonng 
John  Yonng 


Many  men  bearing  these  names  will  be  found  men- 
tioned in  the  excellent  history  of  Pelham.  Most  of 
the  Rutland  settlers  came  with  the  Worcester  colony, 
and  the  names  of  the  chief  Scotch  Irish  families 
there  belong  almost  as  certainly  with  the  Worcester 
as  with  the  Rutland  list.  Some  of  these  Rutland 
settlers  brought  letters  of  dismissal  from  their 
church  in  Ireland.  That  of  Malkem  Hendery  was 
from  the  Rev.  Mr.  Haliday  at  Ardstraw  in  County 
Tyrone,  the  home  of  the  McFarlands.  The  Stinsons, 
Hamiltons  and  Savages  were  closely  allied,  and  it  is 
possible  that  a  large  number  of  the  Rutland  colony 
came  over  from  Ardstraw  together.  Of  the  follow- 
ing those  with  an  asterisk  prefixed  probably  repre- 
sent Ardstraw  colonists. 


^Alexander  Bothwell 
James  Browning 
^John  Browning 
James  Clark 
John  Clark 


*Aaron  Crawford 
*John  Crawford 
*William  Fenton 
Robert  Ferrell 
Robert  Forbush 


192 


SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 


Duncan  Graham 
Patrick  Gregory 

*John     Hamilton      (of 
Brookfield  1726) 

*Malkem  Hendery 
John  Lecore 
William  McCarter 
Thomas  McClanathan 
John  McClanathan 
[Duncan  McFarland] 
John  Mclntire 

*Robert  McLem 
Daniel  McMains 


James  McPherson 

*John  Moor 
John  Murray 

*Robert  Patrick 
Edward  Savage 
Matthew  Slarrow 

J  William  Sloan 
James  Smith 
William  Spear 
Robert  Sterling 
John  S  tins  on 
William  Watson 


Edward  Savage  mentioned  above  was  the  grand- 
father of  the  Philadelphia  painter  and  engraver  of 
portraits  of  Washington. 

The  chief  Palmer  settlers,  who  came  largely  from 
Worcester,  were: 


James  Breakenridge 
Andrew  Farrand 
Thomas  Farrand,  Jr. 
Robert  Ferrell 
Joseph  Fleming 
John  Glasford 
James  Lamont 
Thomas  McClanathan 
William  McClanathan 
John  McMaster 


William  McMitchel 
Alexander  McNitt 
James  Moore 
John  Moore 
John  Patterson 
William  Patterson 
John  Peables 
Duncan  Quinton 
Robert  Rogers 
Samuel  Shaw 


WOECESTEE  COUNTY  SETTLEMENTS    193 

Seth  Shaw  Alexander  Tackels 

James  Shearer  John  Thomson 

Eobert  Smith  Eobert  Thomson 
John  Spence 

At  Palmer  and  on  lands  across  the  Ware  Eiver 
in  the  present  town  of  Ware  the  population  grew 
rapidly.  Sons  and  daughters  from  Worcester  and 
Eutland  did  the  first  rough  work  of  the  pioneer.  To 
their  numbers  were  added  those  of  the  later  immi- 
grants who  withstood  the  allurements  of  a  warmer 
climate.  There  was  Alexander  McNitt  from  County 
Donegal  whose  son  Barnard  served  as  clerk  and 
treasurer  of  the  Proprietors  of  Common  Lands. 
Several  miles  east  of  Palmer  William  Sinclair,  born 
in  the  parish  of  Drumbo,  County  Down,  in  1676, 
lived  at  this  period  in  Leicester  and  Spencer.1  His 
daughter  Agnes  became  the  wife  of  the  chief  man  in 
this  Scotch  Irish  neighborhood,  William  Breaken- 
ridge,  the  first  representative  to  the  Provincial  Con- 
gress, and  town  clerk  of  Ware  for  eighteen  years. 
He  came  to  America  from  Ireland  in  1727  when  four 
years  of  age,  with  his  father,  James,  a  native  of 
Scotland.  Mr.  Hyde  in  his  address  at  Ware,  says : 
"  There  is  in  the  Brakenridge  family  an  ancient 
manuscript  music-book  upon  the  fly-leaf  of  which  is 
written,  'Mr.  Jacobus  Breakenridge,  His  Music 
Book,  made  and  taught  per  me,  Eobt.  Cairnes,  at 


1  History  of  Spencer,  1841,  pp.  114,  132;  1860,  204,  255. 


194  SCOTCH   IRISH  PIONEERS 

Glenreavoll,1  Sept.  1715. J  Besides  the  scale  and 
rudiments  of  music,  it  contains  the  date  of  his  mar- 
riage, 1720,  and  the  births  of  his  children,  giving  the 
day,  the  hour  and  the  time  in  the  moon,  with  other 
memoranda.  On  one  page  is  written,  'We  departed 
from  Ireland,  July  16,  1727,  and  my  child  died  on 
the  19th  of  Aug. '  " 

The  newer  towns  drew  from  almost  every  county 
in  Ulster. 

The  evidence  relating  to  the  origin  of  the  Worces- 
ter-Rutland colony,  however,  seems  to  point  to  the 
valley  of  the  Foyle  as  the  home  of  its  pioneer  mem- 
bers. If  McClellan  had  not  come  in  the  ship  from 
Londonderry,  John  Wilson,  master,  which  arrived 
July  28th  he  would  have  come  on  August  4th.  In 
those  days  the  space  of  time  between  August  4th 
and  the  9th,  Monday  to  Saturday,  would  have  been 
short  for  the  labors  of  bringing  his  family  goods 
ashore,  journeying  out  to  Worcester,  selecting  a 
farm  and  looking  it  over,  waiting  for  a  deed  to  be 
drawn,  and  attaching  his  signature.  All  this  could 
have  been  done  in  six  days,  but  a  careful,  provident 
man  would  have  felt  hurried  in  so  important  a  task 
in  a  strange  land.  If,  however,  McClellan  arrived  on 
the  ship  from  Londonderry  he  had  from  July  28th 
to  August  9th  to  reach  Worcester  and  buy  his  farm. 
With  him  in  Worcester  were  settlers  from  three 
counties,  Londonderry,   Donegal  and  Tyrone,  but 


Perhaps  Glenravil,  barony  of  Antrim,  County  Antrim. 


WOBCESTEB  COUNTY  SETTLEMENTS    195 

most  of  them  came  from  County  Tyrone.  The  Foyle, 
made  broad  by  the  union  of  two  streams,  flows  by 
Lifford  on  the  Donegal  side,  and  Strabane  on  the 
Tyrone  side,  northward  between  the  counties  until 
it  approaches  the  city  of  Londonderry.  There  the 
county  of  Londonderry  seems  to  throw  itself  across 
the  Foyle  to  encompass  the  city.  These  twenty  miles 
of  the  Foyle  from  Strabane  to  the  city  drain  a  terri- 
tory which  has  been  a  nursery  of  strong  men  "who 
fought  naked  for  King  William,  our  liberties,  our 
religion,  and  all  that  was  dear  to  us." 

These  men  from  the  valley  of  the  Foyle  proved 
themselves  sturdy  of  body  and  brain.  They  were, 
however,  if  we  may  judge  from  minor  evidences, 
less  prosperous  and  possibly  less  well  educated  at 
the  time  of  arrival  than  those  of  the  Bann  compa- 
nies. In  this  opinion  I  am  supported  by  Professor 
Perry,  who  writes:  "I  entertain  the  opinion,  gath- 
ered from  scattered  and  uncertain  data,  that  it  was 
the  poorer,  the  more  illiterate,  the  more  helpless, 
part  of  the  five  ship-loads  who  were  conducted  to 
Worcester."1  Under  these  circumstances  their  suc- 
cess in  the  New  World  was  remarkable. 


1  Page  110  of  his  article. 


XI 


THE  WINTER  OF  1718-19  IN  DRACUT, 
ANDOVER,  AND  CASCO  BAY 

We  have  seen  that  many  Scotch  Irish  immigrants 
passed  the  winter  of  1718-19  in  Boston,  mnch  to  the 
discomfort  of  the  town  officers  and  citizens  there. 
These  immigrants  were  possibly  from  the  territory 
aronnd  Belfast,  comprising  southern  Antrim  and 
the  northern  part  of  the  County  of  Down.  They 
must  have  treasured  some  memories  of  the  sailing 
of  the  Eagle  Wing  nearly  a  century  before,  for  many 
of  their  towns  had  sent  out  inhabitants  on  that  fated 
expedition. 

The  Worcester  company  left  Boston  early  in  Au- 
gust, 1718.  Other  families  and  groups  of  immigrants 
struck  out  for  themselves.  James  Smith,  who  had 
come  from  Ballykelly,  a  town  between  the  Foyle  and 
the  Bann,  near  Newton  Limavady,  wandered  about 
for  a  few  months  and  settled  down  in  Needham, 
where  his  third  son  Matthew  was  born  in  April, 
1720.  The  Rev.  Jonathan  Townsend,  writing  there 
in  February,  1723^,  states  that  a  year  earlier  he 
had  had  to  plead  with  his  people  not  to  ill-treat  the 
new  settlers,1  from  which  we  may  infer   that   the 


1  Information  from  George  K.  Clarke,  Esq. 


DEACUT  AND  CASCO  BAY  197 

Smiths  soon  must  have  had  Scotch  Irish  neighbors. 
The  church  reference  to  Mr.  Smith  is  an  interesting 
record : 

"Jan:  9,  1726.  —  James  Smith  &  Mary  his  Wife 
admitted  into  the  Church,  came  from  Ireland  A.  D. 
1718,  &  Brought  a  Testimonial  with  them  from  Mr. 
John  Stirling  Minister  of  the  Congregation  of  Belly- 
kelly  in  the  County  of  Londonderry." 

The  leaders  of  the  Bann  Valley  settlers,  finding 
that  their  agent,  the  Eev.  William  Boyd,  had  ob- 
tained no  definite  grant  of  land,  determined  to  spend 
the  winter  in  or  near  Boston  until  affairs  were  more 
to  their  satisfaction.  Boyd,  as  we  have  seen,  re- 
mained in  Boston,  but  the  Rev.  Mr.  McGregor's 
means  were  not  sufficient  to  allow  him  to  pass  the 
winter  in  idleness,  and  he  appealed  to  the  Rev.  Cot- 
ton Mather  for  influence  in  obtaining  a  position  as 
teacher  or  minister.  Mather  in  his  diary  under 
October  3d  writes :  ' '  Encourage  ye  people  of  Dray- 
cot  unto  ye  Inviting  of  a  worthy  Scotch  minister 
lately  arrived  here,  to  settle  among  ym. ' ' 

Mather's  letter,  written  on  the  previous  day,  is 
printed  below  from  the  somewhat  illegible  rough 
draft  at  the  American  Antiquarian  Society's  library 
in  Worcester: 

2d  VIIIm  1718 
Dear  Brethren 

Being  informed  that  you  are  desirous  to  hear  from 
us,  the  character  of  or  Friend  and  Brother  Mr  Mc 


198  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEERS 

Gregore,  we  do,  with  great  Alacrity  and  satisfaction 
give  yon  to  nnderstant  that  we  look  npon  him,  as  a 
person  of  a  very  excellent  character :  and  consider- 
ably qualified  for  the  work  of  ye  ministry  as  well  for 
his  ministerial  abilities  as  his  Christian  [I]  piety: 
[serious  gravity  and  as  far  as  we  have  heard  every 
way  unexceptionable  Behaviour.]1  And  we  have 
also  had  it  credibly  Reported  unto  us,  that  from  a 
singular  goodness  in  his  Temper,  he  was  usually 
called  The  peace-maker,  in  ye  countrey  from  whence 
he  came.  On  these  Accounts  we  cannot  but  hope  that 
if  you  should  obtain  him,  to  become  your  pastor,  you 
will  enjoy  in  him  a  very  precious  gift  of  your  as- 
cended Saviour,  To  whose  Blessing  you  are  now 
commended  by  Your  hearty  Friend 

[Cotton  Mather]. 

In  writing  of  Mr.  McGregor  it  must  be  evident 
that  Cotton  Mather  expressed  himself  after  two 
months  of  intercourse  with  the  Scotch  minister.  We 
may  assume  also  from  McGregor's  marriage  to  a 
sister  of  the  wives  of  James  McKeen  and  Captain 
James  Gregg  that  he  must  himself  have  been  a  man 
of  ability,  for  they  were  leaders  •  among  men  wher- 
ever they  chanced  to  be. 

The  village  of  Dracut  had  built  a  little  meeting 
house  three  years  earlier  on  the  river  road,  now 
Varnum  Avenue.    It  was  thirty  feet  long  and  twenty 

1  Mather  wrote  this  clause  as  a  marginal  insertion. 


DBACUT  AND  CASCO  BAY     199 

feet  wide,  and  to  this  house  of  worship  after  listen- 
ing to  some  fifteen  candidates  the  people  decided 
to  summon  Mr.  McGregor, ' '  the  peace-maker. ' '  The 
town  evidently  hoped  that  he  would,  if  acceptable, 
settle  down  after  the  admirable  custom  of  the  time 
to  be  the  father  of  his  flock  through  life.  The  record 
of  the  town  (there  are  no  church  records  until  1788) 
reads : 

"Dracutt,  Oct.  ye  15,  1718. 

"Mad  choice  of  Mr.  Mackgreggor  to  settel  in  Dra- 
cutt to  prech  the  Gospel  and  to  do  the  Whole  Work  of 
a  Settled  minister ;  and  likewise  Voted  to  give  to  Mr 
Macgreger  Sixty  five  pounds  a  year  for  his  salary 
for  the  first  four  years,  and  then  Seaventy  pound 
a  year  till  there  Be  fifty  families  in  the  town  of  Dra- 
cutt, and  then  it  Shall  Be  eighty  pounds  a  yeare; 
and  likewise  voted  for  a  settlement  sixty  pounds  the 
one  half  the  Next  June  ins  eying,  and  the  other  half 
the  next  June,  in  the  year  1720 ' 91 

The  Eev.  James  McGregor  spent  the  winter  of 
1718-19  in  Dracut  on  the  banks  of  Beaver  Brook,  a 
little  north  of  the  present  city  of  Lowell,  and  south 
of  the  future  Nutfield ;  but  there  is  no  evidence  that 
the  Scotch  Irish  people  followed  him  to  Dracut.  In 
addition  to  his  work  as  the  village  pastor  he  taught 
the  school. 

Parker  in  his  History  of  Londonderry  refers  to  a 
winter  settlement  of  Scotch  Irish  at  Andover,  a 

1 1  consulted  also  papers  lent  by  Silas  R.  Coburn,  Esq.,  of  Dracut. 


200  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

village  five  or  ten  miles  east  of  Dracut.  "On  tak- 
ing their  departure, ' '  lie  writes,  "from  one  of  the 
families  with  whom  they  had  resided,  they  left  a  few 
potatoes  for  seed.  The  potatoes  were  accordingly 
planted;  came  np  and  flourished  well;  blossomed 
and  produced  balls,  which  the  family  supposed  were 
the  fruit  to  be  eaten.  They  cooked  the  balls  in  vari- 
ous ways,  but  could  not  make  them  palatable,  and 
pronounced  them  unfit  for  food.  The  next  spring, 
while  ploughing  their  garden  the  plough  passed 
through  where  the  potatoes  had  grown,  and  turned 
out  some  of  great  size,  by  which  means  they  discov- 
ered their  mistake." 

This  incident  is  said  to  have  occurred  on  the  farm 
of  Nathaniel  Walker,  father  of  the  Eev.  Timothy 
Walker,  first  minister  of  Concord.  The  farm  was 
near  the  boundary  line  between  North  Andover  and 
Bradford,  and  several  families  probably  spent  the 
winter  of  1718-19  there,  the  single  men  and  girls 
finding  shelter  and  employment  in  the  neighboring 
villages.1  The  Andover  taxpayers  were  assessed 
forty  shillings  in  1719  to  provide  funds  to  aid  the 
poor,  and  part  of  the  money  thus  collected  was  no 
doubt  spent  for  provisions  for  the  Scotch  Irish.  Ob- 
viously the  settlers  of  a  single  winter  left  few  rec- 
ords of  their  stay ;  but  Miss  C.  H.  Abbott,  the  inde- 
fatigable investigator,  has  found  traces  of  them. 


1  Miss  Abbott  writes :  "The  Walker  garden  may  have  been  on  the 
Andover  line,  but  I  am  quite  as  sure  he  worshipped  and  paid 
taxes  mainly  in  Bradford  town." 


DRACUT  AND  CASCO  BAY  201 

Thomas  Grow,  probably  the  same  man  who  signed 
the  petition  to  Governor  Shute  in  1718,  was  one  of 
those  who  remained  in  Andover  after  his  compan- 
ions had  moved  to  Nutfield.  An  order  was  issned 
the  next  winter  for  his  relief,  and  at  about  the  same 
time,  with  man's  improvidence,  he  was  married. 
His  wife,  Rebecca  Holt  came  of  a  well  known  local 
family.1 

Two  other  men  from  Ireland  are  mentioned  upon 
the  records  at  an  early  date,  Robert  Stuart  and  Wil- 
liam Bolton,  who  were  recorded  January  30, 1718-19, 
as  living  in  the  town.  They  had  come  up  from  Bos- 
ton the  preceding  summer  or  autumn,  Stuart  bring- 
ing a  family  with  him.  Very  unreliable  tradition2 
states  that  Robert  Stuart  of  Edinburgh  (1655-1719) 
was  the  father  of  Robert  of  Andover  and  of  John 
(1682-1741),  the  proprietor  of  Londonderry,  New 
Hampshire.  Samuel  Stuart  of  Andover,  called  a 
third  son  of  the  first  Robert,  was  executor  of  the  will 
of  John  in  1741.  A  Walter  Stewart  or  Stuart  of 
Londonderry  married  in  1722  Giziell  Crumey  of 
Boxford,  and  a  little  later  John  Stuart  of  London- 
derry owned  land  in  Boxford.  These  men  may  have 
been  kinsmen,  but  there  were  so  many  early  immi- 
grants by  the  name  of  Stuart,  some  on  Cape  Cod, 


1  Their  children  mentioned  upon  the  records  were  Ruth,  born 
in  1720,  and  Hannah,  born  in  1723.  In  1721  the  town  records 
refer  to  "Elizabeth  Nichols'  child  that  is  called  John  Grow,"  for 
whom  provision  was  to  be  made. 

2  See,  however,  the  "Duncan-Stuart  family,"  p.  140. 


202  SCOTCH   IRISH  PIONEEES 

others  in  Connecticut,  in  Charlestown,  Lunenburg 
and  elsewhere  that  only  the  family  historian  could 
trace  their  relationship. 

William  Bolton,  called  "Scotch"  by  his  descend- 
ants, came  from  the  vicinity  of  Coleraine.  He  mar- 
ried at  Andover  in  1719-20,  and  died  soon  after  in 
the  adjoining  town  of  Reading,  leaving  two  sons 
William  and  John. 

Of  these  immigrants  Miss  Abbott  says:  "I  find 
many  were  tenants  on  farms  held  partly  by  dower 
widows  and  worked  on  shares."  Land  was  difficult 
of  purchase  in  an  old  town  like  Andover,  and  most 
of  the  Scotch  Irish  were  transients  only.  On  the 
Andover  town  records  are  the  names  of : 

John  CofTerin  or  Cochran      .         .  1725/6 

John  Telford 1725/6 

John  Cromme  or  Crombie      .         .  1726/7 

Hugh  Riddle           ....  1726/7 

William  Crumney           .        .        .  1727 
Thomas  Richardson,  "Irishman," 

his  son  John  baptized        .        .  1730 
Joseph  Waugh  and  wife  Margaret, 

before 1732 

Alexander      Macartney,      ' '  Irish- 
man," and  Margaret  his  wife, 

about 1742 

James,  John  and  Samuel  Seaton    .  1748 

Other  members  of  the  Scotch  Irish  migration  may 


DBACUT  AND  CASCO  BAY     203 

have  tarried  at  Haverhill,  Bradford  and  Dracut,  but 
the  record  of  them  is  meagre. 

While  the  Andover  colonists  were  spending  the 
winter  in  moderate  comfort,  the  " Irish' '  at  Casco 
Bay  suffered  great  hardship.  Parker  writes :  ' i  The 
party  that  left  Boston  for  Casco  Bay,  arrived  there 
late  in  the  season ;  and  it  proving  to  be  a  very  early 
and  cold  winter,  the  vessel  was  frozen  in.  Many  of 
the  families,  not  being  able  to  find  accommodations 
on  shore,  were  obliged  to  pass  the  whole  winter  on 
board  the  ship,  suffering  severely  from  the  want  of 
food,  as  well  as  of  convenience  of  situation/ ' 

The  village  of  Falmouth  on  the  site  of  the  present 
city  of  Portland,  Maine,  had  suffered  from  Indian 
raids,  from  intense  cold  in  winter,  and  from  the  pov- 
erty of  its  fishing  population.  In  the  Acts  and  re- 
solves of  the  province  of  the  Massachusetts  Bay  it  is 
recorded  July  16,  1718,  that  a  committee  of  five  was 
appointed  to  view  Falmouth,  give  advice  as  to  laying 
out  of  streets,  placing  the  meeting  house,  and  organ- 
ization. The  appointment  of  this  committee  prob- 
ably drew  the  attention  of  Governor  Shute  to  the 
lands  about  Casco  Bay  between  Cape  Elizabeth  and 
the  mouth  of  the  Kennebec,  roughly  the  land  between 
Portland  and  Bath.  He,  it  is  said,  spoke  to  Mc- 
Gregor and  McKeen,  and  the  latter  with  the  Eev.  Mr. 
McGregor's  congregation,  relatives,  and  friends,  de- 
termined to  go  at  once  in  the  ship  in  which  they  had 
crossed  the  ocean,  to  explore  the  coast  of  the  bay. 


204 


SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 


Meanwhile  the  Committee  recommended  that  the 
inhabitants  already  there  be  given  powers  of  self- 
government  since  there  was  "a  Fair  Prospect  of  its 
being  in  a  little  time  a  flourishing  town."    On  No- 


^^to|>e  Buxa&fiM 


vember  12th  the  Legislature  approved  the  sugges- 
tion on  condition  that  fifty  families  more  be  admit- 
ted as  soon  as  possible  and  settled  in  a  compact  and 
defensible  manner.  On  the  19th  the  Legislature  ap- 
proved a  project  for  a  town  to  be  laid  out  near  Fal- 
mouth for  the  Scotch  Irish,  evidently  having  no 


DRACUT  AND  CASCO  BAY  205 

thought  that  the  Scotch  Irish  emigrants  would  settle 
in  Falmouth. 

Those  who  sailed  into  Casco  Bay  in  the  " Robert' ' 
went  ashore  probably  between  Falmouth  Village  and 
the  Point  on  Cape  Elizabeth,  where  they  began  about 
the  month  of  November  to  build  rough  shelters  for 
the  winter.1  It  seems  difficult  to  believe  that  the  fam- 
ilies which  were  on  the  ship  could  not  provide  rough 
huts  before  winter  set  in.  Evidently  the  autumn 
was  extremely  cold  and  the  vessel,  if  tradition  is  to 
be  believed,  was  caught  in  the  ice,  so  that  those  who 
did  not  immediately  get  their  huts  well  under  way 
were  forced  by  the  bitter  weather  to  settle  down  on 
the  " Robert' '  for  the  winter.  John  Armstrong  and 
others  at  once  sent  a  petition  to  the  government  at 
Boston. 

This  John  Armstrong  is  no  doubt  the  indigent 
voyager  on  the  "Robert";  in  the  wild  life  on  Cape 
Elizabeth  his  ability  brought  him  forward.  The 
official  reference  to  the  petition  reads :  "A  Petition 
of  John  Armstrong  &  divers  others,  Setting  forth 
that  there  are  about  thirty  Families  arrived  from 
the  North  of  Ireland,  at  Falmouth,  in  Casco  Bay, 
that  they  are  building  Cottages  to  shelter  themselves 
from  the  weather,  that  their  good  Success  in  these 
Parts  will  encourage  many  of  their  Brethren  to 
transport  themselves  &  Families  into  this  countrey ; 

^outhack's  "Actual  survey  of  the  sea  coast"  has  houses  and 
trees  at  "Porpolac  Pt."  » 


206  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

And  therefore  Praying  that  they  may  have  Portions 
of  Land  allotted  to  them  near  Falmouth;  &  seeing 
they  are  scarce  of  Provisions,  that  they  may  have 
some  thing  to  subsist  them  this  Winter."1  There 
are  several  petitions  of  this  period,  and  in  reply  the 
Council  stated  that  Armstrong's  petition  could  not 
be  granted  as  Falmouth  was  " anciently  inhabited,' f 
and  the  lands  were  already  owned. 

Meanwhile  the  development  of  Falmouth  lan- 
guished. Samuel  Moody  and  John  Smith  wrote  to 
the  government  that  notwithstanding  the  favorable 
report  of  the  Committee,  and  the  powers  given  to 
Falmouth,  yet  claimers  and  proprietors  of  lands 
could  not  agree  upon  their  bounds.  The  petitioners 
asked  that  a  constable  and  other  officers  be  ap- 
pointed to  regulate  affairs  and  provide  for  the  sup- 
port of  a  minister.  They  stated  that  the  population 
was  about  three  hundred,2  most  of  them  from  Ire- 
land, and  one  half  so  poor  that  they  had  neither  pro- 
vision nor  money  for  them.  They  conclude  by  ask- 
ing "that  this  Honble  Court  would  be  pleased  to  con- 
sider the  deplorable  Circumstances  of  the  said  Place 
by  reason  of  the  great  Number  of  poor  Strangers 
arrived  amongst  them  and  take  some  speedy  &  Ef- 
fectual Care  for  their  supply." 

This  petition  was  ordered  to  be  referred  to  the 

1  Legislative  Records  of  the  Council,  Vol.  10,  pp.  309,  313,  314, 
318,  321. 

2  The  "Robert's"  passengers  were  not  the  only  Scotch  Irish  on 
Cape  Elizabeth. 


DBACUT  AND  CASCO  BAY  207 

session  in  May,  and  one  hundred  bushels  of  Indian 
meal  were  to  be  forwarded  to  the  Irish  people.1 

The  Eev.  William  Cornwall  had  gone  with  the 
"Bobert"  in  place  of  the  Kev.  Mr.  McGregor.  Mr. 
Cornwall  was  from  Clogher,  in  County  Tyrone,  a 
day's  journey  south  of  Londonderry.  He  was  not 
well,  and  on  account  of  the  distance  of  his  dwelling 
house  in  Clogher  from  the  church,  and  the  arrears  of 
his  salary,  he  resigned  his  pastorate  and  joined  the 
McGregor  colony.  One  winter  at  Casco  Bay  seems  to 
have  chilled  his  ardor  for  pioneering  and  he  returned 
to  become  minister  at  Taughboyne  in  1722.  The  pri- 
vations which  threatened  the  "  Bobert  V  company 
at  Porpooduc,  as  the  Cape  Elizabeth  land  was  called, 
brought  from  Mr.  Cornwall  a  letter  of  distress.  Cot- 
ton Mather,  January  8,  1718t19,  wrote  in  his  Diary : 
"Some  Letters  unto  ye  Scotch  ministers  arrived  in 
o[u]r  East  Countrey,  may  have  a  Tendency  to 
hearten  them  in  that  work  of  God,  which  they  have 
to  do,  in  those  New  Plantations ;  and  more  particu- 
larly for  ye  Christianizing  of  the  Indians  there."2 
The  following  draft  of  a  letter  by  Mather  gives  an 
intimation  of  his  labors  in  behalf  of  the  struggling 
colony  "at  Porpooduc,  Casco  Bay,  Falmouth  town- 
ship. ' '    He  writes : 

"Whereas,  the  New  Settlement  at  Casco-hay,  is 
as  yett  in  its  feeble  infancy,  But  Yett  there  is  usual 

Massed  December  3,  1718. 

1 1  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Julius  H.  Tuttle  for  these  references  to 
Mather's  Diary. 


208  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

(besides  ye  Families  that  have  began  as  inhabitants) 
on  ye  Lords-day  a  Considerable  Resort  of  people  that 
are  from  divers  places  on  their  Fishing  voyages: 
which  renders  ye  Condition  of  these  places  a  little  pe- 
culiar, and  Considerably  calls  for  our  care  that  the 
Lords-days  may  not  pass  without  public  Exercise  of 
Religion  there:  Whereas  also  there  is  now  a  very 
worthy,  pious  &  Peaceful  Minister  whose  name  is 
Mr.  Comwal  much  desired  and  invited  by  the  people 
there:  who  are  willing  to  do  something  toward  the 
subsistence  of  him ;  which  something  is  much  too  lit- 
tle in  any  tolerable  measure  to  insure  ye  Instruction. 

"  'Tis  humbly  moved  That  ye  General  Assembly 
would  express  ye  goodness  usual  wth  ye  governmen* 
on  such  occasions  and  allow  for  one  year  from  ye 
public  Treasury  some. agreeable  accession  to  what 
ye  people  there  can  do,  towards  ye  support  of  such 
a  minister."1 

"With  the  approach  of  warmer  weather  in  the 
spring  of  1719  most  of  the  McGregor  colony  looked 
about  for  a  more  promising  place.  Those  who  re- 
mained at  Falmouth  led  a  miserable  existence.  The 
Rev.  Thomas  Smith,  "pastor  of  the  first  church  of 
Christ  in  Falmouth,' '  came  to  his  desolate  field  of 
labor  in  1720.  There  were  less  than  sixty  families, 
very  poor  because  they  were  so  often  forced  through 
fear  of  the  Indians  to  abandon  their  farms  and  live 
in  garrison  houses,  and  some  of  them,  says  Smith, 


'American  Antiquarian  Society,  Mather  Papers. 


DEACUT  AND  CASCO  BAY  209 

"  soldiers  that  had  found  wives  on  the  place,  and 
were  mean  animals.' '  But  the  fighting  in  1722  did 
away  with  the  worst  of  them.1 

In  1735  there  were  only  twenty  families  at  Por- 
pooduc,  and  the  Presbyterians  there,  at  Falmouth, 
and  at  the  settlement  in  Brunswick,  to  be  noticed 
later,  were  ministered  to  by  the  Eev.  James  Wood- 
side  for  several  years.  He  was  followed  by  the  Eev. 
William  McClenathan,  who  removed  to  Blandf  ord  in 
Massachusetts  in  1744.  During  the  next  score  of 
years  only  the  aged  gathered  to  hear  a  passing 
Presbyterian  minister,  to  renew  their  faith  and  their 
memories  of  old  Ireland.2 

History  and  tradition  have  left  some  record  of 
those  who  remained  in  Falmouth  after  the  winter 
sojourners  had  gone  on  to  Nutfield.  John  Arm- 
strong, signer  of  the  petition,  with  Eobert  Means, 
who  had  married  his  daughter,  were  certainly  there, 
and  Means  settled  at  Stroudwater,  a  village  near 
Falmouth.  The  descendants  of  Means  became  very 
prominent  later  in  Massachusetts.  Armstrong  is 
said  to  have  had  brothers  Simeon,  James  and 
Thomas,  who  had  grants  in  or  near  Falmouth  be- 
fore 1721.3 


1  Smith's  Journal,  p.  15. 

2  A.  Blaikie's  Presbyterianism,  p.  88. 

3  Armstrong  had  an  infant  son,  James,  and  a  son  Thomas,  born 
in  Falmouth  in  1719.  His  brother,  James,  had  Thomas,  born  in 
Ireland  in  1717,  as  well  as  John,  born  in  1720,  and  James,  in  1721, 
both  in  Falmouth. 


210        •   SCOTCH   IEISH  PIONEERS 

John  Barbour1  came  with  his  family,  a  son  John 
having  come  to  York,  it  is  said,  as  early  as  1717. 

Eandal  McDonald  is  also  mentioned  as  of  the  com- 
pany which  spent  the  winter  of  1718-19  in  Falmouth, 
and  with  him  William  Jameson.  A  man  named  Sle- 
mons  is  said  to  have  settled  at  Stroudwater  with 
Means. 

This  list  is  no  doubt  wholly  inadequate,  but  the 
establishment  of  settlers  a  few  miles  away  at  Bruns- 
wick in  1718,  supposed  to  be  the  passengers  by  the 
' '  Maccallum, ' '  and  additions  in  great  numbers  there 
in  1719  under  Captain  Robert  Temple,  make  it  ex- 
tremely difficult  to  name  those  who  spent  the  winter 
of  1718-19  in  or  near  Falmouth,  and  remained  long 
enough  to  find  a  place  on  the  records. 

Trouble  with  the  Indians  drove  many  farmers  out 
of  the  country  during  the  next  five  years,  and  from 
the  lists  of  persons  reaching  Boston  a  few  names 
of  early  dwellers  in  Casco  Bay  can  be  added.  These 
names  were  incorporated  into  the  Boston  Select- 
men's records. 

Recorded  at  a  meeting  of  the  selectmen,  April  27, 
1719:— 

Anne  Hanson  who  came  from  Casco  into  this 
Town  ab*  a  week  before  was  on  ye  23th  of  march, 
1718  [-19]  warned  to  depart. 

1  Smith  and  Deane's  Journal,  pp.  57,  60,  92,  165 ;  Willis's  Port- 
land, pp.  326,  788;  McLellan's  Gorham,  p.  395.  See  also  an  article 
by  Mrs.  Alice  F.  Moody  in  The  Boston  Transcript,  June  5,  1907. 


S 

p  s 

I  - 


*   fi 


3     5 


OS      •— ' 


j  * 


DEACUT  AND  CASCO  BAY  213 

Bobert  Holmes  &  wife,  William  Holmes  & 
child  who  came  from  Casco  into  this  Town  ab* 
12  dayes  before  was  on  the  15th  of  Aprill  cur* 
warned  to  depart. 

Eecorded  July  25,  1719  :— 

Joan  Maccoullah  widd0  came  from  Casco  bay 
who  had  been  then  here  ab*  5  dayes  was  on  the 
5th  of  June,  warned  to  depart. 

Eecorded  October  28,  1720:— 

Noah  Peck  from  Casco  2  moneths  warned  26th 
of  August. 

Eecorded  July  28,  1722  :— 

Thomas  Longworth,  Lame,  from  Casco 
[warned]  June  3. 

Longworth  was  a  settler  long  before  1718.     The 
same  may  perhaps  be  said  of  Peck. 

The  Scotch  Irish  settlers  at  Casco  Bay  between 
1718  and  1722,  that  is,  at  Falmouth  and  along  the 
shore  of  Cape  Elizabeth,  were  more  numerous  than 
these  records  show,  but  some  of  the  earliest  were : 
James  Armstrong. 
John  Armstrong. 
Simeon  Armstrong. 
Thomas  Armstrong. 
f  John  Barbour. 
Thomas  Bolton.  .    . 

Eev.  William  Cornwall. 


214  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

Joshua  Gray.1 

Anne  Hanson. 

Bobert  Holmes  and  wife. 

William  Holmes  and  child. 

William  Jameson.2 

Joan  Macconllah. 

Eandal  McDonald. 

Bryce  McLellan. 

Bobert  Means. 

Andrew  Simonton. 

William  Simonton. 

William  Slemons  or  Slemmons. 

Bryce  McLellan,  who  appears  in  the  above  list, 
built  a  house  in  Falmouth  in  1731.  Through  the 
vicissitudes  of  fortune  this  house  survived  fire  and 
storm,  Mowat's  attack  in  1775,  and  the  ruthless 
hand  of  progress,  t  standing  on  York  Street  after 
every  other  house  of  its  period  had  disappeared 
from  the  present  city  of  Portland. 

Among  the  later  Scotch  Irish  settlers  at  Falmouth 
was  John  Motley,  from  Belfast  in  Ireland,  who  mar- 
ried in  1738  Mary  Boberts.  A  son  settled  in  Boston, 
where  he  became  prominent;  his  descendant,  John 
Lothrop  Motley,  was  the  historian  of  the  Nether- 
lands. 


1  So  says  Professor  A.  L.  Perry.  Proceedings  Scotch  Irish  So- 
ciety, 2d  Congress,  p.  135.     He  also  includes  William  Gyles. 

"This  was  probably  the  William  Jameson  who  died  at  Rutland 
in  1760,  leaving  a  sister,  Martha  Reed,  of  County  Antrim,  Ireland. 


XII 

THE  YEARS  1718  AND  1719  AT  MERRY- 
MEETING  BAY 

In  a  previous  chapter  the  voyage  of  the  ship 
"Ma^aHum"  was  described,  and  it  was  made  evi- 
dent that  her  passengers  from  Londonderry  settled 
on  lands  at  the  Eastward.  These  lands  skirted  a 
large  body  of  water,  known  as  Merrymeeting  Bay, 
which  is  formed  by  the  Androscoggin  River  enter- 
ing the  Kennebec.  Southack's  map,  covering  this 
region,  bears  the  inscription,  "An  actual  survey  of 
the  sea  coast  from  New  York  to  the  I.  Cape  Briton 
.  by  Capt.  Cyprian  Southack.  Printed  and 
sold  by  Wm.  Herbert,  London  Bridge  &  Rob1  Sayer 
.  .  .  Fleet  Street.' '  On  the  land  between 
Brunswick  and  Maquoit  Bay  there  is  an  inscription 
which  states  that  in  the  years  1718,  1719  and  1720 
five  hundred  emigrants  from  Ireland  had  come  to 
settle ;  the  inscription  reads : 

"Kennebeck  River  very  Long 
strong  Tydes  with  all  its  branches 
Trade  mostly  is  as  yet  Lumber 
Fish  small  matter  came  from 
the  Kingdom  of  Ireland  with 
in  three  Year :  1720  five  Hun- 


216  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

dred  Inhabitants  and  made 
new  Settlements  for  Farm- 
ing and  Lumber." 

In  the  English  Pilot,  Part  IV,  London,  1737,  the 
map  described  as  "The  Harbour  of  Casco  Bay,  By 
Cyprian  Southicke,''  indicates  a  church  and  several 
houses  between  Maquoit  Bay  and  the  Androscog- 


*B*ooc/  Sovnd 


Part  of  Southack's  Map 

gin   River.1     The   words    "Irish   new   settlement' ' 
show  the  character  of  the  inhabitants. 

By  the  depositions  of  David  Dunning,  Jane 
McFadden,  and  her  son  Andrew,  and  John  McPhe- 
tre,  we  learn  that  some  of  the  people  who  settled 
here  in  1718  "removed  from  Ireland  to  Boston,  from 
Boston  down  to  Kennebec  River  and  up  Merry- 
meeting  Bay  to  a  place  called  Cathance." 

1 1  am  indebted  to  Mr.  John  W.  Farwell,  Mr.  Frederick  L.  Gay, 
and  Mr.  John  H.  Edmonds  for  much  information  relating  to  early- 
New  England  maps. 


MERRYMEETING  BAY  217 

A  summary  of  these  depositions  follows : 

David  Dunning,  gentleman,  of  Brunswick,  deposed 
October  8,  1767,  that  on  or  about  the  year  1718  he 
came  first  to  Boston,  and  in  the  same  vessel  with 
Andrew  McFadden  and  his  wife  (now  widow). 
Soon  after  they  came  down  together  in  the  same  ves- 
sel to  the  eastern  country,  and  lived  in  Brunswick 
ever  since  1718. 

Jane  McFadden  of  Georgetown,  aged  about 
eighty-two,  deposed  June  19,  1766,  that  she  with 
her  late  husband,  Andrew  McFadden,  lived  in  the 
town  of  Garvo  [Garvagh],  County  Derry,  on  the 
Bann  Water,  Ireland,  at  a  place  called  Summersett. 
About  forty-six  years  ago  they  removed  from  Ire- 
land to  Boston,  from  Boston  down  to  the  Kennebec 
River  and  up  Merrymeeting  Bay  to  a  place  called 
Cathance  Point.1 

Andrew  McFadden  of  Georgetown,  aged  fifty- 
three,  deposed  June  22, 1768,  that  he  was  a  son  of  the 
above  Andrew  and  Jane.  Daniel  McFadden  of 
Georgetown,  aged  forty-six,  made  a  similar  deposi- 
tion. Other  testimony  shows  that  Andrew  and  Jane 
had  a  daughter  between  Andrew  and  Daniel,  born 
on  the  Kennebec  River.  They  christened  her  Sum- 
mersett.2 


1  See  Appendix  III. 

2  John  Moore,  living  in  Philadelphia  in  1712,  had  a  child  of  the 
same  name. 


218  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEEES 

John  McPlietre  of  Georgetown,  aged  above  sixty, 
deposed  Jnne  22,  1768,  that  he  knew  Summersett 
place  on  the  Bann  Water,  for  he  lived  within  about 
five  miles  of  it.1 

Colonel  David  Dunning  was  the  son  of  Andrew 
Dunning,  who  was  born  in  1664,  and  came  with  his 
wife,  Susan  Bond,  to  the  lower  Kennebec,  known 
then  as  Georgetown  in  Maine.  After  a  year  Andrew 
settled  at  Maquoit  in  Brunswick.  He  was  a  black- 
smith, and  died  January  16, 1736,  aged  72  years.  His 
children  were  James,  Andrew,  Eobert,  William  and 
David.  He  and  Andrew  McFadden  evidently  were 
able,  thrifty  settlers,  not  unlike  those  led  by 
McGregor,  and  they  also  were  from  the  Bann  Val- 
ley. 

But  these  were  not  the  only  early  settlers  on  the 
Kennebec.  Captain  Robert  Temple  came  over  to 
Boston  with  his  family  and  servants  in  the  autumn 
of  1717  to  settle  as  a  gentleman  farmer.  He  visited 
Connecticut  and  also  the  lands  of  the  Pejepscot 
Company  about  the  Androscoggin  River  in  Maine. 
He  much  preferred,  however,  the  lands  on  the  east 
side  of  the  Kennebec,  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  An- 
droscoggin. Upon  his  return  to  Boston  he  was 
taken  into  the  enterprise,  and  agreed  to  undertake 
the  transportation  of  settlers  from  Ireland.     Tem- 


1  Depositions  given  in  the  New  England  Historical  and  Genealog- 
ical Register,  Vol.  39,  p.  184;  taken  from  the  Cumberland  County 
Court  files  by  W.  M.  Sargent  of  Portland, 


MERRYMEETING  BAY  219 

pie  engaged  two  large  ships  in  1718,  and  three  more 
ships  were  chartered  the  next  year.  The  Scotch 
Irish  whom  he  brought  over  settled  on  the  east  bank 
of  the  Kennebec,  between  the  present  towns  of  Dres- 
den and  Woolwich.  The  land  was  called  Cork.  The 
names  of  some  of  his  people  were :  William  Mont- 
gomery,   Caldwell,  James  Steel,  David  Steel, 

McNut,  James  Rankin,  William  and  James 

Burns  or  Barns.1  A  few  of  the  Temple  colonists  set- 
tled in  Topsham,  opposite  Brunswick,  and  several  in 
Cathance,  now  part  of  Bowdoinham,  on  the  Kenne- 
bec, south  of  Dresden.2  Others,  the  larger  part  of 
the  several  hundred  who  came  under  Temple,  went 
to  New  Hampshire  and  Pennsylvania  to  avoid  the 
wrath  of  Father  Rasle  and  his  Indians.  Cork  was 
destroyed  soon  after. 

The  ships  must  have  brought  immigrants  rapidly, 
for  Southack's  map,  published  in  London  in  1720, 
states  that  already  five  hundred  had  arrived,  or 
about  one  hundred  families.  The  News-Letter  for 
August  17-24,  1719,  prints  an  item  from  Piscataqua 
dated  August  21st,  to  the  effect  that  Philip  Bass  had 
arrived  at  the  Kennebec  River  from  Londonderry 
with  about  two  hundred  passengers.  Many  of  these 
must  have  been  friends  of  those  who  came  in  the 


1  See  an  interesting  paper  on  "The  Transient  Town  of  Cork,"  in 
Maine  Historical  Society  Collections,  2d  Series,  Vol.  4,  p.  240. 

2  The  Rev.  E.  S.  Stackpole  has  given  me  valuable  aid  on  this 
subject. 


220  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

' '  Maccallum. ' '  We  unfortunately  have  no  record  of 
the  arrival  of  ships  in  1718  and  1719  at  the  month  of 
the  Kennebec.  Bnt  not  all  the  settlers  there  sailed 
directly  from  Ireland;  many  came  through  the  for- 
ests or  by  sea  from  Falmouth,  York,  and  Boston. 
Perhaps  the  Spear  and  Harper  families  of  Bruns- 
wick had  associations  farther  south,  since  David 
Spear  (from  Coleraine)  and  James  Harper,  both  of 
the  Connecticut  Valley,  were  early  settled  in  and 
near  Windsor. 

The  Rev.  James  Woodside  had  been  preaching  at 
Garvagh,  in  the  Bann  Valley,  since  1700.  Wheeler, 
in  his  history  of  Brunswick,1  calls  him  a  clergyman 
of  the  Church  of  England ;  but  there  is  more  signifi- 
cance in  the  fact  that  we  find  him  mentioned  in  Kil- 
len's  Congregations  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  in 
Ireland,  as  a  Presbyterian  minister  at  Garvagh. 
Wind  and  tide  drove  him  into  Massachusetts  Bay, 
and  he  went  with  his  flock  to  Casco  Bay  and  on  to 
Brunswick,  where  they  arrived  in  September,  1718. 
Possibly  his  sympathies  were  with  the  English  rit- 
ual ;  this  might  have  made  him  unwelcome  to  some  of 
his  Brunswick  congregation  and  so  given  color  to 
the  tradition  that  he  was  an  Episcopalian. 

The  first  reference  to  religion  at  Brunswick  ap- 


1  Mr.  Wheeler  in  his  History  and  also  in  an  entertaining  sketch 
of  Brunswick  at  the  time  of  its  incorporation  (Pejepscot  His- 
torical Society  Collections)  is  not  always  to  be  followed  in 
statements  as  to  ancestry  and  year  of  immigration. 


MERRYMEETING  BAY  221 

pears  to  be  a  petition  to  the  General  Court  from 
three  Indians  at  Fort  George,  in  October,  1717 ;  and 
in  response  to  their  desire  the  Rev.  Joseph  Baxter 
was  sent  north  from  Medford  to  preach.  In  the 
summer  of  1718  Mr.  Woodside,  with  from  twenty- 
five  to  forty  families,  reached  Casco  Bay  from  the 
Irish  Londonderry,  or  from  "Derry  Lough.' '  The 
company  went  from  Falmouth  over  land  or  by  water 
to  Merrymeeting  Bay,  as  described  in  the  deposition 
of  Jane  McFadden.  Woodside  appears  to  have  set- 
tled down,  temporarily  at  least,  with  his  family  at 
Falmouth.  It  is  probable  that  the  McGregor  colony, 
with  the  Rev.  Mr.  Cornwall,  had  not  yet  arrived  at 
Casco  Bay,  for  they  are  known  to  have  reached  there 
in  cold  weather.  Furthermore,  Mr.  Cornwall  dined 
in  Boston  with  Judge  Sewall  as  late  as  October  16, 
1718,  and  as  he  probably  sailed  with  the  rest  of  his 
party,  the  departure  was  no  doubt  as  late  as  the  end 
of  October. 

The  settlers  at  Brunswick,  having  been  without 
Mr.  Baxter's  ministrations  for  six  months,  voted  in 
town  meeting  November  3,  1718,  to  call  Mr.  Wood- 
side  from  Falmouth.  The  vote  touches  upon  several 
details  of  interest,  and  it  is  given  here:  "Att  a 
Leagual  Town  meeting  in  Brunswick  Novmber  3d 
1718,  It  was  Voted  That  whereas  the  Proprietors  of 
Sd  Township  in  their  paternal  Care  for  our  Spiritual 
Good,  have  by  there  Joynt  Letter  Sought  to  ye  Rev- 
erend Mr.  James  Woodside  to  be  our  Minister  &  in 


222  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

order  there  to  proposed  Conditions  for  his  Settle- 
ment on  their  part,  Wee  the  Inhabitance  of  Bruns- 
wick will  Give  Fourty  pounds  pr  annum  toward  ye 
support  of  ye  sd  Mr.  Woodside  &  a  Sum  in  propor- 
tion there  to  from  this  time  untill  May  next  (if  he 
Come  to  us)  &  God  in  his  providence  Should  Then 
part  us. 

"It  was  also  at  this  meeting  Voted  That  Mr  Bax- 
ters house  on  ye  6th  Lott  in  Brunswick  Be  forthwith 
made  habitable  for  ye  sd  Mr.  Woodside.  That  ye 
Charges  there  of  ye  Transporting  him  &  his  f amoly 
from  Falmouth  to  Brunswick  be  paid  Equally  by  us 
Vs  inhabitance  of  sd  Brunswick  &  yl  Capt  Gyles  is 
here  by  impowered  to  se  ye  Buisness  effected. 

Joseph  Heath  Town  Clk'n 

In  January,  1719,  Cotton  Mather  wrote  letters  to 
the  Scotch  ministers  at  the  Eastward  to  give  them 
courage.  Mr.  Woodside  certainly  needed  this  en- 
couragement, for  matters  went  ill  with  him  there. 
In  May  the  town  voted  to  continue  Mr.  Woodside 's 
services  for  six  months,  "provided  those  of  us  who 
are  Dissatisfied  with  his  Conversation  (as  afore 
Said)  Can  by  Treating  with  him  as  becomes  Chris- 
tians receive  Such  Sattisfaction  from  him  as  that 
they  will  heare  him  preach  for  ye  Time  afore  sd." 
Mr.  Wheeler  takes  " Conversation' '  to  mean  charac- 
ter.    Possibly  deportment  or  habits  would  come  a 

1  Wheeler's  Brunswick,  p.  354. 


MEEEYMEETING  BAY  223 

little  nearer,  although  in  another  place  Wheeler  says 
the  trouble  was  that  he  was  not  puritanical  enough. 
Mather,  in  1716,  writing  to  a  friend  in  Scotland, 
spoke  of  the  transplanted  clergy  as  too  often  "of  a 
disdainful  carriage,"  and  of  an  "expression  full  of 
a  levity  not  usual  among  or  ministers."  The  town 
voted  September  10,  1719,  to  pay  Mr.  Woodside  to 
that  date  and  to  dismiss  him.  In  1721  the  Eev.  Isaac 
Taylor,  an  assistant  to  the  Eev.  Samuel  Haliday  at 
Ardstraw,  County  Tyrone,  came  over.  He  could  not 
have  remained  long,  for  in  1729  he  was  at  Ardstraw, 
and  had  conformed  to  the  Church  of  England.  In 
1722  he  lent  money  to  the  McFarlands,  probably 
those  who  were  later  of  Boothbay,  to  pay  their  pas- 
sage across  the  Atlantic. 

The  Eev.  James  Woodside  returned  to  Boston, 
and  on  January  25,  1720,  Mather  writes  that  "poor 
Mr.  Woodside,  after  many  and  grievous  calamities 
in  this  uneasy  country,  is  this  week  taking  ship  for 
London."  He  obtained  credentials  from  the  Eev. 
Cotton  Mather,  and  a  note  of  recommendation  from 
the  governor.     Mather's  letter  reads : 

"Boston,  New  England 
"Jan  14,  1720 

"Concerning  the  Eeverend  Mr.  James  Woodside 
the  Bearer  hereof,  we  have  been  informed  That  ar- 
riving with  other  good  people  to  the  Eastern  parts 
of  New  England  from  the  Northern  parts  of  Ireland 


224  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

with  ample  recommendation  [f]  from  the  presber- 
tery  of  Ronte1  in  the  year  1718  he  had  invitations 
to  settle  at  several  places,  bnt  chose  a  settlement  at  a 
New  Town  called  Brunsivick:  Declaring  that  he  had 
in  his  view  the  instrnction  of  the  Eastern  Salvages 
(which  he  Chould  have  near  unto  him)  in  the  primi- 
tive and  Reformed  Christianity.  In  the  progres- 
sion [of]  that  Excellent  service  we  have  been  in- 
formed." 

Woodside 's  son,  Captain  William,  remained  in 
Brunswick,  where  he  became  prominent.  Captain 
Woodside  had  the  ready  wit  and  resource  of  his 
people.  He  once  agreed  to  outrun  a  very  fleet  In- 
dian if  the  savage  would  when  defeated  give  him  a 
fur  robe.  The  Indian  was  delighted  with  the  plan, 
since  Woodside's  corpulent  figure  was, known  far 
and  wide  to  be  slow  of  movement.  A  great  crowd 
gathered  at  the  appointed  time  and  place,  and  the 
trial  began.  The  captain  ran  so  awkwardly  and 
perspired  so  freely  that  the  entire  company,  includ- 
ing his  rival,  broke  into  continual  roars  of  laughter. 
The  Indian  remained  near  the  captain  to  enjoy  the 
fun,  and  so  far  forgot  his  part  in  the  sport  that  the 
captain,  with  a  final  burst  of  speed,  came  home  a 
winner  before  anyone  recalled  the  fact  that  he  was 
a  competitor. 

In  1723  the  Rev.  Mr.  Woodside  sent  a  very  inter- 

1  "Above  these  [i.  e.  The  Glinnes]  as  far  as  the  river  Bann, 
the  country  is  called  Rowte." — Camden's  Britannia,  1722,  p.  1406. 


MEPKYMEETING  BAY  225 

esting  petition  to  the  king  in  council,  which  tells„of 
the  family  misfortunes  i1 

"To  the  Kings  most  Excellent  Majesty  in  Council 
The  humble  Memorial  &  Petition  of  James 
Woodside  late  Minister  of  the  Gospel,  at 
Brunswick,  in  New  England. 

"Sheweth 

* '  That  he  with  40  Familys,  consisting  of  above  160 
Persons  did  in  the  Year  1718  embarque  on  a  ship  at 
Derry  Lough  in  Ireland  in  Order  to  erect  a  Colony 
at  Casco  Bay,  in  Your  Majestys  Province  of  Main 
in  New  England. 

"That  being  arriv'd  they  made  a  settlement  at  a 
Place  called  by  the  Indians  Pegipscot,  but  by  them 
Brunswick,  within  4  miles  from  Fort  George,  where 
(after  he  had  laid  out  a  considerable  sum  upon  a 
Garrison  House,  fortify 'd  with  Palisadoes,  &  two 
large  Bastions,  had  also  made  great  Improvements, 
&  laid  out  considerably  for  the  Benefit  of  that  Infant 
Colony)  the  Inhabitants  were  surpriz'd  by  the  In- 
dians who  in  the  Month  of  July  1722  came  down  in 
great  Numbers  to  murder  Your  Majesty's  good  Sub- 
jects there. 

"That  upon  this  Surprize  the  Inhabitants,  naked 
&  destitute  of  Provisions  run  for  shelter  into  your 
Pet.rs  House  (which  is  still  defended  by  his  sons) 


1From   Maine   Historical    Society    Collections.       Baxter   Mss., 
Vol.  X,  p.  163.     Original  in  the  Rolls  office,  London. 


226  SCOTCH   IEISH  PIONEERS 

where  they  were  kindly  receivd,  provided  for,  & 
protected  from  the  rebel  Indians. 

"That  the  Sa  Indians  being  happily  prevented 
from  murdering  Yonr  Majesty's  good  Subjects  (in 
Revenge  to  your  Pet.r)  presently  kill'd  all  his  Cattel, 
destroying  all  the  Moveables,  &  Provisions  they 
could  come  at,  &  as  Your  Petr  had  a  very  consider- 
able Stock  of  Cattel  he  &  his  Family  were  great  suf- 
ferers thereby,  as  may  appear  by  a  Certificate  of  the 
Grovernour  of  that  Province  a  Copy  whereof  is  here- 
unto annexed. 

"Your  Petr  therefore  most  humbly  begs  that  in 
Regard  to  his  great  undertaking,  his  great  Losses 
&  sufferings,  the  Service  done  to  the  Publicke  in  sav- 
ing the  Lives  of  many  of  Your  Majesty's  Subjects, 
"the  unshak[en]  Loyalty  &  undaunted  Courage  of  his 
Sons,  who  still  defend  the  Sd  Garrison.  Your  Maj- 
esty in  Councel  will  be  pleas 'd  to  provide  for  him, 
his  Wife  &  Daughter  here  or  grant  him  the  Post  of 
Mr.  Cummins,  a  Searcher  of  Ships  in  the  Harbour 
of  Boston  N  England,  lately  deceas'd  that  so  his 
Family,  reduced  to  very  low  Circumstances  may  be 
resettled,  &  his  losses  repair 'd  where  they  were  sus- 
tain 'd. 

&  Your  Petr  shall  ever  pray  &c. ' ' 

"I  do  hereby  certifie  that  the  Rev.d  Mr.  Woodside 
went  over  from  Ireland  to  New  England  with  a  con- 
siderable Number  of  People,  that  he  &  they  sate 


MERRYMEETING  BAY  227 

down  to  plant  in  a  Place  they  called  Brunswick  in 
the  Eastern  Parts  of  New  England  there  he  bnilt  a 
Garrison  House,  which  was  the  Means  of  saving  the 
Lives  of  many  of  his  People  in  the  late  Insurrection 
of  the  Indians  in  July  last.  That  his  Generosity  is 
taken  Notice  of  by  both  Doctors  Mathers  &  that  the 
Indians  cutt  off  all  his  Cattle,  whereby  he  and  his 
Family  are  great  Sufferers 

Samuel  Shute 
1 i  Copia  vera 

"London  June  25, 1723 

14 E:  Memorial  &  Petition  of  James  Woodside 
to  His  Most  Excellent  Majesty  in  Councel. 
June  1723" 

During  these  days  of  Indian  warfare,  pillage  and 
reprisal,  men  were  impressed  for  sentinel  duty,  and 
distributed  in  small  groups  at  garrison  houses 
throughout  the  frontier  towns  in  Maine,  which  was 
then  under  the  jurisdiction  of  Massachusetts.  One 
of  the  unpleasant  experiences  of  young  Scotch  Irish- 
men was  to  be  met  in  the  street  by  an  officer  and  his 
attendants,  and  forced  into  military  service.  Many 
fell  sick  under  the  strain  of  such  a  life  in  the  Maine 
woods,  and  through  rough  usage  at  the  hands  of 
officers.  This  ill-treatment  fell  heaviest  upon  the 
' '  Irish, ' '  and  particularly  at  the  outset  of  the  Indian 
troubles.  A  case  is  on  .record  of  a  Scotch  Irish  im- 
pressed soldier  returning  weak  and  crippled  to  the 


228  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEERS 

place  of  his  enlistment  with  no  attempt  at  conceal- 
ment, and  because  he  conld  not  produce  papers  to 
show  his  discharge,  he  was  whipped  at  the  cart's 
tail,  and  kept  in  jail  until  the  Sheriff  was  moved 
through  pity  to  ask  for  his  release.  Not  until  one 
half  the  force  at  the  front  had  disappeared  through 
illness  and  desertion  did  the  Governor  take  the 
matter  in  hand.  A  committee  then  visited  the  fron- 
tier and  brought  back  an  unpleasant  account  of 
garrison  life  in  such  places  as  Brunswick. 

With  the  coming  of  militant  Indians  the  colonists 
fled,  some  to  the  New  Hampshire  Londonderry  or  to 
Worcester,  and  many  to  Pennsylvania,  leaving  few 
traces  of  their  sojourn  in  Maine.  William  Willis, 
editor  of  Smith  and  Deane  's  Journals,  has  attempted 
to  gather  the  names  of  these  early  settlers.  The 
Eev.  Everett  S.  Stackpole,  a  student  of  the  subject, 
suggests  the  addition  of  those  whose  surnames  ap- 
pear between  brackets : 

[Andrew]  McFadden     Ward 

MeGowen  [David]  Given 


[William?]  Vincent        [Andrew]  Dunning 
[John?]  Hamilton  [William]  Simpson 


Johnston  [David  Alexander  and  son] 


[John?]  Malcome  [William  Alexander] 

McLellan  [James  Wilson] 

Crawford  [James  McFarland] 

Graves  [George  Cunningham] 


MERRYMEETING  BAY  229 

[Robert  Lithgow]  [David  Ross] 

[John  Welch]  [William  Craigie] 

[John  Yonng] 

The  last  four  men  Welch,1  Ross,  Craigie  and 
Young,  witnessed  a  deposition  at  Brunswick  Sep- 
tember 4,  1718.2  If  they  were  Scotch  Irish  they 
might  have  come  in  July  or  August,  but  it  seems 
most  natural  to  place  them  with  John  Barbour  at 
York  where  Scotchmen  had  lived  since  Cromwell's 
wars  in  1650.  Possibly  they  did  not  have  any  con- 
nection with  the  Scotch  Irish  movement. 

At  the  outbreak  of  Dummer's  war  many  Bruns- 
wick settlers  sailed  for  Boston,  and  suffered  the 
customary  formality  of  being  warned  out  of  town. 
Lists  of  these  have  the  virtue  of  being  well  within 
the  field  of  verity.  The  settlers  thus  recorded  un- 
doubtedly came  from  the  Kennebec  country  or  settle- 
ments adjoining,  and  nearly  all  of  these  were  Scotch 
Irish.  The  date  at  the  left  shows  when  the  record  of 
warning  was  reported  to  the  selectmen  in  Boston. 

July  25,  1719 : 

Mary  Banerlen,  a  widd°  wth  6  Children  who 
came  from  Bronswick  into  this  Town  on  yee 
22th  of  July. 


1  See  Monmouth,  Maine. 

2  York  deeds,  Vol.  9,  folio  238. 


230  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEEES 

October  24,  1719 : 

John  Clark  wth  his  wife  &  five  children  who 
came  from  Merrymeeting  bay. 
October  24,  1719 : 

John  Gray  wth  his  wife  &  five  Children 
John  Newel  wth  his  wife  &  three  Children 
Eobert  Tark  wth  his  wife  &  three  Children  who 
all  came  into  this  Town  from  Berwick  in  a 
sloop  Thomas  Bell  mastr 
James  Dixwell  &  James  Wallis  husbdmen  who 

arrived  here  from  ye  Eastward 
Susanna  Gate  who  Saves  She  came  from  the 
Eastwd 
July  22,  1720: 

Eliza  Eylee  from  Arrowsack. 
October  28,  1720: 

Jean  Hall  &  child  from  Piscattiqna. 
January  27,  1721/22 : 

Humphry  Taylor  Wife  &  Six  Children  from 

Smal  point,  warned  Aug.  7th. 
Jean  Sper  &  three  Children  from  the  East- 
ward, warned  August  5th. 
Mary  Shertwell  from  Arowshick 
John  Miller  from  Misconges 
July  28,  1722  from  the  Eastward  viz.1  [the  following 
who  from  their  names,  notably  that  of  McFar- 
land,  evidently  came  from  about  Merrymeeting 
Bay.] 

Jean  Hunter  with  Two  Children 


MERRYMEETING  BAY  231 

Katherin  Carter  with  &  3  Children 

Jean  Wilson  with  4  Children 
Sundry  from  the  Eastward  viz1 

Andrew  Macf aden  wife  &  6  Children 

Isaac  Hunter  wife  &  2  Children 

Alexanr  wife  and  4  Children 

James  Johnson  wife  &  4  Children 

John  Nelson  wife  &  2  Children 

Mathew  Acheson  wife  &  2  Children 

Andrew  Rogers 

Robert  Rowland 

Samuel  f  orgeson 

William  Hambleton 
November  6,  1722.  A  List  of  Sundry  Persons 
Brought  from  Brunswick,  Topsham  and  Towns 
adjacent  at  the  Eastward  parts  by  Thomas  San- 
ders, and  warned  to  depart  the  Town  of  Boston, 
as  the  Law  directs,  August  the  12th  1722.  viz1. 

Charles  Stuart  Susan  Lithgoe 

Hanna  Stuart  Will"1  Lithgoe 

Hana  Stuart  Jean  Lithgoe 

Sam11  Stuart  Susan  Lithgoe 

Henry  Stuart  James  Ross1 

Moses  Harper  Jenet  Ross 

Mary  Harper  Elizath  Ross 

Jenat  Harper  Mary  Ross 

Robert  Lithgoe  Isb11  Ross 

1  Wheeler  thinks  he  was  not  Scotch  Irish. 


232 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


John  Ross 
Mary  Thorn 
Thomas  Thorn 
Hugh  Minsy  [Menzies?] 
Sarah  Minsy 
John  Young 
Katherine  Young 
Margaret  Young 
Mary  Young 
Easter  Young 
Sarah  Young 
James  Harper 
James  Miller 
Margaret  Wadburn 
Mary  Wadburn 
George  Wadburn 
David  Evins 
Willm  Evins 
Thomas  Rogers 
Elizath  Rogers 
Isabella  Rogers 
John  Hamilton 
John  Hamilton 


James  Beverly 
Agnus  Beverly 
James  Beverly 
Sam11  Beverly 
Joseph  Beverly 
Mary  Smith 
John  Smith 
Aubia  Smith 
Mathew  Smith 
Robert  Wallis 
Martha  Wallis 
John  Wallis 
Anbah  Wallis 
Jonas  Stanwood1 
Sam11  Stanwood1 
David  Stanwood1 
Mr  Salter 
Mary  Salter 
Thomas  Salter 
Mary  Salter 
Mr  Swwanan  & 

Maid 
Mr  Cary  &  wif 


James  Rodgers 
April  26, 1723:. 

Daniel  Hunter  &  His  Wife 
James  Savage  His  Wife   &  five   Children- 
Irish  people  from  Smal  Point.  Apr  10th. 


*Not  Scotch  Irish. 


MEREYMEETING  BAY  233 

October  28, 1723: 

Tho.  Hogg  his  wife  &  Two  Children  from 
Arowshick. 
June  29, 1724: 

Mary  Thomas  &  one  Child  from  St.  Georges. 

We  may  summarize  the  Merrymeeting  Bay  Scotch 
Irish  settlers  of  1718-1722  somewhat  in  this  way,  us- 
ing Wheeler's  list  of  early  settlers,  pages  865-874; 
the  warnings  above;  and  various  facts  found  else- 
where. Some  names  are  no  doubt  English,  but  as 
yet  they  cannot  safely  be  eliminated. 

Merrymeeting  Bay  Scotch  Irish  Settlers,  1718-1722. 

Matthew  Acheson,  wife  and  two  children 

Alexander,  wife  and  four  children 

David  Alexander  and  son 

William  Alexander 

Mary  Banerlen,  widow,  and  six  children 

James  and  William  Barns  or  Burns 

Agnes  Beverly 

James  Beverly 

Joseph  Beverly 

Samuel  Beverly 

Calwell 

Katherine  Carter  and  three  children 

Cary  and  wife 

John  Clark,  wife  and  five  children 


234  SCOTCH   IRISH   PIONEERS 

John  Cochran 

Selectman  at  Brunswick  in  1719?  "  Ireland " 
in  mnster  roll 
William  Craigie 

At  Brunswick  September  4,  1718 

Crawford 

George  Cunningham 
James  Dixwell 
Andrew  Dunning 

"Ireland"  in  muster  roll 
David  Evans 
John  Evans 
William  Evans 
Samuel  Ferguson 

Alexander  and  James  Ferguson  were  at  Kit- 
tery  in  1711 
Thomas  Fleming 
David  Given  or  Giveen 
John  Graves 

John  Gray,  wife  and  five  children 
Jean  Hall  and  child 
John  Hamilton 

Abel  and   Gabriel  Hamilton  at  Berwick  in 
1711 
Patrick  Hamilton 
Robert  Hamilton 
Robert  Hamilton,  Jr. 
William  Hamilton 
William  Hands ard 


MEBRYMEETING-  BAY  235 

James  Harper 

"Ireland"  in  mnster  roll 
Jenet  Harper 
Joseph  Harper 
Mary  Harper  • 
Moses  Harper 
William  Harper 
Thomas  Hogg,  wife  and  two  children ;  from  Ar- 

rowsic,  1723 
?Adam  Hnnter 
Daniel  Hnnter  and  wife 

"Irish  people  from  Smal  point/ '  1723 
Isaac  Hnnter,  wife  and  two  children 
James  Hnnter 

Jean  Hunter  and  two  children 
John  Hunter 

James  Johnson,  wife  and  four  children 
Jean  Lithgow 
Robert  Lithgow 
Susan  Lithgow 
William  Lithgow 

Andrew  McFadden,  wife  and  six  children 
James  McFarland 

McGowen 

McNut 

John  Malcom 
James  Miller 
John  Miller 

From  Miscongus 


236  SCOTCH   IEISH   PIONEERS 

Dr  Hugh  Minnery  or  Minory 
Hugh  Minsy 
Sarah  Minsy 
Henry  Mitchell 

" Ireland' '  in  muster  roll- 
Hugh  Mitchell 

" Ireland' '  in  muster  roll 
William  Montgomery 
John  Nelson,  wife  and  two  children 
John  Newel,  wife  and  three  children 
James  Rankin 
Elizabeth  Riley 

From  Arrowic 
Andrew  Rogers 
Elizabeth  Rogers 
Isabella  Rogers 
James  Rogers 
Thomas  Rogers 
David  Ross 
Elizabeth  Ross 
Isabella  Ross 
James  Ross 
Jenet  Ross 
John  Ross 
Mary  Ross 
Robert  Rowland 

Mr Salter 

Mary  Salter 
Thomas  Salter 


MERRYMEETING  BAY  237 

James  Savage,  wife  and  five  children 
"Irish  people  from  Smal  point/ '  1723 

Mary  Shertwell 
From  Arrowsic 

William  Simpson 

Anbia  Smith 

James  Smith 

John  Smith 

Mary  Smith 

Matthew  Smith 

Jean  Spear  and  three  children 

David  and  James  Steel 

James  Stinson  or  Stevenson 
"  Ireland  "  in  muster  roll 

John  Stinson 

Robert  Stinson 

Charles  Stnart 

Hannah  Stnart 

Henry  Stnart 

Samnel  Stnart 

William  Tailer 

Robert  Tark,  wife  and  three  children 

Humphrey  Taylor,  wife  and  six  children 
From  Small  Point 

Mary  Thomas  and  one  child 
From  Saint  Georges,  1724 

Peter  Thompson 

Mary  Thorn 

Thomas  Thorn 


238  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

James  Thornton 

Thomas  Tregoweth 

John  Vincent 

Anbah  Wallis 

Daniel  Wallis 

James  Wallis 

John  Wallis 

Martha  Wallis 

Robert  Wallis 

Ward 

John  Welch 

James  Wilson 

Jean  Wilson  and  four  children 

George  Woodbnrn 

Margaret  Woodbnrn 

Mary  Woodburn 

Samnel  York 

Easter  Young 

John  Young 

Katherine  Young 

Margaret  Young 

Mary  Young 

Sarah  Young 
These  are  the  settlers  who  fulfilled  the  Rev.  Cotton 
Mather's  dream  of  a  line  of  emigrant  outposts. 
They  suffered  grievous  hardships,  but  who  shall  say 
that  they  and  theirs  did  not  in  the  fulness  of  time 
reap  a  just  reward  of  prosperity,  influence  and 
honor  ? 


CHAPTER  XIII 
NITTFIELD  AND  LONDONDERRY,  1719-1720 

The  Scotch  Irish  petition,  signed  in  Ireland,  bears 
the  date  "this  26th  day  of  March,  Annoq.  Dom. 
1718,"  a  few  weeks  only  before  the  Rev.  Mr.  Boyd 
set  sail  for  New  England,  where  he  arrived  about 
July  25th.  While  his  friends  were  crossing  the 
ocean,  Mr.  Boyd  endeavored  to  interest  Governor 
Shnte,  Judge  Sewall  and  the  Rev.  Cotton  Mather  in 
their  behalf.  Evidently  he  could  do  little  more  in 
Boston  than  call  upon  persons  of  influence  before  his 
flock  came  into  the  harbor. 

We  have  seen  that  many  of  the  settlers  went  to  the 
frontier  settlement  at  Worcester,  and  still  others  to 
Casco  Bay,  where  Governor  Shute  was  endeavoring 
to  foster  the  growth  of  Falmouth.  James  Smith 
went  to  Needham,  Walter  Beath  to  Lunenburg,  and 
Matthew  Watson  to  Leicester,  although  it  is  not  al- 
ways possible  to  say  that  these  or  others  went  imme- 
diately to  the  towns  where  they  eventually  settled. 
The  followers  of  the  two  clergymen,  Boyd  and  Mc- 
Gregor, desired  a  grant  of  land  which  they  might 
control  rather  than  permission  to  settle  among  the 
old  stock  that  had  founded  the  colony.  These  men 
remained  in  Boston  while  negotiations  went  on.  The 


240  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

Rev.  Mr.  McGregor  and  Archibald  Boyd,1  perhaps 
a  brother  of  the  clergyman  of  that  name,  sent  the 
following  petition  to  the  General  Court: 

"A  Petition  of  Archibald  Boyd,  James  MacGreg- 
ory  &  sundry  others  Setting  forth  that  the  Petition- 
ers being  under  very  discouraging  circumstances  in 
their  own  Countrey  (viz.  the  Kingdom  of  Ireland)  as 
well  on  the  Account  of  Religion,  as  the  Severity  of 
their  Rents  &  Taxes ;  &  having  h'eard  of  the  great 
"Willingness  to  encourage  any  of  his  Majestys  Prot- 
estant &  loyal  Subjects  of  sober  conversation  to  set- 
tle within  this  Province  they  have  this  last  Sum- 
mer, with  their  Families,  undertaken  a  long  &  haz- 
zardous  Voyage  to  the  sd  Parts  &  are  now  residing 
in  &  about  Boston,  &  have  been  waiting  the  Meeting 
of  this  Honble  Assembly:  And  Praying  that  the  Court 
would  be  pleased  to  grant  unto  them  a  convenient 
Tract  of  their  wast  Land,  in  such  Place  as  they  shall 
think  fit,  where  they  may  without  Loss  of  time,  settle 
themselves  &  their  Families,  as  over  forty  more 
Families  who  will  come  from  Ireland  as  soon  as  they 
hear  of  their  obtaining  Land  for  Township;  which 
they  apprehend  will  be  of  great  Advantage  to  this 
Country  by  strengthening  the  Frontiers  &  out  Parts 
&  making  Provisions  Cheaper. 

"In  the  House  of  Representves  October  31,  1718: 
Read  and  Committed.    In  Council;  Read." 


*A   Rev.   Archibald   Boyd,   of   Maghera,   ordained   October   28, 
1703,  was  "set  aside"  in  1716. 


LONDONDERRY  241 

The  above  petition  shows  that  the  rigorous  laws 
relating  to  religion,  and  the  rise  in  rents  and  taxes 
abont  Coleraine  in  Ireland,  brought  about  the  Scotch 
Irish  migration.  The  reference  to  forty  families 
soon  to  follow  may  indicate  some  connection  in  the 
plans  of  the  McGregor  company  and  the  Rev.  James 
Woodside's  party  which  finally  settled  at  Bruns- 
wick. The  petition  was  granted  November  20,  1718, 
and  a  committee  of  six  was  appointed  to  lay  out  a 
town  for  the  people  from  Ireland.  It  was  to  be  six 
miles  square,  of  unappropriated  lands  "in  the  East- 
ern parts.' !  Eighty  house  lots  were  to  be  laid  out  in 
a  defensible  manner,  and  not  exceeding  one  hundred 
acres  more  to  each  lot.  When  forty  lots  had  been 
taken  the  owners  would  manage  all  their  own  pru- 
dential affairs,  and  upon  the  settlement  of  eighty 
families  they  could  then  dispose  of  common  lands. 
With  true  New  England  spirit,  provision  was  made 
for  two  hundred  and  fifty  acres  to  be  set  aside  for 
the  ministry  before  any  other  allotments  were  made, 
and  a  like  amount  for  a  school.1 

Parker  states  that  the  company  which  passed  the 
winter  of  1718-19  on  shipboard  in  Casco  Bay  ex- 
plored the  country  to  the  eastward,  and  finding  noth- 
ing satisfactory  that  had  not  been  claimed  they  as- 
cended the  Merrimac  to  Haverhill,  April  2,  1719 ;  at 
this  point  they  were  told  of  a  fertile  tract  of  land 
covered  with  nut  trees,  lying  about  fourteen  miles 

1  Province  Laws,  1718-19,  Chapters  99,  104. 


242  SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEERS 

north  west  of  the  meeting-house  at  Haverhill.  Leav- 
ing their  families  there,  or  across  the  river  at  Brad- 
ford, the  men  of  the  party,  James  McKeen,  Captain 
James  Gregg  and  others,  at  once  mounted  horses 
and  rode  over  to  examine  the  land.  They  found  it 
satisfactory  and  named  the  place  Nuffield,  on  ac- 
count of  the  trees  growing  there.  They  remained 
to  build  #a  few  temporary  huts  near  a  small  tribu- 
tary of  Beaver  Brook,  which  they  called  West-run- 
ning Brook.  They  then  returned  to  Haverhill  for 
their  wives  and  children.  Those  who  had  remained 
on  the  south  side  of  the  Merrimac  at  Bradford  or 
Andover  crossed  over  the  river  in  boats.  The 
Haverhill  rabble  had  no  love  for  the  " Irish,"  and 
greeted  them  with  jeers  and  ridicule.  When  near- 
ing  the  shore  for  a  landing  one  of  the  boats  turned 
over,  so  that  women  and  children  were  thrown  into 
the  water.  This  afforded  boundless  delight  to  the 
onlookers,  and  at  last  inspired  a  local  bard,  who 


"Then  they  began  to  scream  and  bawl, 
And  if  the  devil  had  spread  his  net 
He  would  have  made  a  glorious  haul. ' " 

Several  of  the  company  went  to  Nuffield  by  way 
of  Dracut,  a  town  near  the  mouth  of  Beaver  Brook, 
where  it  joins  the  Merrimac.     They  met  the  Rev. 

1  B.  L.  Mirick's  Haverhill,  1832,  pp.  140-141. 


LONDONDERRY  243 

Mr.  McGregor  and  asked  him  to  go  with  them.  The 
two  parties  journeying  to  Nutfield  met  on  April 
11th,  at  the  little  hill  where  the  men  had  on  the  pre- 
vious visit  tied  their  horses.  This  happy  and  mem- 
orable occasion  was  made  impressive  by  an  address 
from  the  Rev.  Mr.  McGregor.  He  congratulated  his 
friends  on  the  termination  of  their  wanderings  after 
enduring  the  perils  of  a  voyage  across  the  ocean  and 
a  pitiless  winter.  He  besought  them  to  be  stead- 
fast in  their  faith  in  the  midst  of  a  strange  people 
and  unknown  dangers. 

Before  he  returned  to  Dracut  the  next  day  he 
preached  from  Isaiah  xxxii.  2,  "And  a  man  shall  be 
a  hiding-place  from  the  wind,  and  a  covert  from  the 
tempest;  as  rivers  of  water  in  a  dry  place;  as  the 
shadow  of  a  great  rock  in  a  weary  land. ' '  He  stood 
under  a  large  oak  tree,  east  of  Beaver  Pond  and 
within  sight  of  the  first  rude  cabins  of  his  people, 
who  now  gathered  round  him.  His  tall  figure  was 
erect  and  commanding,  his  dark  face  serene  and 
strong.  It  was  a  time  for  courage  and  for  prayer. 
They  had  come  over  the  sea  to  escape  persecution 
and  had  met  everywhere  in  the  new  world  intol- 
erance and  distrust.  They  had  not  only  to  subdue 
the  wilderness  but  to  kindle  a  brotherly  Christian 
spirit  in  the  grandsons  of  those  who  founded  Ply- 
mouth and  Boston. 

The  settlers  decided  to  build  on  either  side  of 
West-running  Brook,  each  home  lot  to  be  thirty  rods 


244  SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEERS 

wide,  fronting  the  brook,  and  extending  back  from 
the  bank  to  a  distance  sufficient  to  make  each  lot 
contain  sixty  acres.  In  this  way  they  were  able  for 
a  few  years  to  live  in  a  close  commnnity  as  a  pro- 
tection from  the  Indians.  Two  stone  garrison  houses 
were  built  for  further  safety,  although  as  it  hap- 
pened the  town  was  never  attacked,  and  one  man, 
James  Blair,  never  sought  their  sheltering  walls. 

There  is  a  tradition  that  this  immunity  from  In- 
dian assault  was  due  to  a  bond  of  friendship  between 
McGregor  and  Philippe,  Marquis  de  Vaudreuil,  Gov- 
ernor-general of  Canada.  It  has  been  said  that  the 
two  men,  the  Catholic  nobleman  and  the  Protestant 
commoner,  attended  the  same  college.  The  improb- 
ability of  the  story  is  apparent,  although  some  form 
of  intercourse  between  the  two  may  be  inferred 
from  the  fact  that  a  manuscript  sermon  in  McGreg- 
or's hand  bears  on  the  margin  Vaudreuil's  name 
and  titles.  The  following  paragraph  in  SewalPs 
Diary,  under  date  of  March  5,  1718-19,  refers .  to 
news  obtained  by  Boyd,  possibly  from  a  letter  writ- 
ten by  Vaudreuil,  although  there  is  not  the  slightest 
evidence  that  it  was  sent  to  McGregor.  The  passage 
reads:  "Mr.  Boyd  dines  with  me:  he  says  there  is 
a  Report  in  the  Town  that  Govr  Vandrel  [Vaudreuil] 
has  written  that  he  can  no  longer  keep  back  the  In- 
dians from  War. ' ' 

In  these  days  of  hewing  and  building  at  Nutfield 
we  get  a  pleasant  bit  of  humor  in  the  story  of  the 


V\. 


r    ■  ■■     W 
( 

V^^M'"      ;        |       l'  j 

454  1.1'V     11    .'     ill 


\ 


p. 


LONDONDERRY  247 

construction  of  John  Morison's  log  cabin.  John 
was  at  work  on  the  bank  of  West-running  Brook, 
selecting  from  his  pile  of  logs  those  that  he  pre- 
ferred for  front  wall  and  for  sides,  and  those  best 
suited  for  beams  to  support  the  roof.  His  wife 
Margaret,  engrossed  by  her  share  of  the  home  du- 
ties, nevertheless  found  time  to  watch  his  progress 
and  also  to  cast  an  eye  about  upon  the  work  being 
done  by  other  women's  husbands.  As  the  cabin 
grew  she' became  anxious,  and  approaching  him  in 
a  manner  unusually  affectionate  she  said:  "Aweel, 
aweel,  dear  Joan,  an  it  maun  be  a  loghouse,  do  make 
it  a  log  heegher  nor  the  lave"  (higher  than  the  rest). 
It  was  her  grandson,  Jeremiah  Smith,  whose  inheri- 
ted desire  to  excel  made  him  a  member  of  Congress 
and  chief  justice  of  his  state. 

But  there  was  in  these  settlers  something  more 
vital  than  even  a  proper  pride.  They  were  every- 
where devout.  When  a  religious  organization  was 
needed  the  Bann  company  at  once  thought  of  the 
Rev.  Mr.  McGregor.  He  accepted  their  invitation 
to  settle  at  Nutfield  and  in  May,  1719,  removed  with 
his  family  from  Dracut  to  the  new  village.  This 
must  have  been  a  contrast  indeed,  leaving  the  well- 
established  town  for  a  large  field  covered  with 
stumps  of  trees,  intersected  by  a  brook,  and  dotted 
with  log  cabins.  But  between  the  stumps  potatoes 
and  beans  and  barley  grew,  and  where  the  smoke 
curled  from  the  clay  chimneys  he  knew  that  there 


248  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

lie  should  recognize  voices,  and  should  meet  eyes 
that  were  familiar  with  Coleraine  in  old  Ireland, 
with  the  Salmon  Leap,  the  Giant's  Causeway,  Boyd's 
mountain,  and  even  with  God's  house  in  far-away 
Aghadowey  church-yard.  There  he  had  been  known 
as  the  "Peace-maker,"  and  he  lived  to  be  revered 
anew  in  his  New  England  home. 

The  settlement  had  been  made  at  Nutfield  under 
the  impression  that  the  lands  were  in  Massachusetts, 
but  in  May,  1719,  the  General  Court  decided  that 
New  Hampshire  had  jurisdiction  over  them.  James 
Gregg  and  Robert  Wear,  in  behalf  of  the  Scotch 
Irish  at  Nutfield,  then  asked  the  governor  and  court 
assembled  at  Portsmouth,  New  Hampshire,  for  a 
township  ten  miles  square.  Meanwhile,  to  obtain  a 
title  to  the  lands  of  Nutfield,  which  were  claimed  by 
several  persons,  they  applied  to  Colonel  John  Wheel- 
wright, the  chief  claimant.  By  virtue  of  a  deed  or 
grant  made  to  his  grandfather  and  others  by  repre- 
sentatives of  all  the  Indians  between  the  Merrimac 
and  the  Piscataqua,  the  colonel  held  a  title  which 
commanded  attention.  His  deed  to  James  McGregor, 
Samuel  Graves,  David  Cargill,  James  McKeen, 
James  Gregg,  "and  one  hundred  more"  was  dated 
October  20,  1719.1 

Lieutenant-Governor  Wentworth,  on  account  of  a 
dispute  as  to  the  title,  refused  to  make  a  grant,  but 
by  advice  of  his  council  extended  to  the  people  the 

1  See  Parker's  Londonderry,  page  321. 


LONDONDERRY  249 

benefits  of  government  and  appointed  James 
McKeen  a  justice  of  the  peace  and  Robert  Wear  a 
sheriff.  The  petition1  reads:  "The  Hnmble  peti- 
tion of  the  People  late  of  Ireland  now  settled  at  Nut- 
field  to  his  Excellency  the  Governor  and  General 
Court  assembled  at  Portsmouth  Sep1  23d  1719. 

"Humbly  Sheweth,  That  your  Petitioners  having 
made  application  to  the  General  Court  met  at  Bos- 
ton in  October  last2  and  having  obtained  a  grant  for 
a  Township  in  any  part  of  their  unappropriated 
lands  took  incouragement  thereupon  to^  settle  at 
Nuffield  about  the  Eleventh  of  Aprile  last  which  is 
situated  by  Estimation  about  fourteen  miles  from 
Haverel  meeting  House  to  the  North  West  and  fif- 
teen miles  from  Dracut  meeting  House  on  the  River 
merrimack  north  and  by  East.  That  your  petition- 
ers since  their  settlement  have  found  that  the  said 
Nuffield  is  claimed  by  three  or  four  different  parties 
by  virtue  of  Indian  Deeds,  yet  none  of  them  offered 
any  disturbance  to  your  petitioners  except  one  party 
from  Newbury  and  Salem.  Their  Deed  from  one 
John  Indian  bears  date  March  the  13th  Anno  Dom : 
1701  and  imports  that  they  had  made  a  purchase  of 
the  said  land  for  ^.ve  pounds,  by  virtue  of  this  deed 
they  claim  ten  miles  square  Westward  from  Haverel 


*New  Hampshire  Town  Papers,  Vol.  IX,  p.  480. 

2  The  petition  from  John  Armstrong  at  Falmouth  was  not 
granted.  That  from  Archibald  Boyd  led  to  the  grant  of  a  town- 
ship, and  so  appears  to  be  the  one  here  referred  to. 


250  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

line  and  one  Caleb  Moody  of  Newbury  in  their  name 
discharged  our  People  from  clearing  or  any  wais 
improving  the  said  land  unless  we  agreed  that 
twenty  or  five  and  twenty  families  at  most  should 
dwell  there  and  that  all  the  rest  of  the  land  should 
be  reserved  for  them. 

"That  your  petitioners  by  reading  the  Grant  of 
the  Crown  of  Great  Britain  to  the  Province  of  the 
Massachusetts  bay,  which  determineth  their  north- 
ern line  three  miles  from  the  River  merrimack  from 
any  and  every  part  of  the  River  and  by  advise  from 
such  as  were  more  capable  to  judge  of  this  Affair, 
are  Satisfied  that  the  said  Nutfield  is  within  his 
Majesties  Province  of  New  Hampshire  which  we  are 
further  Confirmed  in,  because  the  General  Court  met 
at  Boston  in  May  last,  upon  our  renewed  application 
did  not  think  fit  any  way  to  intermeddle  with  the 
said  land. 

' '  That  your  petitioners  therefore  imbrace  this  op- 
portunity of  addressing  this  honorable  Court,  pray- 
ing that  their  Township  may  consist  of  ten  miles 
square  or  in  a  figure  Equivalent  to  it,  they  being  al- 
ready in  number  about  seventy  Families  &  Inhabi- 
/"  tants  and  more  of  their  friends  arrived  from  Ireland 
to  settle  with  them,  and  many  of  the  people  of  New 
England  settling  with  them,  and  that  they  being  so 
numerous  may  be  Erected  into  a  Township  with  its 
usual  Priviledges  and  have  a  power  of  making  Town 
Officers  and  Laws,  that  being  a  frontier  place  they 


LONDONDERRY  251 

may  the  better  subsist  by  Government  amongst  them, 
and  may  be  more  strong  and  full  of  Inhabitants : 

' '  That  your  Petitioners  being  descended  from  and 
professing  the  Faith  and  Principles  of  the  Establist 
Church  of  North  Britain  and  Loyal  Subjects  of  the 
British  Crown  in  the  family  of  his  Majesty  King 
George  and  incouraged  by  the  happy  administration 
of  his  Majesties  Chief  Governour  in  these  provinces 
and  the  favourable  inclinations  of  the  good  people 
of  New  England  to  their  Brethren  adventuring  to 
come  over  and  plant  in  this  vast  Wilderness,  humbly 
Expect  a  favorable  answer  from  this  honourable 
Court  and  your  Petitioners  as  in  duty  bound  shall 
ever  pray  &c,  Subscribed  at  Nutfield  in  the  name 
of  your  people  Sep4  ye  21st  1719 

"  James  Gregg 
"Robertt  Wear" 

Nutfield  was  incorporated  as  the  town  of  London- 
derry in  June,  1722,  and  an  interesting  list  of  pro- 
prietors was  appended  to  the  act.1 

It  would  be  fruitless  to  follow  longer  the  fortunes 
of  the  New  Hampshire  Londonderry,  since  Parker 
has  written  the  story  in  all  its  detail.  The  people 
throve  and  multiplied,  they  tilled  the  soil,  fished  at 
the  Amoskeag  falls,  and  made  linens  and  hollands 
that  became  known  far  and  wide. 


1  See  Parker's  Londonderry,  pp.  322-326 ;  also  New  Hampshire 
Town  Papers,  Vol.  IX,  p.  484. 


252  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

It  is  said  by  Parker  that  sixteen  men  with  their 
families  first  settled  on  the  " common  field' '  about 
the  month  of  West-rnnning  Brook.  Perhaps  they 
should  be  defined1  as  the  immediate  friends  of  Mr. 
McGregor.  The  town  in  December,  1719,  voted  to 
grant  a  lot  to  each  of  "the  first  Comers  to  the  town 
which  is  the  number  of  twenty."  The  sixteen  men 
were: 

James  McKeen,  of  Ballymoney,2  County  Antrim:  he 
married  1st  Janet  Cochran,  2d  Annis  Cargill.    His 
daughter  married  James  Nesmith.    He  died  No- 
vember 9,  1756,  at  the  age  of  91  years. 
James  Gregg,  of  Macosquin,  County  Londonderry: 
he  married  Janet  Cargill,  sister  of  Mrs.  McKeen 
above  and  of  Mrs.  James  McGregor. 
John  Barnett,  Captain,  and  Jean  his  wife.     Their 
children  are  mentioned  in  the  records  as  early  as 
1722.    He  died  in  1740  at  the  age  of  86.    Jean  or 
Janet  was  the  widow  of  John  McKeen,  a  brother 
of  James  McKeen. 
Archibald  Clendenin,  and  Miriam  his  wife.     Their 
children  are  given  in  the  birth  records  as  early  as 
1720. 


1  "More  strictly  defined  as  members  of  Rev.  James  McGregor's 
congregation." — Willey's  Nutfield,  p.  91. 

2  The  townland  of  Ballynacree  in  the  parish  of  Ballymoney  was 
also  a  center  of  Quaker  influence.  From  the  'Ballynacree 
monthly  meetings  there  went  out  to  Pennsylvania  Daniel,  Andrew 
and  Alexander  Moore,  William  McCool,  Samuel  Beverly,  Samuel 
Miller,  John  Boyd  and  Thomas  McMillan. 


LONDONDERRY  253 

John  Mitchell,  Captain,  died  in  1776,  aged  80.  His 
wife  Eleanor  died  in  1771,  aged  74. 

James  Sterrett,  of  whom  little  is  known.  His  home 
lot  was  isolated,  and  next  to  it  he  had  a  grant  of 
80  acres  laid  ont  in  1729. 

James  Anderson,  and  Mary  his  wife.  Their  children 
are  mentioned  as  early  as  1720.  He  died  in  1771, 
aged  88.  His  grand-daughter  Alice  married  the 
Rev.  Joseph  McKeen,  first  president  of  Bowdoin 
College,  grandson  of  James  McKeen. 

Allen  Anderson,  married  a  daughter  of  Hugh  Ran- 
kin but  died  childless.  Land  was  laid  out  to  him 
in  1728. 

Randal  Alexander,  and  Jenet  his  wife.  Their  chil- 
dren are  mentioned  on  the  birth  records.  He  died 
in  1770,  aged  83.  The  "Randal"  in  Scotch  Irish 
names  came  from  the  great  Earl  of  Antrim. 

James  Clark,  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  had  a  child 
whose  birth  is  recorded  in  1726.  He  became  a 
deacon,  and  had  four  sons  and  a  daughter. 

James  Nesmith,  married  Elizabeth,  daughter  of 
James  McKeen.  He  died  in  1767,  aged  75.  She 
died  in  1763,  at  the  age  of  67. 

Robert  Weir  or  Wear,  and  Martha  his  wife.  A 
daughter  Elizabeth  was  born  in  1723. 

John  Moris  on,  and  Margaret  his  wife.  He  died  in 
Peterborough  in  1776,  aged  98.  She  died  in  1769, 
aged  82. 

Samuel   Allison,    and    Catherine   his   wife.     Their 


254  SCOTCH'  IEISH  PIONEERS 

children  are  mentioned  as  early  as  1721.     He  died 

in  1760,  at  the  age  of  70. 
Thomas  Steele,  married  Martha  Morison,  sister  of 

John  Morison  above.    He  died  in  1748,  aged  65. 

She  died  in  1759,  aged  73. 
John  Stuart,  and  Jean  his  wife. 

The  records  speak  of  twenty  "first  comers,"  so 
that  we  should,  perhaps,  add  four  others  to  the  above 
list.  These  might  be  Goffe,  Graves,  Simonds  and 
Keyes,  or  the  first  two,  with  the  Rev.  Mr.  McGregor 
and  a  fourth.    At  best  we  can  only  offer  a  surmise. 

With  the  sixteen  settlers  should  be  associated  the 
Rev.  James  McGregor  who  married  Marion  Cargill, 
the  sister  of  Mrs.  McKeen  and  Mrs.  James  Gregg. 
These  people  were  all  from  the  banks  of  the  Bann 
River,  or  the  Bann  Water,  as  it  was  called,  and  had 
ties  of  blood  or  social  intercourse  to  hold  them 
together.  James  McKeen  and  his  brother  John  were 
in  business  together  at  Ballymoney,1  county  Antrim, 
in  1718,  and  had  prospered.  They  determined  to 
emigrate  to  America,  influenced  perhaps  by  James  's 
brother-in-law  McGregor  who  felt  keenly  the  effects 
of  commercial  depression  and  religious  strife  in  Ire- 


1  The  accompanying  sketch  of  Ballymoney,  reconstructed  from 
a  plan,  shows  its  four  streets.  In  the  foreground  is  Meeting 
House  Lane,  with  the  Gate  Cabin  (near  Gate  End  and  the  Castle) 
at  the  extreme  left,  and  Fort  Cabin  at  the  right,  with  the  Meet- 
ing House  opposite  to  it.  The  Main  Street  leads  to  Coleraine. 
From  it  to  the  right  is  Church  Street;  to  the  left  is  Piper's 
Eow,  with  the  Market  on  the  corner. 


~W    M 


LONDONDERRY  257 

land.1  John  McKeen  died  a  short  time  before  the 
ship  was  to  sail;  but  his  widow  with  her  four  chil- 
dren continued  with  the  party,  which  was  evidently 
composed  of  families  allied  by  marriage  or  closely 
associated  with  the  McKeen  business  interests  in 
Ballymoney,  or  with  the  Rev.  Mr.  McGregor's  reli- 
gious life  across  the  Bann  at  Aghadowey  and  Ma- 
cosquin.  We  are  not  surprised  therefore  to  hear 
that  McKeen 's  daughter  said  to  her  granddaughter 
one  day  that  "  James  McKeen,  having  disposed  of 
his  property  embarked  with  his  preacher,  Rev. 
James  McGregor  and  sixteen  others,  who  had  bound 
themselves  to  him  for  a  certain  time  to  pay  for  their 
passage  to  America.,,2  He  no  doubt  engaged  the 
ship  and  became  responsible  for  most  of  the  expense 
of  the  enterprise. 

The  news  that  the  Scotch  Irish  were  to  have  a  tract 
of  land  ten  miles  square  for  a  town  of  their  own  soon 
attracted  settlers  from  Boston,  Worcester,  and  Fal- 
mouth. In  September,  1719,  there  were  seventy  fam- 
ilies at  Nutfield,  not  all,  however,  of  Scotch  Irish  con- 
nection. The  list  of  proprietors  of  Londonderry  in 
1722  records  about  one  hundred  Scotch  Irish  land 
owners,  and  also  several  of  English  descent,  John 
Wheelwright,   Benning  Wentworth,   Richard  Wal- 


1His  parish  had  become  poor  and  his  salary  was  greatly  in 
arrears. 

2  Mrs.  Thorn's  statement,  L.  A.  Morrison's  Dinsmoor  Family, 
Lowell,  1891,  p.  41. 


258  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

dron,  Edward  Proctor,  Benjamin  and  Joseph 
Kidder.  • 

It  is  difficult  to  name  the  seventy  families  who  set- 
tled at  Nutfield  before  September,  1719 ;  there  must 
have  been  in  addition  to  the  sixteen  original  fam- 
ilies at  least  twenty  five  who  came  during  the  sum- 
mer of  1719.  Some  of  these  twenty  five  or  more  we 
know:  others  are  to  be  found  probably  in  the  list 
of  proprietors  of  1722.1    One  might  name : 

David  Cargill,  a  selectman  in  1719 ;  he  may  have 
been  the  father  of  Mrs.  McKeen,  Mrs.  Gregg  and 
Mrs.  McGregor:  he  was  elected  as  the  first  select- 
man, a  courtesy  perhaps  to  his  distinguished  sons- 
in-law,  for  he  served  but  one  year.  He  had  been  a 
Ruling  Elder  of  the  church  in  Aghadowey,  Ireland, 
and  died  in  1734,  at  the  age  of  73.  His  wife  Jenet 
survived  him  for  eleven  years. 

Alexander  McMurphy,  mentioned  very  early.  His 
son  John  was  a  Justice  of  the  Peace,  and  the  town's 
first  representative.2 

James  Reid,  a  graduate  of  the  University  of  Edin- 
burgh; among  the  first  settlers,  and  prominent.  He 
died  in  1755,  at  the  age  of  sixty. 

John  Wallace,  who  came  in  1719  or  1720,  and  mar- 
ried in  1721  Annis  Barnett.  They  had  four  sons  and 
four  daughters. 

1 1  am  indebted  to  Mrs.  Charles  F.  White,  Mrs.  Henry  S.  Tufts 
and  Miss  Virginia  Hall  for  many  genealogical  facts  of  value  in 
connection  with  these  families. 

2  See  Willey's  Nutfield,  p.  231. 


LONDONDERRY  259 


Abkaham   Holmes's  Letter  from  the  Church  at  Aghadowey, 

Ireland 

John  Bell,  from  Ballymoney  in  1719  or  1720.  The 
grandfather  of  Governor  Bell  of  New  Hampshire. 

Abraham  Holmes  came  with  his  wife  and  children 
in  1719.    He  died  in  1753,  at  the  age  of  70.    His  wife 


260  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

Mary  Morison  was  probably  a  sister  of  David  and 
Samuel  Morison.  They  brought  a  very  interesting 
letter  from  the  church  in  Aghadowey,  Ireland,  signed 
by  John  Given  and  David  Cargill.  This  letter 
reads  i1 

"The  bearer,  Abraham  Holmes,  Janet  Givens  his 
mother-in-law,  Mary  Morison  his  wife,  and  their 
two  Children  has  lived  in  this  Congregation  the  most 
part  of  them  from  their  Infancy,  and  all  along,  and 
now  at  their  departure  they  were  not  only  sober  and 
free  of  publick  scandle,  But  also  of  good  Report 
and  Christian  Conversation  (Children  exepted)  now 
Communicants  with  us.  And  now  being  about  to 
transport  themselves  to  New  England  in  America  we 
have  nothing  to  hinder  their  being  received  as  mem- 
bers of  any  Christian  Society,  and  may  be  admitted 
to  sealing  ordinances  wherever  providence  may  or- 
der their  lot;  all  of  which  is  certified  at  Ahadonia 
[Aghadowey]  this  12th  day  of  June  1719. 

Witness  by 
"John  Givens 
"David  Cargill" 

The  following  men  are  mentioned  in  the  historical 
statement  with  which  the  first  town  clerk  opened  his 
book  of  records : 


1 1  am  indebted  to  Mr.  J.  Albert  Holmes  for  a  copy  of  this 
paper.  The  original  is  owned  by  Mr.  Charles  D.  Page  of  New 
Haven. 


LONDONDERRY  261 

Robert  Boyes,  a  prominent  pioneer,  who  was  sent 
to  Ireland  after  Mr.  McGregor's  death  to  secure  a 
successor  in  the  pulpit ; 

Alexander  and  James  Nichols,  both  useful  men ; 

Alexander  McGregor,  doubtless  a  relative  of  the 
clergyman ; 

James  Blair,  the  man  who  lived  without  fear  of 
Indians  and  was  never  molested ; 

Alexander  Walker,  and 

James  Morison. 

Among  those  who  may  have  been  of  English  ori- 
gin, but  were  very  early  in  Nutfield  two  appear  on 
the  town  records  in  1719 : 

John  Goffe  was  town  clerk  from  1719  to  1722.  He 
probably  belonged  to  the  Charlestown  family  of  the 
same  name. 

Samuel  Graves,  a  selectman  as  early  as  1719. 
One  might  expect  him  to  be  a  relative  of  the  McKeen 
connection,  for  he  was  a  grantee  from  Wheelwright 
of  the  Nutfield  township,  and  the  other  four  grantees 
mentioned,  McKeen,  McGregor,  Cargill  and  Gregg 
were  all  related  one  to  another  by  blood  or  marriage. 

Two  other  men  are  noted  by  the  editor  of  the 
printed  Londonderry  records  as  early  settlers,  Jo- 
seph Simonds,  who  appears  in  the  historical  state- 
ment, and  Elias  Keyes,  who,  like  Goffe  and  Graves, 
fails  of  mention  in  the  statement. 


262  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

So  ends  a  list  which  is  far  from  satisfactory  since 
many  others  may  have  been  in  Londonderry  during 
the  snmmer  of  the  year  1719.  GofTe,  the  town  clerk, 
placed  upon  the  Nutfield  records  birth  dates  which 
antedate  1718.  It  cannot  be  assumed  that  settlers 
reported  these  facts  before  the  settlement  was  made 
at  West-running  Brook.  Probably  GofTe,  who  re- 
corded his  own  early  family  statistics,  did  a  like 
service  for  his  friends  the  Graveses,  MacMurphys, 
Leslies  and  Smiths.1  They  were,  perhaps,  all  in 
Nutfield  in  1719. 

The  early  settlers  of  Londonderry  comprised 
many  who  remained  but  a  short  time  and  moved  on 
to  new  plantations.2 

William  Aiken  James  AndersonJ 

Edward  Aiken  John  Anderson 

James  Aiken  John  Archibald 

William  Adams  John  Archibald,  Jr. 

James    Alexander  Robert  Armstrong 

(called  " early"  by  Robert  Actmuty  or 
Jesse  McMurphy)  Auchmuty 

Randal  Alexander  J  John  Barnettt-  ° 

Samuel  AllisonJ  John  Barnett,  Jr. 

Allen  Anderson  t  J  °  John  Bell 


1Willey's  Nutfield,  pp.  63,  237. 

2  Robert  Boyes  and  David  Cargill  in  1729  sent  a  petition  to 
Colonel  Dunbar  in  behalf  of  150  families  who  desired  lands  about 
Pemaquid,  Maine,  for  settlement.  Maine  Historical  Society  Col- 
lections, Baxter  MSS.,  Vol.  X,  p.  439. 

*  1 1  °.    For  explanation  see  p.  265. 


LONDONDERRY 


263 


James  Blairt  ° 
John  Blair 
David  Bogle 
Thomas  Bogle 
Dr.  Hugh  Bolton 
William  Bolton 
Eobert  Boyesf  ° 
Thomas  Caldwell 
William  Campbell 
David  Cargill*  ° 
David  Cargill,  Jr.° 
George  Clark 
James  Clark!  ° 
John  Clark 
Matthew  Clark 
Robert  Clark 
Thomas  Clark 
Archibald  ClendeninJ  ° 
Andrew  Cochran 
John  Cochran 
Peter  Cochran 
William  Cochran 
David  Craig 
John  Crombie 
David  Dickey 
Samuel  Dickey 
James  Doak 
John  Doak 
Robert  Doak 


George  Duncan 
William  Eayers 
James  Gilmore 
Robert  Gilmore 
William  Gilmore 
John  Given 
John  Goffe* 
Samuel  Graves*  ° 
John  Gray 
Henry  Green 
David  Gregg 
James  Gregg*  t  i  ° 
John  Gregg 
Samuel  Gregg 
William  Gregg 
Nehemiah  Griffin 
Abraham  Holmes 
Samuel  Huston 
William  Humphra  or 

Humphrey 
James  Lesly  or  Leslie 
James  Liggit 
James  Lindsey  [of 
Mendon,  turner, 
1731] 
John  McClurg 
Alexander  McCollum 
John  McConoeighy 
Daniel  McDuffee 


x 


264 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


James  McGlaughlin 
Rev  James  McGregor*  f 
Alexander  McGregort  ° 
John  Mack 
James  McKeen*  f  t  ° 
Janet  McKeen 
John  McKeen 
Robert  McKeen 
Samuel  McKeen 
Alexander  McMurphj 
John  McMurphy 
Alexander  McNeal 
James  McNeal 
John  McNeal 
Abel  Merrel 
John  MitchellJ 
Hugh  Montgomery 
James  Moor 
John  Moor 
Samuel  Moor 
David  Morison 
James  Morisonf  ° 
John  Morison,  d.  1736 
John  Morison  (Jr.)  *  1 1 
Robert  Morison 
Samuel  Morison 
James  Nesmitht  ° 
Alexander  Nichols  f  ° 
James  Nichols  t  ° 


Peter  Patterson 
°  John  Pinkerton 

Hugh  Ramsey 

Hugh  Rankin 

James  Reid 

John  Richey 

James  Rogers 

John  Sheales 

William  Smith 

Archibald  Stark 

Thomas  Steele!  t  ° 

James  Sterrettt 

John  Stuartt 

Jonathan  Taylor 

Matthew  Taylor 

William  Thompson 

Andrew  Todd 

Alexander  Walker  t  ° 
John  Wallace 
Robert  Weir  or  Wear 
Benjamin  Williams 
Benjamin  Willson 
Elizabeth  Willson 
°  Mary  Willson 
Thomas  Willson 
William  Willson 
James  Wilson 
Robert  Wilson 
John  Woodford 


LONDONDERRY 


265 


*  indicates  that  the  name  will  be  found  on  the  town  records  of 
1719. 

t  indicates  that  the  name  appears  in  the  historical  statement 
with  which  the  town  records  open. 

t  indicates  one  of  Parker's  "first  sixteen  settlers." 

0  indicates  an  early  settler  in  the  judgment  of  the  editor  of  the 
printed  Londonderry  records. 

The  following  proprietors  of  Londonderry  in  1722 
have  not  been  included  above ;  few  if  any  were  Scotch 
Irish :     Col.   John  Wheelwright,  Edward  Proctor, 


Beardiville,  Ballywillan,  County  Antrim 
Seat  of  the  Leckys,  distinguished  at  the  Siege  of  Derry 

Benjamin  and  Joseph  Kidder,  Joseph  Simonds, 
Elias  Kays,  John  Eobey,  John  Senter,  Stephen 
Perce,  Andrew  Spanlden,  Benning  Wentworth,  and 
Eichard  Waldron.  The  Scotch  Irish  had  their  wish 
fulfilled,  the  desire  for  a  town  to  be  ruled  by  their 
own  kith  and  kin. 


XIV 

THE  SCOTCH  IRISH  IN  DONEGAL,  DERRY 

AND   NESHAMINY,   PENNSYLVANIA 

AFTER  1718 

After  the  development  of  Londonderry,  Rutland, 
and  Pelham  the  New  England  Scotch  Irish  spread 
gradually  into  other  towns,  Windham,  Antrim, 
Peterborough,  Colerain,  Blandford,  Palmer  and 
many  more.  Upon  each  they  left  a  mark  of  thrift  and 
piety.  From  these  towns  the  more  venturesome 
moved  westward  into  New  York,  and  one  of  their 
settlements,  Cherry  Valley,  became  famous  later  as 
the  scene  of  an  Indian  massacre.  Receiving  fewer 
immigrants  from  Ireland  to  swell  their  numbers 
than  like  communities  at  the  South  received,  the 
Scotch  Irish  of  New  England  had  less  power,  both 
to  exercise  in  civil  affairs,  and  to  aid  them  to 
maintain  their  transplanted  faith.  If  they  may  be 
said  to  have  been  unfortunate  in  this  respect  they 
have  been  peculiarly  favored  in  their  historians. 
Londonderry,  Windham,  Peterborough  and  Pelham 
are  represented  by  local  histories  that  treasure  the 
Scotch  Irish  tradition.  The  life  of  Judge  Jeremiah 
Smith,  and  the  family  histories  of  the  Blairs,  Smiths 
and  Morrisons,  are  typical  of  the  record  of  Scotch 


PENNSYLVANIA  SCOTCH  IRISH       267 

Irish  life  that  New  England  has  preserved.  If  it 
be  true  that  history  must  achieve  vitality  to  reclaim 
a  dead  past,  we  may  say,  viewing  these  vital  his- 
torical works,  that  New  England  in  the  days  of  the 
Scotch  Irish  pioneers  still  lives.  Of  the  Scotch  Irish 
at  the  South  much  of  this  can  also  be  said  with 
equal  emphasis.  Theirs  is  a  record  of  influence  still 
to  be  traced  in  history. 

A  southern  stronghold  of  Presbyterianism  was 
in  the  neighborhood  of  Newcastle,  Delaware.  The 
narrow  tongue  of  land  between  the  upper  shore  of 
Chesapeake  Bay  and  the  Delaware  Eiver  is  shared 
by  Maryland  and  Delaware.  Maryland's  portion 
includes  the  Elk  River  and  is  known  as  Cecil 
County.  Delaware's  portion  is  called  Newcastle 
County,  with  Wilmington,  its  chief  city,  at  the  mouth 
of  Christiana  Creek.  North  of  these  two  counties 
and  across  the  Pennsylvania  line  are  Lancaster  and 
Chester  counties  (all  known  as  Chester  County  from 
1682  to  1729),  extending  from  the  Delaware  River 
to  the  Susquehanna  River.  This  territory,  south  a 
few  miles  from  Philadelphia,  became  the  mecca  for 
Scotch  emigrants  from  Ireland.  These  emigrants 
pushed  up  through  Newcastle  County  to  cross  the 
Pennsylvania  line,  hoping  to  escape  from  Maryland 
and  its  tithes.1  Unfortunately  at  this  very  time  the 
exact  line  of  the  boundary  was  in  dispute  between 
Lord  Baltimore  and  the  heirs  of  William  Penn,  and 


1  Pennsylvania  Magazine  of  History,  January,  1901,  p.  497. 


268  SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEERS 

many  of  the  settlers  flocked  in  and  preempted  land 
in  dispute,  without  obtaining  right  or  title.  To  add 
to  the  confusion  the  Penn  family  were  in  a  state  of 
domestic  discord,  so  that  their  agent  James  Logan 
allowed  very  few  grants  in  any  place  after  the  year 
1720.  An  exception  was  made  however  in  the  case 
of  the  Scotch  Irish,  people  who,  said  Logan,  "if 
kindly  used,  will  I  believe  be  orderly,  as  they  have 
hitherto  been,  and  easily  dealt  with;  they  will  also, 
I  expect,  be  a  leading  example  to  others.' '  These 
grants  were  made  for  a  settlement  which  was  called 
Donegal.1 

At  this  early  period  when  the  business  of  sending 
'  '  runners ' '  into  the  rural  communities  in  Ireland  to 
stimulate  emigration2  had  not  begun,  we  must  not  ex- 
pect to  find  any  noticeable  increase  in  the  number 
of  ships  entering  the  Atlantic  ports.  At  Boston 
trading  vessels  from  Dublin  were  not  infrequent 
visitors,  but  aside  from  servants  their  passengers 
were  few.  At  Charleston  the  number  of  ships  en- 
tering the  port  scarcely  varied  between  the  years 
1714  and  1724,  except  for  a  falling  off  when  the 
pirates  injured  commerce  in  1717-18,  and  a  tempo- 
rary increase  in  1719. 

Few  Scotch  Irish  came  to  New  York  in  the  early 
part  of  the  eighteenth  century  because  the  Governor 
of  New  York  and  New  Jersey,  Lord  Cornbury,  dealt 


Pennsylvania  Magazine  of  History,  Vol.  21,  p.  495. 
2  Ibid,  p.  485. 


PENNSYLVANIA  SCOTCH  IRISH       269 

harshly  with  dissenters.  The  Rev.  Francis  Mak- 
emie  and  the  Rev.  John  Hampton  visited  the  city 
on  a  missionary  tour  to  New  England  in  January, 
1706-7.  Makemie  was  refused  permission  to 
preach  in  the  Dutch  Church,  but  conducted  a  service 
openly  at  the  home  of  William  Jackson  in  Pearl 
Street  on  Sunday,  the  19th.  He  was  arrested  and 
thrown  into  prison  for  preaching  without  a  license. 
Makemie  petitioned  for  a  speedy  trial,  but  the  legal 
proceedings  were  permitted  to  drag  on  until  the 
seventh  of  June  when  a  verdict  of  not  guilty  was 
brought  in.  The  financial  burden  of  imprisonment 
and  trial,  amounting  to  more  than  eighty  three 
pounds,  fell  entirely  upon  Makemie,  although  he  is 
known  to  have  had  firm  friends  in  New  York.  His 
sureties  John  Johnstone,  gentleman,  and  William 
Jackson,  cordwainer,  both  recorded  in  1703  as  resi- 
dents of  the  South  ward,  no  doubt  had  listened  to 
this  famous  sermon;  and  we  know  of  four  others 
who  were  present:  Captain  John  Theobalds,  John 
Vanhorne,  Anthony  Young  and  one  Harris,  Lord 
Cornbury's  coachman.1  The  Governor,  soon  after 
the  trial,  was  removed  from  office  and  imprisoned 
for  debt.  Late  in  1718  the  News-Letter  furnishes 
evidence  of  the  arrival  of  passengers  from  Ireland 
at  the  port  of  New  York.2    Whether  Celts  or  Scots 


xFor  a  list  of  Presbyterians  in  New  York  in  1755,  see  Journal 
Presbyterian  Historical  Society,  Vol.  1,  p.  244. 

2  A  pink  from  Ireland,  John  Read,  master,  arrived  with  pas- 
sengers November  10,  1718. 


270  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

we  have  as  yet  no  information.  But  in  forty  years 
we  find  the  Scotch  Irish  in  New  York  to  be  wealthy 
and  of  great  political  influence. 

Philadelphia  seems  to  have  had  a  considerable  im- 
migration from  Dublin,  Belfast  and  Glasgow  from 
the  time  of  the  arrival  of  the  first  Quakers  in  1682. 
What  are  we  to  think  of  over  seventy  passengers 
from  Waterford,  Ireland,  who  arrived  in  the  ship 
Cezer,  Matthew,  Cowman,  commander,  in  July, 
1716,1  or  of  fifty  passengers  from  Cork  in  March 
1718? 

Again,  of  what  character  were  the  one  hundred 
and  fifty  passengers  which  the  Elizabeth  and  Mar- 
garet, after  a  voyage  of  twelve  weeks  from  Dublin, 
left  at  Philadelphia  in  August,  1718?  "Were  these 
people  Presbyterian  Scotch  Irish?  A  few  may  no 
doubt  have  claimed  their  faith  and  their  blood,  but  I 
cannot  but  believe  that  up  to  the  year  1719  most  of 
the  passengers  were  English  and  Celtic  servants 
and  mechanics,  with  a  number  of  prosperous  Scotch 
and  English  Quakers.  Very  few  Ulster  weavers 
and  farmers  came  to  the  South  until  word  reached 
Ireland  late  in  1718  that  Boyd,  the  Bann  Valley  en- 
voy, had  found  serious  difficulty  in  obtaining  land  in 
New  England  for  settlement.  In  1719  hundreds  of 
Scotch  Irish  immigrants  turned  to  lands  in  Chester 


1  News-Letter,  August  6,  1716.  Captain  Cowman  arrived  from 
Dublin  in  September,  1717,  with  about  one  hundred  passengers. 
Captain  Gough  in  the  Dove  brought  passengers  a  month  later. 


PENNSYLVANIA  SCOTCH  IRISH       271 

County  and  to  the  fields  south  of  the  Pennsylvania 
line  for  their  homes.1 

The  Scotch  Irish  migration  of  Presbyterians  to 
Chester  County2  began  in  1719  and  thus  came  long 
after  the  English-Irish  migration  of  Quakers  which 
had  begun  in  1682.  These  Presbyterians  became  of 
sufficient  influence  in  Chester  County  in  1722  to  ob- 
tain the  name  Donegal  for  their  township.  Chief 
among  them  at  this  time  were : 

James  Galbraith,  Senior,  and  his  sons  Andrew, 

James  and  John 
Robert  Wilkins  and  his  sons  Thomas,  William, 

Peter  and  John 
Gordon  Howard  and  his  sons  Thomas  and  Joseph 
George  Stuart  and  his  son  John 
Peter  Allen 
James  Roddy 

James  and  Alexander  Hutchinson 
John  and  Robert  Spear 
Hugh,  Henry,  and  Moses  White 
Robert    McFarland    and    his    sons    Robert    and 

James 
James  Paterson 
Richard  Allison 


1  The  curious  reader  may  be  interested  in  Charles  Clinton's 
Journal  of  his  voyage  from  Dublin  via  Glenarm  and  Derry  Lough 
in  1729  when  over  one  hundred  passengers  died  on  board.  See  the 
Pennsylvania  Magazine  of  History,  1902,  p.  112. 

2Puthey  and  Cope's  Chester  County,  p.  248. 


272  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

Patrick  Campbell 

Robert  Middleton 

Thomas  Bayly 

Jonas  Davenport 

James  and  Samuel  Smith 

James  Kyle 

James  and  Thomas  Mitchell 

John  and  Benjamin  Sterrett 

Joseph  Work 

Ephraim  Lytle 

David  McClure 

Samuel  Fulton 

Alexander  McKean 

Robert  and  Arthur  Buchannan 

James  Cunningham 

William  Maybee 

William  Hay 

Henry  Bailey 

John  Taylor 

William  Bryan 

John  and  Malcom  Karr 

Edward  Dougherty 

John  and  Hugh  Scott 

The  place  names  in  old  Chester  County,  Pennsyl- 
vania, such  as  Derry,  Donegal  and  Toboyne,  suggest 
that  the  early  emigrants  came  for  the  most  part 
from  lands  west  of  the  River  Foyle. 

These  pioneers  built  their  log  cabins  in  the  pleas- 


PENNSYLVANIA  SCOTCH  IEISH       275 

ant  meadows  and  woodlands  near  John  Galbraith's 
mill,  and  in  dne  time  they  gave  of  their  prosperity  to 
maintain  a  well-built  " ordinary"  or  tavern,  for 
which  the  same  thrifty  John  obtained  a  license  in 
1726.  Here  Bebecca,  his  daughter,  was  born,  to  be- 
come at  the  age  of  eighteen  the  wife  of  Colonel  Eph- 
raim  Blaine  whose  untiring  efforts  as  Commissary 
of  Provisions  kept  body  and  soul  together  through 
the  terrible  winter  at  Valley  Forge.  Thus  the 
Scotch  Irish  of  Donegal  were  to  have  their  influence 
upon  the  greater  events  of  the  world. 

The  fine  old  church  at  Donegal  became  a  center  of 
religious  influence.  Its  plain  walls,  high  windows, 
and  great  gambrel  roof  symbolizes  the  plain  man- 
ners and  large  hearts  of  its  worshippers.  Beneath 
the  even  turf  within  the  graveyard  wall  these  pio- 
neers now  lie,  protected  from  the  summer's  heat  by 
spruce  and  cedar.  The  heirs  of  their  blood  and 
brain  are  building  the  great  west,  while  strange 
hands  trim  the  sod,  and  children  with  unfamiliar 
names  play  among  the  ancient  head  stones.1  After 
the  Galbraiths  and  their  friends  had  moved  west- 
ward or  had  become  less  dominant  in  their  influence 
other  men  of  the  same  race  came  into  prominence, 
the  Semples,  Andersons,  Lowreys,  Pedans,  Porters, 
and  Whitehills. 

1 A  picture  of  the  church  may  be  seen  in  Gail  Hamilton's  Biog- 
raphy of  James  G.  Blaine,  1895,  and  both  the  Church  and  Gal- 
braith's "ordinary"  in  the  Scotch  Irish  Society,  8th  Congress,  pp. 
80,  336. 


276  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEEES 

Donegal  was  only  one  of  f  onr  townships  along  the 
east  bank  of  the  Susquehanna,  all  of  them  Scotch 
Irish  settlements,  which  extended  south  and  north 
of  the  present  city  of  Harrishurg.  Perhaps  the 
most  interesting  of  these  is  Derry  since  its  ancient 
meeting  house  brings  to  the  present  generation  a 
flavor  of  those  pioneer  times.  Built  on  the  "bar- 
rens of  Derry' '  as  early  as  1729,  its  walls  were  of 
hewn  oak  logs,  two  feet  thick,  covered  by  rough 
hemlock  boards,  and  sheathed  within  with  yellow 
pine  and  cherry.     The  nails  and  fastenings  were 


Meeting  House  at  Derry,  Pennsylvania 

primitive  examples  of  hammer  and  anvil ;  the  thirty 
eight  panes  of  glass  over  the  pulpit  were  set  in 
pewter,  and  the  communion  service  was  of  the  same 
metal  —  mugs  and  platters  sent  over  from  London 
by  sympathizing  dissenters  in  1733. 

The  pulpit  was  small  and  crescent  shaped,  with 


PENNSYLVANIA  SCOTCH  IRISH       277 

narrow  steps  leading  up  from  the  east  side.  Along 
the  wall  were  stout  pegs  on  which  to  sling  the  musk- 
ets of  the  male  worshippers.  Close  by  the  meeting 
house  was  the  session-house  with  the  pastor's  study, 
and  a  few  rods  away  within  a  neat  wall  about  God's 
acre  slept  the  dead.1 

Derry,  early  known  as  Spring  Creek,  received  its 
first  settlers  about  1720.  As  the  Scotch  Irish  be- 
gan to  increase  in  numbers  a  Presbyterian  minister 
was  needed,  and  in  1726  the  Rev.  James  Anderson  of 
Donegal  gave  one  fifth  of  his  time  to  Derry,  and  an- 
other fifth  to  Paxtang. 

One  of  the  founders  of  the  -church  was  James  Gal- 
braith  whose  father  James  had  crossed  the  ocean, 
some  say,  as  early  as  1718.  The  younger  James  had 
fallen  in  love  with  Elizabeth  Bertram,  the  daughter 
of  a  clergyman  from  Bangor,  County  Down,  who 
came  to  the  church  at  Derry.  Elizabeth's  mother, 
Elizabeth  Gillespie,  tradition  claimed,  had  a  fine 
estate  in  Edinburgh.  James  settled  on  Swatara 
Creek,  next  to  the  farm  of  three  hundred  and  fifty 
acres  which  the  Derry  people  had  deeded  to  their 
minister  upon  his  arrival.  Here  a  prosperous  farm 
and  grist-mill  brought  food  and  clothing  for  James 's 
growing  family  and  for  his  aged  father,  who  came  to 
dwell  under  his  roof. 

Another  settler,  David  McNair,  came  over  from 


*W.  H.  Egle's  History  of  Pennsylvania,  1883,  p.  644.    Also  his 
address  at  the  church  October  2,  1884. 


278  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

Donaghmore,  County  Donegal,  the  ancestral  town  of 
the  Rev.  William  Homes  of  Martha's  Vineyard. 
David's  nephew  became  governor  of  Missouri.  In 
the  Derry  grave  yard  lie  the  Boyds,  Campbells, 
Chamberses,  Clarks,  Harrises,  Hayses,  Logans,  Mar- 
tins, Mitchells,  Moodeys,  McCords,  Roans,  Rodgers, 
Snoddeys,  Thompsons,  Wilsons  and  Wallaces. 

In  Hanover  township  were  William  Crain,  John 
Barnett,  William  Allen  and  others.  At  Paxtang 
were  John  Wiggins,  John  Gray,  Robert  Elder,  John 
Forster,  Matthew  Cowden,  Hugh  McCormick  and 
Thomas  Rutherford.  The  last  mentioned  emigrant 
left  a  record  of  his  birth  and  marriage  in  old 
Tyrone. 

Across  the  river  in  Allen  township  lived  the  fam- 
ilies of  Wilson,  Wallace,  Parker  and  Linn,  as  well 
as  Andrew  Gregg  who  is  said  to  have  had  a  brother 
David  amid  the  ungracious  rocks  of  New  Hampshire, 
another  brother  Samuel  in  Massachusetts,  and  a 
brother  John  in  South  Carolina.  A  study  of  the 
marriages  in  the  various  families  given  in  Dr.  Egle  's 
Scotch  Irish  genealogies,  will  yield  names  of  many 
neighbors  along  the  banks  of  the  Susquehanna. 

North  of  Philadelphia  the  Presbyterians,  chiefly 
Dutch  settlers  with  a  few  Welshmen,  had  worshipped 
at  Neshaminy  Creek,  Bensalem,  and  other  near-by 
towns  since  1710.  The  Neshaminy  records  are  of 
especial  interest  in  1722  when  persons  from  "Eer- 


PENNSYLVANIA  SCOTCH  IEISH       279 

lant"  (Ireland)  were  recorded  as  admitted  by  certi- 
ficate. 

These  persons  were : 

William  Pickins  and  his  wife  (Margaret?) 

George  Davis  and  his  wife 

Hugh  White  and  his  wife 

Andrew  Keed  and  his  wife 

John  Anderson  and  his  wife 

Moses  White  and  his  wife 

Humphrey  Eyre  and  his  wife 

Israel  Pickins 

Matte  Gillespie 

Joanna  Bell  (or  Jane  who  married  George 

Logan?) 
Thomas  Foster,  his  wife,  daughter  Margaret 

and  the  rest  of  his  children;  also  his  wife's 

brother,  George  Logan  * 

Neshaminy  became  famous  in  the  annals  of  the 
Presbyterian  Church  as  the  site  of  the  Log  College 
in  which  the  Eev.  William  Tennent  trained  young 
men  for  the  ministry.2  Tennent  had  married  in  Ire 
land  a  daughter  of  the  Eev.  Gilbert  Kennedy,  a  fine 
type  of  the  sturdy  old  Scotch  Irish  clergy,  a  man 
whose  tomb  still  remains  to  record  his  ancient  blood 
and  virile  inheritances.  Tennent 's  four  sons  brought 


Journal  Presbyterian  Historical  Society,  Vol.  1,  p.  111. 
1  Ibid,  p.  345. 


280  SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEERS 

to  America  great  zeal  and  much  needed  high  stand- 
ards of  ministerial  cnltnre. 

In  looking  over  the  map  of  Pennsylvania  we  find 
that  these  townships,  Donegal,  Paxtang,  Derry  and 
Hanover  (near  the  Susquehanna),  and  Drumore, 
Colerain,  Fallowfield  and  Sadsbury  (along  Octorara 
Creek,  which  marks  the  western  line  of  Chester 
County  after  1729),  together  with  the  Brandy  wine 
farms  a  little  north  of  Wilmington,  the  Neshaminy 
lands  north  of  Philadelphia,  and  Allen  township,  ten 
miles  west  of  Easton,  comprise  the  earliest  settle- 
ments of  the  Scotch  Irish  in  Pennsylvania.  The 
settlers  who  first  occupied  these  fertile  lands  entered 
America  at  the  ports  of  Philadelphia  and  New- 
castle. 

At  Philadelphia  the  Rev.  Jedediah  Andrews  had 
begun  about  1701  to  preach  in  the  "Barbadoes 
store.' '  His  followers  were  Presbyterians,  and  to 
his  church  came  the  strangers  of  that  faith.  From 
Philadelphia  the  immigrants  spread  out  over  the 
county  of  Lancaster.1  From  Newcastle  as  another 
center  they  pushed  along  the  Christiana  to  its  con- 


1 1.  D.  Rupp's  Lancaster  County,  1844,  p.  185.  For  a  list  of  land- 
holders before  1735  in  the  present  County  of  Lancaster,  which  com- 
prised that  part  of  old  Chester  County  settled  largely  by  Scotch 
Irish,  see  Rupp,  p.  233.  The  list  includes  the  Craigheads,  Cook- 
sons,  McCawleys,  Storys,  Greens,  Blacks,  Steels,  Montgomerys, 
McCardys,  Templemans,  McConnels,  McNealys,  McClellands,  Sher- 
rards,  Stinsons,  McKimms,  Dyers,  Lambs,  Bishops,  McPhersons, 


PENNSYLVANIA  SCOTCH  IRISH       281 

tributing  sources,  White  Clay  Creek  and  Red  Clay 
Creek. 

Along  the  banks  of  these  creeks,  and  down  the 
Brandywine  and  the  Elk,  the  Rev.  George  Gillespie, 
a  Scotch  preacher,  had  ridden  from  honse  to  house 
on  his  lonely  circuit  as  early  as  1713,  when  he  was 
stationed  at  the  church  at  the  head  of  the  Christi- 
ana.1 Scotch  and  English  chiefly  composed  the  con- 
gregations until  between  1718  and  1720,  although  the 
presence  of  ministers  from  Ireland  would  seem  to 
suggest  an  occasional  layman  also  from  Irish  soil.2 
On  White  Clay  Creek  were  the  Steels,  Gardeners  and 
Whites,  of  early  importance,  although  their  church 
of  that  name  was  not  founded  until  1721. 

The  purchasers  of  land  for  the  joint  church  at 

Robinsons,  Murrays,  Bensons,  Blyths,  Allisons,  McClenns,  Shen- 
non,  McClures,  Hugheses,  Duffields,  Crawfords,  Dennys,  Scotts, 
Pennocks,  Blackshaws,  Buchanans,  Gilmores,  Musgroves,  Hig- 
genbothems,  Livingtons,  Painters,  Saunderses,  Stileses,  Watsons, 
Webbs,  Irwins,  Palmers,  Owens,  Pendalls,  Thornburys,  Mar- 
shall, Jacksons,  Beesons,  Nessleys,  Herseys,  Astons,  Steers,  Mc- 
Nabbs,  Smiths,  Lindseys,  Longs,  Kings,  Moores,  Fullertons, 
Francises,  McKanes,  Douglases,  Darbys,  Knowleses,  McClan- 
aghans,  Burtons,  Gales,  Cowens  and  others. 

A  few  of  these  families  were  doubtless  Quakers. 

1Mackey's  White  Clay  Creek,  p.  4;  G.  E.  Jones's  Lower  Bran- 
dywine Church,  1876,  p.  9. 

2  The  Rev.  Robart  Cross  of  Newcastle,  1719,  and  Jamaica,  Long 
Island,  1723,  was  born  near  Ballykelly,  Ireland. 


282  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

Lower  Brandywine  in  17201  were  John  Kirkpatrick, 
James  Houston,  James  Mole,  William  Smith,  Mag- 
nus Simonson,  Ananias  Higgins,  John  Heath  and 
Patrick  Scott.  The  surnames  of  the  members  of  the 
Upper  Octorara  Church2  before  the  middle  of  the 
eighteenth  century  were : 

Alison,  Blelock,  Boggs,  Boyd,  Boyle,  Clingan, 
Cochran,  Cowan,  Dickey,  Filson,  Fleming,  Gardner, 
Grlendenning,  Hamill,  Henderson,  Heslep,  Hope, 
Kerr,  Kyle,  Liggett,  Lockhart,  Luckey,  McAllister, 
McNeil,  McPherson,  Mitchell,  Moody,  Park,  Rich- 
mond, Robb,  Rowan,  Sandford,  Scott,  Sharpe,  Sloan, 
Smith,  Stewart,  Summeril,  Wiley,  Wilkin,  and  Wil- 
son. 

The  Rev.  Samuel  Young,  a  successor  of  Gillespie 
in  this  field,  came  to  the  Elk  River  in  1718,  having 
preached  at  Magherally  in  County  Down  for  four- 
teen years.  He  had  been  ordained  by  Armagh  Pres- 
bytery in  1703. 

The  following  extracts  from  a  very  long  letter 
written  by  Robert  Parke,  an  Irish  Quaker  of  the 
original  Chester  county,  Pennsylvania,  to  his  sister 
in  Ireland,  describe  life  in  the  colony  in  1725.  Mr. 
Parke  makes  it  evident  that  there  was  no  disap- 
pointment upon  their  arrival  in  America,  when  he 


1  Jones,  p.  12. 

2Futhey's  Upper  Octorara  Church,  p.  151.  The  church  was  or- 
ganized in  1720.  The  first  minister,  the  Rev.  Adam  Boyd,  Craig- 
head's son-in-law,  was  ordained  in  1724, 


PENNSYLVANIA  SCOTCH  IRISH       283 

writes :  ' '  There  is  not  one  of  the  family  but  what 
likes  the  country  very  well  and  wod  If  we  were  in 
Ireland  again  come  here  Directly  it  being  the  best 
country  for  working  folk  &  Tradesmen  of  any  in  the 
world.  .  .  My  father  bought  a  Tract  of  Land 
consisting  of  five  hundred  Acres  for  which  he  gave 
350  pounds,  it  is  Excellent  good  land  but  none 
cleared,  Except  about  20  Acres,  with  a  small  log 
house  &  Orchard  Planted.' '  A  little  later  he  con- 
trasts the  farmer's  labor  in  Pennsylvania  with  his 
work  in  Ireland:  "We  plowed  up  our  Sumer's  fal- 
lows in  May  &  June,  with  a  Yoak  of  Oxen  &  2 
horses  &  they  goe  with  as  much  Ease  as  Double 
the  number  in  Ireland.  .  .  Dear  Sister  I  de- 
sire thee  may  tell  my  old  friend  Samuel  Thornton 
that  he  could  give  so  much  credit  to  my  words  & 
find  no  Iffs  nor  ands  in  my  Letter  that  in  Plain 
terms  he  could  not  do  better  than  to  Come  here,  for 
both  his  &  his  wife's  trade  are  Very  good  here,  The 
best  way  for  him  to  do  is  to  pay  what  money  he  Can 
Conveniently  Spare  at  that  side  &  engage  himself  to 
Pay  the  rest  at  this  Side  &  when  he  Comes  here  if  he 
Can  get  no  friend  to  lay  down  the  money  for  him, 
when  it  Comes  to  the  worst,  he  may  hire  out  2  or  3 
Children.  .  .  I  wod  have  him  Procure  3  or  4 
Lusty  Servants  &  Agree  to  pay  their  passage  at  this 
Side  he  might  sell  2  &  pay  the  others  passage  with 
the  money."  Parke  closes  his  letter  with  a  touch  of 
brotherly  gallantry : 


284  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

"I  wod  not  have  thee  think  much  at  my  Irregular 
way  of  writing  by  reason  I  write  as  it  offer  'd  to  me, 
for  they  that  write  to  you  should  have  more  wits  than 
I  can  Pretend  to."1 


A.  C.  Myers's  Immigration  of  the  Irish.  Quakers,  1902,  p.  70. 


XV 


THE  SCOTCH  IRISH  IN  SOUTH  CAROLINA 
AFTER  1718 

Settlements  which  were  so  far  to  the  south  that 
they  were  constantly  menaced  by  the  Spaniards  and 
their  Indian  allies  grew  slowly.  At  Port  Royal  and 
Charleston  the  Scotch,  both  free  men  and  deported 
prisoners  taken  in  battle,  were  very  early  in  resi- 
dence. 

About  the  year  1685  an  Independent,  or  as  some 
called  it,  a  Presbyterian  church  was  organized,  and 
it  had  a  prosperous  history  for  half  a  century.  The 
career  of  its  chief  minister,  the  Rev.  Archibald 
Stobo,  has  already  been  referred  to.  His  successor, 
the  Rev.  William  Livingston,  from  the  North  of  Ire- 
land, preached  from  1704  to  1720,  when  he  died.1 

In  1731  or  1732  about  a  dozen  members  of  this 
first  church,  including  James  Abercrombie,  John 
Allen,  Daniel  Crowford,2  John  Bee,2  John  Fraser,2 
George  Ducaff  or  Ducat,2  and  James  Paine  or 
Payne,2  withdrew  and  formed  a  new  organization, 


1His  descendants  bear  the  names  of  Tunno  and  Stewart. 
Charleston  Year  Book  for  1882,  p.  381. 

2  Assigned  pews  in  the  old  church  in  1732,  and  thus  were  not  as 
yet  known  as  seceders.    Fraser  and  Ducat  were  members  in  1724. 


286  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

worshipping  in  a  small  wooden  building,  with  the 
Rev.  Hugh  Stewart  for  their  minister.  These  fam- 
ilies were  alarmed  by  an  evident  trend  in  the  senti- 
ment of  the  majority  toward  Congregationalism,  and 
since  they  adhered  loyally  to  the  Westminster  Con- 
fession they  wished  to  be  free  to  maintain  a  minister 
of  their  own  faith. 

Some  of  the  founders  of  this  seceding  or  Scotch 
Presbyterian  church  in  Charleston  in  1732  were 
probably  Scotch  Irish.  The  statement  that  John 
Witherspoon's  daughter,  who  had  died  immediately 
after  his  arrival  from  Ireland,  was  the  first  person 
buried  in  the  new  church  field  implies  that  there  were 
religious  and  perhaps  racial  ties  which  governed  this 
choice  of  a  spot ;  although  in  the  older  church  there 
continued  members  bearing  Scottish  names. 

In  1717  the  town  of  Beaufort  on  the  Island  of  Port 
Royal  was  laid  out.  To  the  west  of  this  town  were 
lands  lying  along  the  northern  bank  of  the  Savannah 
River;  they  had  recently  been  left  uninhabited  by 
the  retreat  of  the  Yamassee  Indians  after  their  re- 
bellion and  defeat.  These  lands  the  Assembly 
opened  up  to  Protestants  in  1719,  increasing  the 
usual  allotment  of  fifty  acres  to  two  hundred  acres 
for  each  settler.  It  is  said  by  Rivers,  the  historian, 
with  how  much  authority  is  not  known,  that  several 
hundred  emigrants  from  Ireland  were  to  take  pos- 
session of  these  and  other  lands  the  same  year  ;x  but 

1  Howe's  Presbyterian  Church  in  South  Carolina,  p.  177. 


SOUTH  CAROLINA  SCOTCH  IRISH    287 

the  grants  were  soon  after  annulled  by  the  Colonial 
Proprietors,  the  territory  was  surveyed,  and  from  it 
fifteen  baronies  were  erected. 

Mr.  A.  S.  Salley,  Jr.,  secretary  of  the  Historical 
Commission  of  South  Carolina,  writes  that  Mr.  Riv- 
ers1 /'did  not  mean  (for  that  would  not  have  been 
true)  that  these  Irishmen  settled  in  a  body  on  the 
Yamassee  lands  or  expected  to  do  so.  They  would 
have  taken  their  grants  anywhere  in  the  province, 
just  as  hundreds  of  other  settlers  from  England, 
Scotland,  and  Ireland  had  been  doing.  It  is  even 
doubtful  if  these  Irishmen  came  in  a  body,  or  dis- 
persed in  a  body."  Many  of  them,  if  many  there 
were,  died  of  fever  or  privation,  and  the  others  were 
forced  to  look  elsewhere  for  homes.  At  this  time 
civilization  in  South  Carolina  did  not  extend  beyond 
the  Port  Royal  neighborhood  at  the  south,  and  to  the 
north  it  was  limited  to  the  territory  between  the  San- 
tee  and  the  Edisto  rivers.  Some  probably  wandered 
into  Charleston,  where  they  remained  until  a  strong 
Scotch  Irish  colony  took  possession  of  the  township 
of  Williamsburg. 

This  colony  arrived  in  1732  or  the  year  following, 
the  Council  having  granted  the  petition  of  James 
Pringle  and  other  Irish  Protestants  that  their  pas- 
sage be  paid.  A  township  twenty  miles  square, 
along  the  Black  River,  was  laid  out  for  them,  and 

1  See  pp.  293-294  of  his  South  Carolina, 


288  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEEES 

was  given  the  name  Williamsburg.1  To  this  colony 
came  John  Witherspoon,  James  McClelland,  William 
Sym,  David  Allan,  William  Wilson,  Robert  Wilson, 
James  Bradley,  William  Frierson,  John  James,  Wil- 
liam Hamilton,  Archibald  Hamilton,  Roger  Gordon, 
John  Porter,  John  Lemon,  David  Pressley,  William 
Pressley,  Archibald  McRae,  James  Armstrong,  the 
Erwins,  Plowdens,  Dickeys,  Blakelys,  Dobbinses, 
Stnarts  and  McDonalds.2 

In  August,  1736,  a  church  was  organized  and  the 
Rev.  Robert  Heron  of  Ireland  became  the  first  min- 
ister. From  the  church  at  Williamsburg  sprang 
that  at  Indian  Town,  with  Major  John  James  and 
William,  Robert  and  David  Wilson  among  its  found- 
ers; also  that  at  Salem,  founded  by  Samuel  and 
James  Bradley.  At  Mount  Zion  Church  were  Roger 
and  James  Wilson,  with  Captain  William  Erwin; 
at  Jeffries  Creek  were  John  and  Gavin  Wither- 
spoon; and  John  and  Hugh  Erwin  joined  the  Hope- 
well Church  which  others  directly  from  Ireland  had 
founded.  The  Plowden,  Nelson  and  Gamble  fam- 
ilies were  identified  with  the  earliest  days  of  the 
Church  at  Brewington.3 

The  Scotch  Irish  at  Williamsburg,  or  perhaps 
later  companies  of  immigrants,  did  not  all  fare  pros- 
perously, and  in  1738  Charleston  was  forced  to  pro 

1McCrady's  South  Carolina  under  the  Royal  Government,  p.  132; 
also,  Scotch  Irish  Society,  1st  Congress,  p.  202. 
2  Wallace's  History  of  Williamsburg  Church,  1856,  pp.  18,  36. 
8  Wallace's  History  of  Williamsburg  Church,  pp.  35,  36. 


HI 


u 
o     o 

21  S 


SOUTH  CAROLINA  SCOTCH  IRISH    291 

vide    for    poor    Protestants    from    Ireland    who 
swarmed  the  streets,  begging  from  door  to  door.1 

John  Wither  spoon  came  from  County  Down  in 
1734,  with  his  children  David,  John,  Robert  and 
Sarah.  Robert  has  left  us  an  account  of  his  early 
experiences,  typical  of  the  pioneer  hardships  of 
those  who  settled  in  South  Carolina.2  After  lying 
becalmed  in  Belfast  Lough  for  two  weeks  the  ship 
with  Robert's  grandmother  very  ill  on  board,  got  un- 
der way  on  the  28th  of  September,  1734.  It  soon 
encountered  rough  weather  and  the  aged  lady  died. 
Her  interment  in  a  roaring  storm  made  a  deep  im- 
pression upon  the  boy.  About  the  first  of  December 
the  ship  reached  Charleston  with  a  crew  exhausted 
by  almost  incessant  toil  at  the  pumps.  There  the 
child  Sarah  died  and  was  buried  in  the  new  Scotch 
graveyard.  The  settlers  were  kindly  received  by 
families  that  had  come  over  in  earlier  years,  but 
were  soon  sent  up  the  river  in  an  open  boat  to  "Po- 
tatoe  Ferry,' '  where  the  women  and  children  were 
put  ashore  to  find  what  protection  they  could  in  a 
barn-like  hovel.  Meanwhile  the  men  with  their  tools 
and  baggage  pushed  up  stream,  and  then  went  for- 
ward through  flooded  woods  and  meadows  to  find  a 

1  Hewit's  Historical  Account  of  South  Carolina,  Vol.  2,  pp.  316, 
324;  in  Carroll's  Historical  Collection. 

2  Witherspoon  was  not  harassed  by  local  Irish  port  officers  as 
were  many  in  1736  when  the  Government  had  become  alarmed  by 
the  magnitude  of  the  migration.  See  Pennsylvania  Magazine  of 
History,  Vol.  21,  p.  485. 


292  SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEERS 

suitable  spot  for  their  houses.  They  had  no  timbers, 
and  they  soon  discovered  that  boughs  of  trees  cov- 
ered with  sods  were  but  a  poor  protection  against 
the  fierce  winter  storms.  Soon  however  a  fire 
blazed  upon  the  rude  hearth,  the  smoke  dried  the 
branches  overhead,  and  with  one  of  Queen  Anne's 
great  muskets  loaded  with  swan-shot  close  at  hand, 
even  the  night  in  an  endless  waste  of  forest  and 
marsh  lost  some  of  its  terror.  Although  they  had 
to  wait  long  for  their  spring  planting  they  were 
given  time  to  become  acclimated  before  the  warm 
and  sultry  weather  set  in.  They  thus  escaped  the 
sickness  which  carried  off  great  numbers  of  the 
early  settlers  in  South  Carolina.1 

The  great  tide  of  migration,  however,  did  not  all 
come  through  the  port  of  Charleston.  Many  of  the 
Scotch  Irish  of  the  Carolinas  came  from  Ireland 
to  Pennsylvania,  and  then  went  through  Virginia 
and  North  Carolina  to  the  Waxhaws  in  South  Caro- 
lina.2 Of  this  stock  was  John  C.  Calhoun,  and  — 
somewhat  later  —  Andrew  Jackson.  Mr.  McCrady, 
the  historian  of  South  Carolina,  in  a  note  on  this 
migration,  says  that  from  the  Waxhaws  the  Scotch 
Irish  crossed  the  Catawba  and  spread  over  the  coun- 
ties of  Lancaster,  York,  Chester  and  Fairfield. 
Prominent  among  them  were  the  Adairs,  Allisons, 
Brattons,  Adrians,  Blacks,  Boggs,  Broones,  Buchan- 


1Hanna's   Scotch  Irish,  Vol.   2,  p.   26. 
2  McCrady,  p.  624. 


SOUTH  CAEOLINA  SCOTCH  IRISH     293 

ans,  Boyces,  Bryces,  Crawfords,  Crocketts,  Carrols, 
Carsons,  Chamberses,  Dunlops,  Douglasses,  Erwins, 
Flemings,  Irwins,  Hancocks,  Kirklands,  Laceys, 
Lathams,  Loves,  Lyles,  Masseys,  McCaws,  McDan- 
iels,  McCans,  Millses,  McKenzies,  Mclllhennys, 
McMullans,  McLnres,  McMorrises,  Martins,  Neelys, 


-Deaofo 


t orh    noya/    -kn^a^ce3 


Wylies,  Witherspoons,  Eosses,  and  Youngs.1  In 
Union  County,  as  it  now  is,  were  the  Brandons, 
Bogans,   Jollys,   Kennedys,   McQunkins    [McQuak- 


1McCrady's  South  Carolina,  1719-1776,  p.  317. 


294  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

ins!],  Youngs,  Cunninghams,  Savages,  Hughs, 
Vances,  and  Wilsons.1 

The  McCrerys  (or  McCrearys),  Greens,  Hannahs, 
Abernathys,  Millers,  Beards,  Wellses,  Coffees,  Gis- 
hams,  Bartons,  Youngs,  McClures,  Adamses,  and 
the  McDaids  settled  in  Newberry  between  the  Broad 
and  the  Saluda.2  After  them  came  the  Caldwells, 
Thompsons,  Youngs,  Fairs,  Carmichaels,  Hunters, 
McClellans,  Greggs,  Wilsons,  Conners,  Neals,  Cam- 
erons,  Flemings,  McCallas,  Montgomerys,  Sloans, 
Spencers,  Wrights,  Glenns,  Chalmerses,  McCrack- 
enses,  and  Glasgows. 

At  Nazareth  Church  in  Spartanburg  were  the 
Andersons,  Millers,  Barrys,  Moores,  Collinses, 
Thompsons,  Vernons,  Pearsons,  Jamisons,  Dodds, 
Rays,  Pennys,  McMahons,  Nicols,  Nesbitts,  and  Pa- 
tons.3  In  the  bounds  of  Abbeville  and  Edgefield 
were  the  Meriwethers,  Wardlaws,  Moors,  Browns, 
McAlasters,  Logans  and  Calhouns.4 

These  many  surnames  survive  everywhere  along 
the  rivers  and  in  the  mountain  settlements. 

By  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century  the  Scotch 
Irish,  through  industry  and  intelligence  even  more 
than  by  force  of  numbers,  had  come  to  have  a  con- 

1  Southern   Presbyterian   Review,   Vol.    14,   p.   482.     Quoted   by 
McCrady. 

2  Mills's  Statistics  of  South  Carolina,  p.  639.  O'Neall's  Annals 
of  Newberry,  pp.  47,  49. 

8  Southern  Presbyterian  Review,  Vol.  14,  No.  3,  p.  483. 
4  Logan's  History  of  Upper  South  Carolina,  p.  25. 


SOUTH  CAEOLINA  SCOTCH  IEISH     295 

trolling  voice  in  the  management  of  much  of  the 
southern  country.  And  this  voice  was  heard  a  gen- 
eration later  when  a  rider  brought  into  the  Caro- 
linas  a  paper  which  had  told  the  people  of  New 
York,  of  Philadelphia  and  of  farms  along  the  shores 
of  Chesapeake  Bay  that  New  England  farmers  had 
dared  to  fire  upon  British  troops  at  Lexington. 


XVI 

THE    SCOTCH    IRISH    CHARACTER 

In  this  attempt  to  give  some  impression  of  the 
Scotch  in  Ireland  and  in  America,  so  much  emphasis 
has  been  placed  npon  documentary  history  that  race 
characteristics  have  played  only  a  small  part  in  the 
story.  But  these  people  of  Coleraine  on  the  Bann, 
of  Strabane  and  Londonderry,  came  into  the  rural 
settlements  of  the  New  World  with  so  distinct  a 
personality,  with  customs  and  habits  so  marked,  that 
they  left  an  enduring  impress.  Since  the  days  of 
the  battle  of  Dunbar  (1650),  or  for  nearly  a  cen- 
tury, the  Scotchman  had  lived  in  the  Atlantic  col- 
onies. How  did  his  influence  differ  from  that  of  his 
Scotch  cousin  of  Ulster  who  came  to  America  in 
1718?  Did  the  life  in  Ulster  really  effect  a  change? 
Certainly  orators  and  writers  have  from  time  to 
time  made  this  claim. 

The  lowland  Scotch  and  their  borderland  English 
neighbors  left  heather-clad  mountains  and  grazing 
flocks  to  cross  the  narrow  waters  of  the  North  Chan- 
nel into  Antrim  and  Down.  They  abandoned  pas- 
toral land  for  flax  fields  and  bleach-greens,  surren- 
dering an  isolated  existence  to  live  close  together 
upon  small  farms.     Speaking  of  Aghadowey  Miss 


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SCOTCH  IRISH  CHARACTER  299 

Mary  Semple  of  Larne  writes :  ' '  The  whole  region 
is  quite  level,  with  a  gentle  slope  to  the  river.  The 
southern  end  of  the  village  joins  Kilrea,  and 
throughout  its  length  can  be  traced  houses  built  by 
its  first  Scotch  settlers.  These  are  in  clusters  and 
are  termed  Slackens, '  Gaelic  for  village.  The  peo- 
ple are  a  strong-looking  race,  the  men  tall  and  well 
formed,  the  women  rather  above  medium  height. 
They  are  principally  farmers,  but  many  work  on  the 
bleach-greens,  while  others  spend  their  lives  in  weav- 
ing on  looms  which  stand  in  their  own  homes.,n 

New  scenes  must  have  quickened  the  mental  proc- 
esses of  the  transplanted  Scot,  and  the  greater  com- 
munity life  enlarged  the  social  instinct.  The  Epis- 
copalians, all-powerful  in  government,  and  the 
Roman  Catholics,  strong  in  numbers,  pressed  in 
upon  every  side,  and  forced  the  Presbyterians  to  an 
exercise  of  their  loyalty  and  patience,  while  the 
spirit  of  proselyting  which  existed  everywhere  in 
Ulster  sharpened  their  wits.  Under  a  century  of 
these  social  and  religious  influences  the  Scotch  char- 
acter must  have  changed. 

"It  was,"  said  Mr.  Morison  in  his  life  of  Jere- 
miah Smith,  "the  sternness  of  the  Scotch  cov- 
enanter, softened  by  a  century's  residence  abroad 
amid  persecution  and  trial,  wedded  there  to  the 
pathos  and  comic  humor  of  the  Irish."2    And  Presi- 


1  Blair  Family  of  New  England,  1900,  p.  21. 

2  Page  8. 


300  .  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

dent  McKinley,  another  scion  of  the  same  stock,  said 
of  the  Scotch  Irishman,  "He  was  the  resnlt  of  a 
slow  fusion  of  diverse  characteristics.' n  Time  and 
trial  had  given  to  the  Scot  in  Ireland  memories, 
both  of  bloody  Claverhouse  in  Scotland  and  of  Tyr- 
connel  in  Ireland,  that  became  a  part  of  his  fibre. 
The  illiterate  mother  in  the  hills  of  Kentucky  today 
passes  on  her  burden  of  tradition  when  she  exclaims 
to  her  unruly  son:  "Behave  yourself,  or  Clavers 
will  get  you!"  To  her  Clavers  is  but  a  bogey;  to 
her  ancestors  Graham  of  Claverhouse  was  a  very 
real  cause  for  terror2.  If  that  is  an  inheritance 
from  the  days  of  religious  warfare  what  shall  we  say 
of  Gabriel  Barr  and  Rachel  Wilson,  lovers  for  forty 
years,  who  would  not  or  could  not  marry  because 
there  were  two  warring  Presbyterian  churches  in 
Londonderry  and  neither  lover  would  abandon  an 
allegiance  of  faith  for  the  ties  of  affection  V 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Macintosh  in  his  charming  essay  on 
"The  making  of  the  Ulsterman"  calls  the  trans- 
planted Scot  more  versatile  and  more  fertile  in  re- 
source, less  clannish  and  less  pugnacious,  or  in  other 
terms  a  man  of  wider  vision.  His  beliefs  were  con- 
sistent and  well  defined.  Against  the  Puritan's 
town  meeting  the  Scotch  Irishman  placed  the  legis- 
lature; for  the  congregation  he  substituted  the  as- 


1  Proceedings  Scotch  Irish  Society,  5th  Congress,  p.  19. 

2  The  Berea  Quarterly,  October,  1908,  p.  9. 

3  Willey's  Nutfield,  p.  91.     . 


SCOTCH  IRISH  CHARACTER  301 

sembly;  instead  of  laying  stress  upon  personality, 
he  emphasized  partnership.1 

Since  the  denial  of  the  franchise  to  non-conform- 
ists in  Ireland  threw  the  Scotch  Irish  back  upon 
their  church  assemblies  for  exercise  in  government 
they  were  perhaps  the  more  eager  for  participation 
in  affairs  of  state  when  they  reached  America.  Ac- 
customed to  close  reasoning  in  debate  the  Scotch 
Irish  leaders  from  Maine  to  Georgia  accepted  po- 
litical responsibility  promptly  and  successfully. 

Oppression  commercially,  politically  and  re- 
ligiously in  Ireland  prepared  those  who  emigrated 
to  the  colonies  to  enter  the  civic  school  of  Patrick 
Henry  and  Samuel  Adams.  Nor  were  they  unpre- 
pared for  the  inevitable  result.  Whatever  of  mili- 
tary science  the  Scotch  Irish  did  not  learn  at  the 
siege  of  Londonderry  they  acquired  in  the  French 
and  Indian  wars  in  the  New  "World.  Their  rugged 
life  fitted  them  to  endure  camp  and  march ;  and  their 
inborn  hostility  toward  England  led  them  to  forge 
to  the  front  in  the  early  weeks  of  the  year  1775  when 
many  good  men  of  the  old  English  race  wavered  in 
the  face  of  war  with  Great  Britain. 

The  Scotch  Irish  have  never  claimed  that  they 
brought  literature  or  art  to  these  shores.  They 
knew  little  of  the  former  and  nothing  of  aesthetics. 
Diaries  and  letters  of  the  migration  period  do  not 
exist  and  perhaps  never  did  exist.    Let  us  speak 


Proceedings  Scotch  Irish  Society,  2d  Congress,  p.  102. 


302  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

frankly.  Every  race  brings  to  our  western  civiliza- 
tion a  gift  of  its  own.  These  people  from  Ulster 
cared  very  little  for  the  beautiful,  with  the  single 
exception  of  the  wonderful  and  beautiful  Bible 
story.  Even  the  New  Testament  they  handled  as 
a  laborer  might  touch  a  Sevres  vase  —  reverently 


Ruins  of  a  Church  in  Kilrea 
County  Londonderry 

but  rudely.  The  Rev.  Matthew  Clark  of  Kilrea,  a 
veteran  of  the  Londonderry  siege  and  a  popular 
minister  at  the  American  Londonderry,  was  a  type 
of  the  patriot  soldier,  rough,  sturdy,  independent. 
Preaching  from  Philippians  iv.  13  he  began  with  the 
words:  "  'I  can  do  all  things.'  Ay,  can  ye,  Paul? 
I'll  bet  a  dollar  o'  that!"  whereupon  he  drew  a 
Spanish  dollar  from  his  pocket  and  placed  it  beside 


SCOTCH  IEISH  CHARACTER  303 

his  Bible  on  the  pulpit.  Then,  with  a  look  of  sur- 
prise he  continued :  ' '  Stop !  let 's  see  what  else  Paul 
says:  'I  can  do  all  things  through  Christ,  which 
strengtheneth  me. '  Ay,  sae  can  I,  Paul ;  I  draw  my 
bet ! ' '  and  he  returned  the  dollar  to  his  pocket.  We 
may  wonder  that  such  preaching  fostered  the  sim- 
ple trust  and  abiding  faith  evident  in  the  dying 
words  of  Mrs.  Morison  of  Londonderry.  When 
asked  what  she  would  have  more,  she  replied: 
"Nothing  but  Christ.' n 

The  Scotch  Irish  could  not  see  that  the  severe 
lines  of  a  cabin  are  softened  by  a  sumac  against 
the  south  wall  or  a  creeper  at  the  corner.  They  did 
not  trim  the  edge  of  the  roadway  that  led  to  the  front 
door.  In  short,  utility  required  nothing  of  these 
things  and  utility  was  their  law.  For  the  same  rea- 
son, if  the  soles  of  their  feet  were  tough  they  saw 
small  need  of  shoes  in  summer.  Their  bare  feet, 
however,  gave  something  of  a  shock  to  century-old 
New  England. 

This  rude  development  of  taste  was  based  possibly 
upon  a  primitive  state  of  education.  Although 
many  served  as  local  school-masters,  it  is  evident 
that  few  even  of  the  scant  number  who  attained  a 
college  education  ever  learned  to  write  well  or  to 
spell  correctly  their  English  language.2  William 
Smith  of  Moneymore,  Ireland,  was  a  bright  lad  in 


1Morison's  Smith,  p.  11. 
2  Ibid,  p.  19. 


304  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

his  use  of  the  pen,  and  his  school-master  wrote  in  his 
copy  book : 

William  Smith  of  Moneymar 
Beats  his  master  far  and  awar: 
I  mean  in  writing 
Not  inditing. 

William's  son  Judge  Smith  of  Peterborough,  New 
Hampshire,  after  copying  these  and  other  lines  upon 
birch  bark  became  so  proficient  that  he  was  em- 
ployed to  write  letters,  basing  commissions  from 
young  lovers  upon  the  burning  phrases  in  the  Song 
of  Solomon.1 

The  earliest  emigrants  knew  Gaelic,  and  some  may 
even  have  had  no  other  language  until  they  settled 
among  English  and  Dutch  colonists  in  America.  I 
have  found  no  direct  mention  of  Gaelic  in  New  Eng- 
land, but  Rupp  the  Pennsylvania  historian  speaks 
of  the  disappearance  of  the  language  before  his 
day.2  The  authorities  in  Georgia  in  1735  applied  to 
the  Society  in  Scotland  for  Propagating  Christian 
Knowledge  for  a  minister  to  preach  in  Gaelic  and  to 
catechise  the  children  in  English.  John  Macleod  of 
the  Isle  of  Sky  was  sent  out  in  response  to  this  re- 
quest.3 Gaelic  lingered  among  the  old  Scotch  emi- 
grants very  much  as  Presbyterianism  in  New  Eng- 

1Morison,s  Smith,  pp.  2,  12. 

"Rupp's  History  Counties  of  Berks  and  Lebanon,  1844,  p.  115. 

3  Journal  Presbyterian  Historical  Society,  Vol.  1,  p.  206. 


SCOTCH  IRISH  CHARACTER  305 

land  remained  with  the  aged  after  their  children  and 
grandchildren  had  turned  to  Congregationalism. 

In  the  industrial  field  the  Scotch  Irish  at  the  out- 
set contributed  to  New  England's  economic  life; 
they  taught  their  new  neighbors  the  value  of  the 
" Irish' '  potato  as  a  common  article  of  food,  and  to 
make  fine  linen  out  of  flax.  The  potato  which  now 
is  a  large  part  of  the  annual  crop  of  every  Northern 
farmer  was  rare  in  the  colonies  before  1718.1 

The  spinning  industry  soon  became  so  popular 
that  a  public  school  of  spinning  was  proposed  in 
Boston2  in  1720,  and  the  following  year  the  select- 
men, together  with  a  special  committee,  were  em- 
powered to  let  out  without  interest  three  hundred 
pounds  to  any  one  who  should  establish  a  school  for 
instruction  in  spinning  flax  and  weaving  linen.3  In 
1732  the  Hon.  Daniel  Oliver,  who  had  been  a  member 
of  the  Committee  in  1720,  died,  leaving  the  old  Spin- 
ning House  adjoining  Barton's  Ropewalk,  with  its 
"Promts  and  Incomes  ...  for  learning  poor 
children  of  the  Town  of  Boston  to  Read  the  word  of 
God  and  to  write  if  need  be. '  '4 

In  time,  when  they  had  grown  accustomed  to  their 
new  environment,  the  Scotch  Irish  did  more  than  to 


barker's  Londonderry,  p.  49;  Lewis  and  Newhall's  Lynn,  1865, 
p.  312. 

2  Drake's  Boston,  pp.  560,  591. 
8  Town  Records,  March  1720-21. 
*  Suffolk  deeds,  Vol.  31,  p.  53. 


306  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEEES 

defend  the  frontier  and  fight  the  battles  of  the  Revo- 
lution, for  they  excelled  also  in  letters  and  in  art. 

It  is  evident  that  whether  we  view  the  Scotch 
Irish  pioneers  from  the  standpoint  of  education,  or 
culture,  or  material  success  of  the  larger  kind,  they 
were  in  1718  in  their  proper  place  when  Cotton 
Mather  consigned  them  to  the  frontier.  The  life 
there  conformed  to  their  standards,  as  measured  by 
their  opportunity  at  that  time.  Those  who  remained 
in  Boston,  Philadelphia,  and  Charleston  were  very 
generally  tradesmen,  and  on  account  of  the  Ulster 
industries  many  naturally  were  tailors.  But  they 
were  none  the  less  virile,  earnest  and  ambitious.  A 
line  of  settlements  extending  from  the  Maine  sea- 
coast  westward  through  New  Hampshire  and  south 
westerly  through  western  Massachusetts  into  a  part 
of  New  York,  and  thence  through  Pennsylvania  and 
the  Carolinas,  might  be  expected  to  produce  much 
when  a  second  generation  had  come  to  manhood  on 
American  soil.  And  the  roll  of  statesmen,  preach- 
ers and  soldiers  proves  that  these  Scotch  Irish  did 
possess  latent  power  of  a  high  order. 

All  that  has  been  said  of  the  character  of  those 
who  constituted  the  great  migration  to  New  Eng- 
land in  1718  applies  equally  to  the  brothers,  cousins 
and  neighbors  in  old  Ireland  who  swarmed  across 
the  sea  into  the  middle  and  southern  colonies.  For 
every  one  who  landed  at  Boston  a  dozen  set  foot 
in  Philadelphia  and  Charleston.    In  Massachusetts 


SCOTCH  IRISH  CHARACTER  307 

they  were  an  incident  in  history ;  at  the  Sonth  while 
they  did  not  outnumber  the  natives  they  helped  to 
make  history.  In  1790,  following  the  Revolution, 
the  Scotch  Irish  in  Maine  still  clung  in  greatest 
numbers  about  the  Kennebec ;  in  New  Hampshire  on 
both  sides  of  the  Merrimack ;  and  in  Massachusetts 
they  were  to  be  found  along  the  Merrimac,  in  the  val- 
ley of  the  Connecticut  and  around  the  ancient  settle- 
ments of  Worcester  and  Rutland.  In  New  York 
state  they  inhabited  the  banks  of  the  Hudson  near 
Albany.  Pennsylvania  still  held  a  great  Scotch 
Irish  population,  not  only  on  the  fertile  shores  of 
the  Schuylkill  and  the  Susquehanna,  where  they  first 
found  homes,  but  now  all  about  the  source  rivers  of 
the  great  Ohio. 

Farther  south  the  Scotch  Irish  were  very  numer- 
ous in  North  Carolina,  between  the  upper  waters  of 
the  Great  Pedee  and  the  Catawba.  Across  the  bor- 
der in  South  Carolina  the  Scotch  Irish  found  homes 
along  the  Saluda,  the  Broad  and  the  Catawba,  in  two 
districts  which  then  bore  names  made  famous  in 
Revolutionary  history,  Camden  and  Ninety  six.1 

It  cannot  but  be  evident  that  the  great  water 
courses  were  in  those  days  as  vital  in  their  influence 
upon  colonization  as  they  were  to  be  upon  the  com- 
merce which  follows  permanent  settlements. 

In  no  state  did  the  Scotch  Irish  population  in  1790 


1  See  W.  S.  Rossiter's  A  Century  of  Population  Growth,  Chap- 
ter XI. 


308  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

equal  the  English,  averaging  only  6.7  per  cent,  of  the 
whole,  but  in  every  state  except  New  York  and  Penn- 
sylvania it  stands  second.  The  Scotch  Irish  were 
largely  responsible  for  phenomenal  increases  in  the 
population  of  New  Hampshire  and  North  Carolina 
between  1720  and  1740.  Massachusetts,  Pennsyl- 
vania and  Maryland  already  had  a  considerable  pop- 
ulation and  new  settlers  made  less  impression  on 
the  per  cent,  of  increase.1  The  Scotch  Irish  family 
averaging  5.67  members,  fell  short  of  the  English 
family  of  5.77,  a  fact  not  expected  of  the  later 
comer2 ;  but  in  energy,  resource  and  endurance,  in  a 
desire  to  excel  in  arms  and  in  political  leadership 
the  smaller  family  held  its  own. 

The  statement  that  the  Scotch  Irish  in  1790 
amounted  to  6.7  per  cent,  of  the  entire  population, 
although  7  per  cent,  would  probably  be  nearer  the 
truth,  at  least  gives  a  vague  basis  for  the  compari- 
son of  Scotch  Irish  ability  with  that  of  other  strains. 
We  may  turn  then  with  some  curiosity  to  a  group  of 
figures  prepared  by  Senator  Henry  Cabot  Lodge  for 
the  Century  Magazine  of  September,  1891,  under  the 
title  '  *  Distribution  of  ability  in  the  United  States. ' ' 
These  figures  are  founded  on  14,243  biographies  of 
Americans  of  more  than  average  ability,  as  given  in 
Appleton's  Encyclopaedia  of  American  Biography. 
The  results  were  so  much  discussed  in  the  press  of 


'Rossiter,  pp.  9,  10. 
2  Ibid,  pp.  274,  275. 


SCOTCH  IEISH  CHAEACTEE  309 

that  winter  that  Senator  Lodge  printed  similar  ta- 
bles in  the  Century  for  July,  1892,  based  upon  names 
selected  in  a  different  manner.  The  results  were  not 
unlike  those  first  obtained. 

The  Scotch  Irish  he  describes  as  the  descendants 
of  the  Scotch  and  English  who  settled  in  the  North 
of  Ireland,  with  an  infusion  of  Irish  blood  in  some 
few  instances. 

Of  the  14,243  influential  people  recorded,  there 
were  biographies  of  the 


Race. 

No.  and  per  cent,  of  all 
biographies. 

Per  cent,  of 
the  popula- 
tion in  1790. 

English 

10,376  or  72.8  per 

cent. 

83.5 

Scotch  Irish 

1,439  or  10.1    " 

a 

6.7 

German 

659  or    4.6    " 

a 

5.6 

Huguenot 

589  or    4.2    " 

u 

.5 

Others 

1,180  or    8.2    " 

a 

3.7 

We  find  that  the  Germans,  with  a  little  less  than 
one  half  as  many  biographies  as  the  Scotch  Irish, 
had  more  representatives  in  art,  music  and  science ; 
but  in  education,  government,  law,  the  stage,  inven- 
tion, exploration  and  war  the  Scotch  Irish  exceeded 
the  Germans  by  more  than  three  to  one.  As  com- 
pared with  the  Huguenots  the  Scotch  Irish  were 
weaker  in  art  and  music,  but  were  three  times  as 
strong  in  government,  theology,  exploration,  inven- 
tion and  the  stage.  In  careers  devoted  to  govern- 
ment, war  and  exploration,  just  as  one  is  prepared  to 
expect,  the  Scotch  Irish  exceed  their  natural  propor- 


310  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

tion;  in  literature,  art,  science,  business,  philan- 
thropy and  music  —  careers  ill  suited  to  a  pioneer 
life,  they  fall  far  short. 

Those  who  are  represented  in  the  work  by  por- 
traits, an  indication  of  conspicuous  ability,  number 
1,258.  Of  these,  the  men  of  Scotch  Irish  extraction 
number  137,  or  10.9  per  cent. ;  the  English  897,  or 
71.3  per  cent.  If  this  increase  from  10.1  (non  por- 
trait class)  to  10.9  per  cent,  (portrait  class)  means 
anything  it  suggests  that  among  English  and  Scotch 
Irish  men  of  ability  the  Scotch  Irish  more  often  pro- 
duce men  of  the  first  rank. 

New  England  may  well  be  proud  of  General  John 
Stark  and  General  Henry  Knox  of  the  Revolution, 
and  of  General  George  B.  McClellan  of  the  Civil 
War;  of  Matthew  Thornton,  the  signer  of  the  Dec- 
laration of  Independence;  of  Horace  Greeley,  the 
editor;  of  Asa  Gray  the  botanist;  and  of  John 
Lothrop  Motley  the  historian,  all  scions  of  the  early 
Scotch  Irish  migration. 

Further  south  were  other  great  figures  in  our 
national  life  —  Governor  Edward  Rutledge,  Vice 
President  Calhoun,  President  Jackson,  and  also  Wil- 
liam McKinley,  whose  ancestors  lived  at  Conagher's 
Farm  in  County  Antrim,  only  a  few  hours  walk  from 
the  homes  of  our  Bann  Valley  settlers.  We  should 
like  to  believe  that  McKinley  stands  as  a  type  of  the 
best  Scotch  Irish  manhood,  simple  in  his  habits,  gen- 
tle in  his  demeanor,  strong  in  control  of  himself  and 
a  peace  maker  among  his  fellows. 


M     +, 


.    fc 


SCOTCH  IRISH  CHARACTER 


313 


Dr.  Macintosh  has  said :  ' '  The  plantation  of  the 
Scot  into  Ulster  kept  for  the  world  the  essential  and 
the  best  features  of  the  lowlander.  But  the  vast 
change  gave  birth  to  and  trained  a  somewhat  new 
and  distinct  man,  soon  to  be  needed  for  a  great  task 
which  only  the  Ulsterman  could  do ;  and  that  work  — 
which  none  save  God,  the  guide,  foresaw  —  was  with 
Puritan  to  work  the  revolution  that  gave  humanity 
this  republic."1 


1  Proceedings  Scotch  Irish  Society,  2d  Congress,  p.  91. 


The  Aghadowey  River 


APPENDICES 


APPENDIX  I 

Ships  from  Ireland  Arriving  in  New  England 

1714 

Gray-Hound,  sloop,  Benjamin  Elson,  master,  from  Ireland; 
arrived  April,  at  Boston  (News-Letter,  Apr.  19-26, 
1714). 

Elizabeth  &  Kathrin,  ship,  William  Robinson,  master, 
from  Ireland;  arr.  June,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  May  31- 
June  7,  1715).  Sick  put  on  shore  at  Spectacle  Island 
(Province  Laws  1714,  chapter  45). 

Mary  Anne,  John  Macarell,  master,  from  Ireland;  arr. 
August,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Aug.  2-9,  1714).     Goods  on 

sale  at  Steele  and  Bethune's  ware  house,  Merchants 
Row. 

York  Merchant,  ship,  John  Beach,  master,  from  Cork; 
arr.  September,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Sept.  13-20,  1714). 
Irish  servants  (N.  L.  Sept.  6-13,  1714).  Outward 
bound  (N.  L.  Oct.  11-18,  1714). 

Thomas  &  Jane,  ship,  William  Wilson,  master,  from  Lon- 
donderry; arr.  Oct.  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Oct  4r-ll,  1714). 
Outward  bound  for  Holland  (N.  L.  Oct.  18-25,  1714). 

1715 

Amity,  snow,  Nathaniel  Breed,  master,  from  Ireland;  arr. 
June,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  June  13-20,  1715).  Out- 
ward bound  for  Great  Britain  (N.  L.  June  20-27, 
1715). 


318  SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEERS 

[Name  Not  Given.]  James  Hamilton,  master,  from  [not 
given]  ;  arr.  [not  given] ,  at  Boston.  Cleared  for  Ire- 
land (N.  L.  Nov.  28-Dec.  5.  1715). 

1716 

Truth  and  Daylight,  galley,  Robert  Campbell,  master, 
from  Cork;  arr.  May  21,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  May  21-28, 
1716;  Record  Com.  Rept.  29,  p.  232).  Names  of  pas- 
sengers given.  Outward  bound  (N.  L.  May  28-June 
4,  1716). 

Mary  Ann,  ship,  Robert  Maccarell,  master,  from  Dublin; 
arr.  June  18,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  June  18-25,  1716 ;  Rec- 
ord Com.  Rept.  29,  p.  235).  John  Gallard  and  his 
waiting  man. 

Globe,  ship,  Nicholas  Oursell,  master,  from  Ireland;  arr. 
June  25,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  June  25-June  2,  1716; 
Record  Com.  Rept.  29,  p.  236).  Names  of  passengers 
given.    "Protestants." 

1717 

[Name  Not   Given.]     Montgomery,     master,     from 

Waterford;  arr.  [not  given]  at  Piscataqua  (N.  L. 
July  2-9,  1716). 

[Name  Not  Given.]  Master  not  given;  from  Ireland;  arr. 
at  Boston.  Passengers  ordered  to  Spectacle  Island  in 
June.     (Province  Laws  1716-17,  chapter  52). 

Globe,  ship,  Alexander  Dowglase,  master,  from  Dublin; 
arr.  Aug.  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Aug.  12-19,  1717).  Sun- 
dry servants  to  serve  for  four  to  nine  years.  Gover- 
nor Shute  reported  fourteen  male  servants  from  Dub- 
lin. 


APPENDICES  319 

[Name  Not  Given.]  Robert  Montgomery,  master,  from  Ire- 
land; arr.  Sept.  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Sept.  2-9,  1717). 

[Name  Not  Given.]  Archibald  MacPheaderies,  master, 
from  Ireland;  arr.  Sept.  at  Piscataqua  (N.  L.  Sept.  23- 
30,  1717). 

Friends  Goodwill,  Edward  Gooding,  master,  from  Larne 
and  Dublin;  arr.  Sept.  at  Boston  (  N.  L.  Sept.  9-16, 
1717).  Fifty  two  persons.  Great  hardships.  See  in 
chapter  I  a  reference  to  Governor  Shute's  report  of 
nine  servants  from  Belfast. 

1718 

[Name  Not  Given.]  Alexander  Miller,  master,  Robert 
Homes,  mate,  from  [not  given] ;  arr.  [not  given]  at 
Boston.  Cleared  for  Ireland  (N.  L.  March  24-31, 
1718;  Rev.  W.  Homes  in  his  Diary  says  sailed  April 
10th). 

[Name  Not  Given.]    Gibbs,  master,  from  Dublin;  arr. 

May  16,  at  Marblehead  (N.  L.  May  12-19,  1718). 
Irish  and  Scotch  servants. 

William  and  Mary,  ship,  James  Montgomery,  master,  from 
Ireland;  arr.  July  25,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  July  21-28, 
1718;  also  C.  Mather).  Cleared  for  Dublin  (N.  L. 
Aug.  25-Sept.  1,  1718). 

[Name  Not  Given.]  John  Wilson,  master,  from  London- 
derry; arr.  July  28  ?  at  Boston  (N.  L.  July  28-Aug. 
4,  1718;  also  Lechmere).  Boys,  young  women  and 
girls. 

Robert,  brigantine,  James  Ferguson,  master,  from  Glas- 
gow and  Belfast;  arr.  Aug.  4,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Aug. 


320  SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEEES 

4-11,  1718;  also  Lechmere).  Cleared  (N.  L.  Aug.  18- 
25,  1718). 

William,  ship,  Archibald  Hunter,  master,  from  Coleraine ; 
arr.  Aug.  4,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Aug.  4-11,  1718;  also 
Lechmere).  Outward  bound  for  Ireland  (N.  L.  Sept. 
15-22,  1718). 

Mary  Anne,  ship,  Andrew  Watt,  master,  from  Dublin ;  arr. 
August,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Aug.  4-11,  1718).  Servants. 
Cleared  for  Great  Britain  (N.  L.  Aug.  18-25,  1718). 

Dolphin,  pink,  John  Mackay,  master,  from  Dublin;  arr. 
Sept.  1,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Sept.  1-8,  1718;  also  Lech- 
mere). 20  odd  families.  Servants,  boys,  tradesmen, 
&c. 

Maccallum,  ship,  James  Law,  master,  from  Londonderry ; 
arr.  Sept.  6  ?  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Sept.  1-8,  1718;  also 
C.  Mather).  Intended  for  New  London.  Went  to 
the  Kennebec.  Cleared  for  Londonderry  (N.  L.  Dec. 
1-8,  1718). 

[Name  Not  Given.  Maccallum  ?  ]  Master  not  given. 
From  Ireland;  arr.  Sept.  at  Casco  Bay  (N.  L.  Sept. 
22-29,  1718).     Passengers  and  a  minister. 

Beginning,  sloop,  John  Rogers,  master,  from  Waterford; 
arr.  Oct.  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Oct.  27-Nov.  3,  1718). 

Return,  schooner  ?,  Joseph  Newall",  master,  from  Glas- 
gow; arr.  Oct.  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Nov.  17-24,  1718). 

Mary  and  Elizabeth,  Alexander  Miller,  master,  Robert 
Remes  [Homes],  mate,  from  Londonderry;  arr.  Oct. 
at  Boston  (N.  L.  Oct.  20-27,  1718;  also  Rev.  W. 
Homes 's  Diary).  Full  of  passengers.  Cleared  (N.  L. 
Pec.  8-15,  1718) , 


APPENDICES  321 

Joseph  and  Mary,  ship,  Eben  Allen,  master,  from  [not 
given]  ;  arr.  [not  given],  at  Boston.  Outward  bound 
for  Ireland  (N.  L.  Dec.  8-15,  1718). 

George,  snow,  Grashinham  Salter,  master,  from  [not 
given]  ;  arr.  [not  given],  at  Boston.  Outward  bound 
for  Ireland  (N.  L.  Dec.  29,  1718-Jan.  5,  1719). 

1719 

Jane,  ship,  John  MacMaster,  master,  from  Glasgow  and 
Belfast;  arr.  June  9,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  June  8-15, 
1719;  Eecord  Com.  Rept.  13,  p.  57).  List  of  passen- 
gers warned,  p.  57. 

[Name  Not  Given.  Joseph  ?  ]  Philip  Bass,  master,  from 
Londonderry;  arr.  Aug.  21,  at  Kennebec  River  (N. 
L.  Aug.  17-24,  1719).     200  passengers. 

Globe,  ship,  John  Mackay,  master,  from  Dublin ;  arr.  Aug. 
at  Boston  (N.  L.  Aug.  10-17,  1719).    Sundry  servants. 

Joseph,  ship,  Samuel  Harris,  master,  from  Ireland;  arr. 

Sept.  ?,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Aug.  31-Sept.  7,  1719).     Six 

men  and  boys  and  one  woman's  time. 
Mary,  schooner,  Philip  Rawlings,  master,  from  Dublin ;  arr. 

Sept.,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Sept.  21-28,  1719).    Six  weeks 

passage. 

Amsterdam,  John  Wakefield,  master,  from  Ireland;  arr. 
Oct.,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Oct.  12-19,  1719). 

Elizabeth,  ship,  Robert  Homes,  master,  from  Ireland ;  arr. 
Nov.  3  ?,  at  Hull  and  Boston.  (Mass.  Resolves,  1719, 
chapter  68.)  About  150  passengers,  some  with  small- 
pox.    List  of  warnings  (Record  Com.  Rept.  13,  p.  63). 


322  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

[Name  Not  Given.]     Dennis,  master,  from  Ireland; 

arr.  Nov.,  at  Boston.    List  of  persons  warned.   (Rec- 
ord Com.  Rept.  13,  p.  64). 

Mary  and  Abigail,  Eben  Allen,  master,  from  [not  given] ; 
arr.  [not  given],  at  Boston.  Outward  bound  for  Ire- 
land (N.  L.  Nov.  30-Dee.  7,  1719). 

Gray-Hound,  ship,  Thomas  Arnold,  master,  from  [not 
given] ;  arr.  [not  given] ,  at  Boston  1  Outward  bound 
for  Ireland  (N.  L.  Jan.  5-12, 1719-20). 

1720 

[Name  Not  Given.]  William  Jarvis,  master,  from  [not 
given]  ;  arr.  [not  given] ,  at  Boston.  Cleared  for  Ire- 
land (N.  L.  April  4r-ll,  1720). 

Amity,  James  Goodman,  master,  from  Cork;  arr.  April,  at 
Boston  (N.  L.  April  25-May  2,  1720).  Outward 
bound  (N.  L.  May  9-16,  1720). 

Joseph,  Philip  Bass,  master,  from  [not  given,  Kennebec 
River  ?] ;  arr.  [not  given] ,  at  Boston.  Outward  bound 
for  Ireland  (N.  L.  May  5-9,  1720). 

Margaret,  Luke  Stafford,  master,  from  Dublin;  arr.  Aug. 
4,  at  Marblehead  (N.  L.  Aug.  1-8,  1720).  Nine  weeks 
voyage. 

[Name  Not  Given.]  Benjamin  ?  Marston,  master,  from 
Ireland;  arr.  Aug.,  at  Salem  (N.  L.  Aug.  22-29,  1720). 
Taken  by  pirates.    Had  several  passengers. 

[Name  Not  Given.]  Nathaniel  Jarvis,  master,  from  Ire- 
land; arr.  between  Aug.  29  and  Sept.  5,  at  Boston  (N. 
L.  Aug.  29-Sept.  5.  1720).    See  below. 


APPENDICES  323 

[Name  Not  Given.]       Robert  Homes,  from  Ireland;  arr. 

Aug.    28,    at    Boston.      (Rev.    W.    Homes 's    Diary.) 

Homes  may  have  been  mate  to  Jarvis  above. 
Return,  Jos.  Newell,  master,  from  Dublin;  arr.  Sept.,  at 

Boston  (N.  L.  Sept.  5-12,  1720). 
Mary,  schooner,  Philip  Rawlings,  master,  from  Dublin ;  arr. 

Sept.,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Sept.  21-28,  1720). 
Joseph,  Philip  Bass,  master,  from  Ireland;  arr.  Oct.,  at 

Boston  (N.  L.  Oct.  17-24,  1720). 
Essex,  brigantine,  Robert  Peat,  master,  from  Ireland;  arr. 

July  ?,  at  Salem  (N.  L.  Oct.  17-24,  1720).     Held  up 

by  Capt.  Thomas  Roberts,  a  pirate. 
Prosperity,  Josiah  Carver,  master,  from  Ireland ;  arr.  Nov., 

at  Boston  (N.  L.  Nov.  21-28). 
Experiment,  George  Read,  master,  from  Londonderry ;  arr. 

Dec,  at  Boston  (N.  L.  Dec.  5-12,  1720).     Cleared  for 

Ireland  (N.  L.  Dec.  19-26,  1720). 


APPENDIX  II 
The  Petition  to  Governor  Shute  in  1718 

The  petition  which  now  hangs  in  the  rooms  of  the  New 
Hampshire  Historical  Society  at  Concord  can  still  be  read, 
with  the  exception  of  a  few  names  which  have  faded  out 
since  Mr.  Parker,  the  historian  of  Londonderry,  copied 
them  in  1850.  These  are  now  given  between  brackets.  The 
address  occupies  the  top  of  the  sheet,  extending  across  its 
face.  The  words  ' '  To  His  Excellency  the  Right  Honourable 

Colonel  Samuel  Suitte,  Governour  of  New  England " 

do  not  fill  an  entire  line,  but  are  written  large  and  are  cen- 
tred. The  rest  of  the  address  reads:  "We  whose  names 
are  underwritten  Inhabitants  of  y*  North  of  Ireland  Doe  in 
our  own  names  and  in  the  names  of  many  others  our  neigh- 
bours, Gentlemen,  Ministers,  Farmers  and  [End  of  line] 
Tradesmen,  Commissionate  and  appoint  our  trusty  and  well 
beloved  Friend  The  Reverend  Mr  William  Boyd  of  Mac- 
asky  to  repair  to  His  Excellency  the  Right  Honourable 
[End  of  line]  Collonel  Samuel  Suitte  Governour  of  New 
England,  and  to  assure  His  Excellency  of  our  sincere,  and 
hearty  Inclinations  to  Transport  our  selves  to  that  very  ex- 
cellent and  [End  of  line]  renowned  Plantation  upon  our 
obtaining  from  his  Excellency  suitable  incouragement.  And 
further  to  act,  and  Doe  in  our  names  as  his  Prudence  shall 
direct.  Given  under  [End  of  line]  our  hands  this  26th  day 
of  March  Annoq  Dom.  1718." 

Below  this  address  are  the  autograph  signatures,   ar- 


APPENDICES 


325 


ranged  in  eight  columns  of  equal  length.  Where  Mr.  Par- 
ker's rendering  of  a  name  differs  from  my  own  I  have  given 
Parker's  form  below  in  italics.  A  question  mark  indicates 
that  although  we  may  agree,  the  form  is  still  open  to 
question.  An  asterisk  marks  names  beginning  with  a  small 
written  b.  In  these  cases  I  read  " Black,' '  not  "Clark," 
' '  Beverelle, "  not ' '  Ceverelle, "  and  ' '  Blaire, "  not ' '  Claire. ' ' 
My  study  of  the  petition  has  been  aided  by  holding  a  nega- 
tive photographic  plate  before  a  strong  light.  I  am  in- 
debted for  this  negative  to  the  kindness  of  Miss  Edith  Shep- 
ard  Freeman,  Librarian  of  the  New  Hampshire  Historical 
Society. 

The  names  follow: 


[First  column  at  the  left.] 
James  Alexander 
James  Nesmith 
David  Craig 
Neall  McNeall 

Weall  McNeall 
Thomas  Orr 
William  Caldwell 
?Jas  Moore  Jr 
?Wm.  Slamon 

Sam    Gunion.        Perfectly 

distinct.  Looks  like   Siem- 

lon.    Possibly  for  William 

Slemmons 
Matthew  Love 

Lord 
Robrt  Knox 
Alexdr   McGregore 
James  Trotter 
Alexander   McNeall 
Robert  Roe 

Roo 


Joseph  Watson 
Robert  Millar 
John  Smeally 
Much  faded. 
John  Morieson 
James  Walker 
Robert  Walker 
Robert  Walker 

His 

Wilam  X  Calual 
mark 
Calwall.    Difficult 
William  Walker 

His  mark 
Samuel  X  Young 
Alexander  Richey 
James  Morieson 

His  mark 
Josheph  X  B  ever  lam 

His  ^  mark 
Robert  Crage 
John  Thomson 
Thompson.  Clear 


326 


SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEERS 


Hugh  Tomson 
James  Still 
James  Hoog 
Thomas  Hanson 
John  Hanson 
Ritchard  Etone 
James  Etone 
Thomas  Etone 
Samuell  Hanson 
James   Cochran 
James  Hulton 
Thomas  Hultone 

Haseltone.    Or  ffultone 
John  Cochrane 
William  Cochrane 

His 

Samuel  X  Hunter 

mark 
[John  Hunter] 

[Second  column.] 

Thomas  Hunter 

His 
Daniel   X   McKerrel 

mark 
ffergos  Kenedey 
Horgos   (?) 
His 
?John  X  Setone 
mark 
Suene     (?)       Well     written, 
but  elusive. 
Adam  X  Dickey 
His  mark 
Ditkoy 
Alexander  Kid 
Thomas  Lorie 
Thomas  Hines 

His 
Will  X  Halkins 
mark 


Georg  Anton 
John  Colbreath 
♦William  Baird 

Caird 
John  Gray 
?John  Hostowne 

Woodman    (?)     Last  four 

letters  very  clear. 
Andrew  Wattson 
William  Blair 
Joseph  Blair 

His 
Hugh  X  Blare 

mark 
William  Blare 
Samuel  Anton 
James  Knox 
Robert  Hendry 
John  Knox 
William  Hendry 
William  Dunkan 
David  Duncan 
John  Muree 

Murray? 
James  Gillmor 
Samuel  Gillmor 
Alexander  Chocran 
Edward  M  Kene 
John  Morduck 

His 
?Samuel   X   M°Mun 

mark 
?Molcam  Calual 

Henry  Calual 
Thomas    McLaughlen 
Robert  Hoog 
John  Millar 
Hugh  Calwell 
William  Boyd 


APPENDICES 


327 


John  Stirling 
Samuel  Smith 
John  Lamond 
Robert  Lamond 
Robert  Knox 
Wm  Wilson 
Wm  Paterson 

[Third  column.] 

Stephen  Murdoch 
Robertt  Murdoch 
John  Murdoch 
William  Jennson 
James  Rodger 
John  Buyers 
Robert  Smith 
Adam  Dean 
Randall  Alexander 
Thomas  Boyd 
Hugh  Rogers 
John  Craig 
Wm  Boyle 
Benj  Boyle 
Ja.  Kenedy 
M'G.  Stirling 

A  blot  comes  between  the 

M.  and  the  S. 
Samuel  Ross 
John  Ramsay 
John  McKeen 
James  Willsone 
Robert  McKeen 
John  Boyd 
Andrew  Dunlap 
James  Ramsay 
William  Park 
John  Blair 
James  Thompson 
Lawrence  McLaughlen 


Will  Campibell 
James  Bankhead 
Andrew  Patrick 
James  McFee 
?James  Tonson 

Or  Temen? 
Gorg  Anton 
James  Anton 
George  Kairy 
Thomas  Freeland 

[Fourth  column.] 

Peter  Simpson 
Thomas  M'Laughlen 
Robert  Boyd 
Andrew  Agnew 
James  King 
Thomas  Elder 
Daniel  Johnstone 
Robert  Walker 
David  Jonston 
James  Steuart 
John  Murray 
Thomas  Blackwel 
Thomas  Wilson 
John  Ross 
William  Johnston 
John  King 
Andrew  Curry 
?John  Leech 

Parker  omits.    Looks 

like  Jueeh. 
?James  Brighym 

Parker  omits. 
Samuel  Code 
♦James  Blak 
Thomys  Gro 
Thomys  Anton 
James  Gro 


328 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


*John  Black 

Clark 
Thomas  Boyd 
Andrew   McFaden 

Thomas  McFaden 
David  Hanson 
Richard  Acton 
*James  Blaire 

Claire 
Thomas  Elder 
♦Jeremiah  Blaire 

Claire 
♦Jacob  Black 

Clark 
Abram   Baverly 

[Fifth  column.] 
Robert  Johnston 
Thomas  Black 
Peter  Murray 
John  Jameson 
John  Cochran 
Samuell  Gonston 
Thomas  Shadey 
William  Ker 
Thomas  Moore 
Andrew  Watson 
John  Thonson 
James  McKerrall 
Hugh   Stockman 
Andrew  Cochren 
♦James  Barkley 

Carkley 
Laurence  Tod 

Bod 
?Sandrs  Mear 
John  Jackson 
James  Curry 
James  Elder 


James  Acton 
?Gorg  Gregory 

Parker  omits. 
Samuel  Smith 
Andrew  Dodg 
James  Forsaith 
Andrew  Fleeming 
Gorge  Thomson 
James  Brouster 
Thomas  Kengston 

Parker  omits. 
James  Baverlay 

[Sixth  column.] 
James  Smith 
James  Smith 
Patrick  Smith 
♦Sameuel  Beverelle 

Ceverelle 
James  Craig 
Samuel  Wilson,  M.  A. 
Gawen  Jirwin 
Robert  Miller 
Thomas  Wilson 
William  Wilson 
James  Brice 
Ninian  Pattison 
James  Thompson 
Jon  Thompson 
Robt  Thompson 
Adam  Thompson 
Alexander  Pattison 
Thomas  Dunlop 
John  Willson 
David  Willson 
John  Moor 
James  M^Keen 
John  Lamont 
John  Smith 


APPENDICES 


329 


Patrick  Orr 

?Boniel  Orr 

William  Orr 

John  Orr 

Jeams  Lenox 

John  Leslie 

John  Lason 

?John  Colvil 

Samuel  Wat 

James  Crafort 

James  Henderson 

Matheu  Slarroh 

David  Widborn 

Luk  Wat 

Robert  Hendre 

William  Walas 

Thomas  Walas 

?Thomas  Enoch 
Cewch? 

William  Boyd 

William  Christy 

John  Boyd 

William  Boyd 

Hugh  Ker 
The   last   nineteen   are    pos- 
sibly in  one  handwriting. 

[Seventh  column.] 

Alexr  McBride,   Phar. 

Bart.    There    never    was    a 
Baronet  of  this  name. 

Sam :    McGivern 

John  Murdoch 
Hurdoch 

Geo  Campbell 

James  Shorswood 

John  McLaughlen 

Georg  McLaughlen 

Laurence   McLaughlen 


?John  Hezlet 

Faded. 
George  McAlester 
Thomas  Ramadge 
James  Campbell 
David  Lindsay 

Robt  Giveen 

James  Laidlay 
Benjamen  Gait 
Daniell  Todd 
Robt  Barr 
Hugh    [Hollmes] 
Robt  King 
John    [Black] 
Thomas  Ramsay 
James   [Henry] 
Francis  [Richie] 
James  Gregg 
Robert  Boyd 
Hugh  Tarbel 
David  Tarbel 

His 
John  X  Robb 

mark 
?Peatter  Fulltone 

Jeatter  Fueltone. 

Possibly  John 
Robt  Wear 
[Alex'r  Donnaldson] 
[Arch'd  Duglass] 
[Robert  Stiven] 
Robt  [Henry] 
[James  Pettey] 
David  Bigger 
David  [Patteson] 
?David  Mitchell 

Parker   omits. 
John  Wight 


330 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


Joseph  Wight 
Robt  Willson 
James  Ball 
?Andrew  Cord 

Or  Coxe? 
James  Nesmith 
Peter  Christy 

[Eighth  column.] 

Jas  Teatte,  V.  D.  M. 
Thos  Cobham,  V.  D.  M. 
Robert  Neilson,  V.  D.  M. 

Houston 
Will:  Leech,  V.  D.  M. 
Robert  Higinbotham,  V.  D.  M. 
John  Porter,  V.  D.  M. 
Hen:  Neille,  V.  D.  M. 
Tho.  Elder,  V.  D.  M. 
James  Thomson,  V.  D.  M. 
William  Ker 
Will:  McClben 

McAlben 
Willeam  Jeameson 

Or  Jennieson? 
Wm  Agnew 


Jeremiah  Thompson 
Jahon  Andrson 
George  Grege 
Andrew  Dean 
Alexr  Dunlop,  M.  A. 
Arch  McCook,  M.  A. 
Alex'r  Blair 
?Boulonget  Cochran 

Parker    says    B.    Cochran. 

Fairly  clear,  but  elusive. 
William  Gait 
Peter  Thompson 
Richart  McLaughlen 
?John  Mccan 

Muar 
*John  Black 
?John  Thompson 
Samuel  Boyd 
John  Mitchell 
James  Paterson 
Joseph  Curry 
David  Willson 
Patrick  Anderson 
John  Gray 
James  Greg 


APPENDIX  III 

Andrew  McFadden's  Transplanting  from  Garvagh  in 
the  County  of  Derry  to  Merrymeeting  Bay  in  1718 

(Copied   by   Mr.    John   H.    Edmonds   from    Supreme    Court   Files,    Suffolk 
County,  Massachusetts,  Vol.  895,  p.  71) 

Jane  Macfadden  of  Georgetown  about  82  Years  of  Age 
testify eth  and  Saith  that  She  with  her  late  husband  An- 
drew Macfadden  lived  in  the  Town  of  Garvo  in  the  County 
of  Derry  on  the  ban  "Water  in  Ireland  belonging  to  one 
Esqr  Fullinton  being  a  pleasant  place  and  call'd  Summer- 
sett  and  about  Forty  Six  Years  ago  my  Husband  and  I 
removed  from  Ireland  to  Boston  and  from  Boston  we  moved 
down  to  Kennebeck-River  and  up  the  River  to  Merry- 
Meeting  Bay  and  set  down  on  a  point  of  Land  laying  be- 
tween Cathance  River  and  Abagadussett  River  and  oppo- 
site and  a  litte  to  the  Northward  of  Brick  Island  So  call'd 
and  Said  point  was  then  call'd  by  every  Body  Cathance 
point  at  that  day  and  by  no  other  Name,  and  As  my  hus- 
band was  aclearing  away  the  Trees  to  Merry-Meeting  Bay 
he  Said  it  was  a  very  pleasant  place  and  he  thought  it  was 
like  a  place  call'd  Summersett  on  the  ban  Water  in  Ireland 
where  they  lived  and  that  he  would  give  it  the  Name  of 
Summersett  after  that  in  Ireland  which  he  did  and  it  hath 
gone  by  the  Name  of  Summersett  ever  Since,  which  is  now 
about  Forty  five  Years  ago  and  at  that  time  there  was  No 
Settlement  on  Kennebeck-River  above  Arowswick  Island 
excepting  Our  family  and  two  more  that  she  knew  of  and 


332  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

there  is  a  large  Fish  in  Kennebeck-River  call'd  Sturgeon 
which  Jumps  plentifully  in  the  Summer  time  from  the 
Mouth  of  the  River  Kennebeck  where  it  empty's  it  Self  into 
the  Sea  Near  Sequin  Island  clear  up  to  Teconnett  at  Fort 
Hallifax  where  I  have  often  been  and  there  is  a  Number 
of  Vessells  which  Yearly  come  to  catch  these  Sort  of  Fish 
called  Sturgeons  and  the  general  place  where  the  Vessells 
lay  is  at  the  head  of  Arowswick  Island  about  Twelve  Miles 
from  the  Sea,  and  Some  Vessells  lay  at  Merry-Meeting  Bay 
to  catch  the  Said  Fish  and  the  general  place  for  catching 
Said  Sturgeon  Fish  was  in  Long  Reach  and  Merry-Meet- 
ing Bay  there  being  the  greatest  plenty  as  I  always  un- 
derstood and  the  Vessels  that  generally  come  for  those 
Sturgion  fish  were  Small  Schooners  and  the  Deponant 
further  Saith  that  the  Plymouth  or  Kennebeck  Proprietors 
have  made  large  Settlements  on  Kennebeck  river  and  are 
still  making  them  Continually — 

Her 

Jane   X   Mcfadden 

mark 

Pounalborough  June  19:th  1766— 


I7S- 


APPENDIX  IV 

(A)  Members    of    the    Charitable    Irish    Society    in 

Boston 

Edward  Allen,  1737 ;  Edward  Alderchurch,  1737 ;  Joseph 
Austin,  1739;  Robert  Auchmuty,  Esq.,  1740;  David  Allen, 
1740;  Adam  Boyd,  1737;  Thomas  Bennett,  1737;  Michael 
Bourns,  1738 ;  Samuel  Black,  1738 ;  George  Boulton,  1738 ; 
Philip  Breaden,  1739;  John  Beath,  1739;  James  Clark, 
1737;  John  Clark,  1737;  Alexander  Caldwell,  1738;  An- 
drew Canworthy,  1739;  Thomas  Cumerford,  1741;  Robert 
Duncan,  1737;  William  Drummond,  1737;  James  Down- 
ing, 1737;  George  Draper,  1737;  Samuel  Douse,  1738; 
William  Dunning,  1739 ;  Peter  Dillon,  1739 ;  Henry  Dun- 
worth,  1739 ;  Walter  Dougherty,  1739 ;  Hugh  Dorus,  1739 ; 
James  Dalton,  1740 ;  William  Davis,  1740 ;  Michael  Derby, 
1740;  James  Egart,  1737;  William  Edgar,  1739;  William 
Freeland,  1737;  William  French,  1739;  George  Ferguson, 
1739;  Patrick  Fitzgibbon,  1739;  Owen  Fergus,  1739; 
John  Farrel,  1740;  Daniel  Gibbs,  1737;  George  Glen,  1737; 
James  Gardner,  1737;  Michael  Geoghegan,  1737;  John  \^ 
Griffin,  1738;  Joseph  Gilmore,  1739;  John  Gradon,  1739; 
Robert  Glen,  1741;  William  Hall,  1737,  President;  John 
Hoog,  1738;  John  Hutchinson,  1739;  Andrew  Holmes, 
1739;  John  Harper,  1739;  Frederick  Hamilton,  1740; 
James  Hughes,  1740;  William  Holmes,  1740;  Andrew 
Knox,  1737;  David  Kennedy,  1737;  Adam  Knox,  1737; 
John  Little,  1737;  Joseph  Lewis,  1738;  Thomas  Lawler, 


334  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

1739;  Daniel  McFfall,  1737;  James  Mayes,  1737;  Samuel 
Moore,  1737;  Philip  Mortimer,  1737;  Patrick  Motley,  1737; 
Thomas  Molony,  1737 ;  David  Moore,  1738 ;  John  MacMur- 
phy,  1738;  Adam  McNeil,  1738;  James  McCrillis,  1738; 
Thomas  McDaniel,  1738;  James  McFaden,  1738;  Lodowic 
McGowing,  1739 ;  Michael  Malcolm,  1739 ;  John  McCleary, 
1739 ;  John  Moony,  1739 ;  Rev.  John  Moorehead,  1739,  here 
in  1727;  Hugh  McDaniel,  1737;  David  Miller,  1739;  Sam- 
uel Miller,  1740;  James  McHord,  1740;  Rev.  ■William 
McClennehan,  1741;  Archibald  McNeil,  1743;  William 
Moore,  1743;  Neill  Mclntire,  1743,  President;  John  Noble, 
1737;  Daniel  Neal,  1737;  James  Nelson,  1738;  Arthur 
Noble,  1740;  Isaac  Orr,  1737;  Peter  Pelham,  1737;  John 
Poyntz,  1737;  John  Powers,  1739;  William  Patton,  1739; 
John  Quig,  1738;  Francis  Richey,  1737,  Vice-President; 
Kennedy  Ryan,  1739;  Joseph  St.  Lawrence,  1737;  Wil- 
liam Stewart,  1737;  Samuel  Sloane,  1738;  Robert  Sloane, 
1738;  William  Sherrard,  1739;  James  Stet,  1739;  Isaac 
Savage,  1739;  David  Stanley,  1741;  Archibald  Thomas, 
1737;  Patrick  Tracy,  1737;  William  Toler,  1738;  James 
Tabb,  1739;  Robert  Temple,  Esq.,  1740;  John  Thompson, 
1740;  John  Tanner,  1741;  Nathaniel  Walsh,  1737;  Patrick 
Walker,  1737;  John  Whitley,  1738;  Peter  Williams,  1738. 

(B)  Names  of  Fathers  on  the  Presbyterian  Baptismal 
Records  in  Boston,  1730-1736 

Robert  Patton,  Andrew  Simson,  Daniel  Camble,  Robert 
Knox,  Samuel  Millar,  Samuel  Sloan,  Patrick  Camble,  John 
Little,  John  McCurdy,  William  Hogg,  James  Moor,  John 
Watts,  James  Crozier,  Robert  Rutherford,  Robert  Morton, 


APPENDICES  335 

Samuel  Smith,  John  Tom,  Robert  Kirkland,  Alexander 
Wilson,  John  Young,  Robert  Hodge,  William  Shirlow, 
Elizabeth  Hutchinson,  William  Patterson,  Patrick  Walker, 
Robert  Wilson,  William  Camble,  Francis  Lee,  James  Max- 
well, William  Chessnutt,  Jeramiah  Smith,  James  MaClure, 
John  Harper,  David  MaClure,  James  Tatt,  James  MacQuis- 
tion,  Robert  Speer,  Allen  Whippie,  David  MaClare,  Roan- 
ald  Stewart,  John  Smith,  Henry  Hodge,  Rev.  Mr.  Moor- 
head,  George  Sinclair,  Robert  Knox,  Thomas  Mitchel,  Rob- 
ert Hodgen,  John  Gwinn,  Andrew  Knox,  Andrew  Nichols, 
Robert  Dixon,  Ephraim  Kile,  John  MacDugall,  John  Pharr, 
Hugh  Mickleravie,  Robert  Ross,  Samuel  MaClure,  Abra- 
ham Aul,  Charles  MaClure,  Marnaduck  Black,  John  Quigg, 
William  Bryant,  William  Cammeron,  John  Walker,  Wil- 
liam Hays,  James  Hart,  William  Micklevain,  Edward  Al- 
len, Patrick  White,  John  MaClure,  Alexander  Orr,  James 
Mayes,  Richard  MaClure,  William  MaClinto,  Duncan 
MaClane,  Patrick  Chambers,  John  Lough,  Samuel  Smith, 
John  Fulton,  John  Karr,  John  Turk,  Benjamin  Frizwell, 
Robert  Montgomery,  Ezekiel  McNichols,  William  Mickle- 
roy,  David  Tweed,  James  Davidson,  Henry  Hodge,  Sam- 
uel Karnachan,  John  Davis,  John  MacKachan,  Daniel 
McNeal,  John  Watts,  John  Dicky,  Robert  Hill,  William 
Lindsay,  James  Perry,  Robert  Speer,  Robert  Cunningham, 
John  Jonston,  Robert  Burns,  Henry  Kelly,  Robert  Wilie, 
James  Robinson,  James  MaCalan,  Andrew  Menford,  Wal- 
ter Topham,  Alexander  Watts,  James  Willis,  David 
White,  George  Sinclair,  Gawin  Hemphill,  James  Baird, 
Michael  Burns,  James  Tate,  Archbald  Tomb,  James  Hart, 
John  Moor,  James  Gaudy,  William  Freeland,  John  Clerk, 
William  Williamson,  Robert  Scott,  William  Dame,  John 


336  SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 

Lockhead,  John  MacKisick,  Alexander  Cumings,  Robert 
Work,  John  Kerr,  Samuel  Gibson,  Simon  Eliot,  Archibald 
Thomson,  Thomas  Harkness,  William  Harmon,  William 
Moor,  Thomas  Brown,  Gilbert  Hides,  George  Hogg,  Rob- 
ert Dunlop,  John  Britton,  James  Cowan,  Thomas  Lawry, 
Thomas  Boggle,  James  Carlile,  Alexander  MaClery,  Hugh 
Gregg,  John  Kennedy,  John  Alison,  Humphrey  Caldbreath, 
James  Long,  John  Bell,  Robert  Cuthbertson. 


APPENDIX  V 

Vital  Records  of  Towns  in  Ulster,  Begun  Before  1755 

Birth,  marriage  and  death  records  in  Ulster  at  the  time 
of  the  Protestant  migration  to  America  are  very  meagre. 
Those  which  relate  to  members  of  the  Established  Church 
rarely  reach  back  to  this  period  except  in  the  large  towns 
and  cities,  and  facts  concerning  members  of  dissenting 
chapels  are  still  less  common.  It  must  be  said,  however, 
that  many  dissenters  were  married  and  buried  by  the 
Episcopal  rector  or  curate,  to  satisfy  the  law.  For  this 
reason,  and  because  members  of  Presbyterian  families  not 
infrequently  " conformed' '  in  order  to  hold  public  office, 
the  following  list  of  vital  records  will  be  of  service.  It  is 
from  the  Appendix  to  the  28th  report  of  the  Deputy  Keeper  ^ 
of  the  Public  Records  in  Ireland.  An  asterisk  means  that 
the  records  are  in  local  custody.  Italics  indicate  that  the 
records  are  in  the  Public  Record  Office  in  Dublin. 


338 


SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEERS 


Town  and  Connty. 


♦Antrim,  Antrim 

* Ardkeen,  Down , 

Ardstraw,  Tyrone. 

*Bailieborough  or 

Moybolgue,  Oavan . . 

Ballyphilip,  Down 

Belfast : 
* St.  Anne,  Shankill 

Cappagh,  Tyrone 

*Carrickfergus,  Antrim . 

Clondehorky,  Donegal 

Clonfeacle,  Tyrone 

Clonleigh,  Donegal 

*Coleraine 

Comber 

*Derry  Cathedral 

(Templemore) 

*Derryaghey,  Antrim 

*Donaghendry,  Tyrone . . 

*Down,  Down 

*Drumachose,  Derry 

*Dumglass,  Tyrone 

*Drumholm,  Donegal. . . . 
*Ematris,  Monaghan 

Enniskillen,  Fermanagh . 

*Glenavy,  Antrim 

*Killeshandra,  Cavan . .  . . 

*Killyman,  Tyrone 

Kilmore,  Cavan 

*Lisburn,  Antrim 


Lissan,  Derry 

*Loughgall,  Armagh  . . 

*Magherafelt,  Derry . . . 

*Magheralin,  Down  . . . 
Mull'aghbrack,  Armagh 
Newtownards,  Down. 

*Saintfield,  Down 

*Seagoe,  Down 

♦Shankill,  Down 

Tamlaghtard,  Derry.. 


Baptisms. 


1700-1755 
1746- 

1728- 

1744- 
1745- 

1745- 
1758- 
1740- 
1756- 
1743- 
1759- 
1769- 
1683- 

1642- 

1696-1738 

1734-1768 

1750- 

1728- 

1600- ? 

1691- 

1753- 

1666- 

1707- 

1735- 

1741- 

1702- 

1639-1646 

1661- 

1753- 

1706-1729 

1718- 

1692- 

1737- 

1701-1736 

1724-1757 

1672-1731 

1735- 

1681- 

1747- 


Marriages. 


Burial. 


1700-1756 

1746- 

1743- 

1744- 
1745- 

1745- 
1758- 
1740- 


1700-1754 
1746- 


1761- 
1764- 
1769- 
1683- 

1642- 
1696-1738 


1752- 

1728- 

1754-1766 

1691- 

1753- 

1666- 

1813- 

1735- 

1741- 

1702- 

1661- 

1752- 

1706-1729 

1718- 

1692- 

1737- 

1701-1736 

1734-1757 

1676-1731 

1735- 

1676- 

1747- 


1745- 

1745- 
1758- 
1740- 


1736- 
1764- 
1769- 
1683- 

1642- 
1696-1738 


1752- 

1728- 

1754-1767 

1691- 

1753- 

1666- 

1707- 

1735- 

1741- 

1702- 

1661- 

1753- 

1706-1729 

1718- 

1692- 

1737- 


1691-1731 

1735- 

1675- 

1747- 


APPENDIX  VI 
Home  Towns  of  Ulster  Families,  1691-1718 

Since  the  ministers  of  dissenting  congregations  had  little 
or  no  legal  standing  during  the  earliest  years  of  the 
emigration  to  New  England  their  records  of  births,  mar- 
riages and  death  do  not  appear  to  have  been  preserved, 
except  in  isolated  cases.  But  the  records  of  presbytery 
and  synod  were  kept  with  great  care,  and  the  latter  have 
been  printed  to  the  year  1820.  They  give  the  name  of  the 
ruling  elder  in  each  congregation  for  the  year  of  the  gen- 
eral synod,  and  often  the  names  of  commissioners  sent  to 
the  synod  to  represent  local  interests.  Names  of  witnesses 
in  cases  which  came  before  the  synod  also  help  to  establish 
the  home  towns  of  Presbyterian  families.  Names  of  Ulster 
towns  are  usually  given  here  as  they  are  spelled  in  the  rec- 
ords. A  complete  list  of  Irish  townlands  was  printed  at 
Dublin  in  1861  under  the  title  "  Census  of  Ireland.  Index 
to  townlands  and  Towns,  Parishes  and  Baronies."  The 
meeting  houses  stood  in  the  towns  here  given,  but  some 
parishioners  lived  in  adjoining  towns.  The  site  of  the 
meeting  house  and  the  bounds  of  each  church's  influence 
were  subjects  for  contention  at  the  meetings  of  presbytery 
and  synod. 

R.  E.  means  Ruling  Elder. 

C.  stands  for  Commissioner. 

W.  stands  for  Witness  and  P.  means  Petitioner. 

The  Cathedral  records  of  Londonderry  have  been  copied 


340 


SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEEES 


from  the  supplement  to  Mr.  Morrison's  History  of  Wind- 
ham. A  few  references  to  families  may  be  found  in  the 
Journal  of  the  Association  for  the  Preservation  of  the 
Memorials  of  the  Dead  in  Ireland.  Additional  information 
might  have  been  gathered  from  the  Ulster  Journal  of 
Archaeology. 

A 


Acheson,  George,  R  E  1711 
Achinvole,  Samuel,  R  E  1716 
Adair,  Alexander,  C  1708 

Robert,  C  1709 

Thomas,  R  E  1711 

William,  R  E  1698 
Agnew,  Alexander,  R  E  1706 

Andrew,  R  E  1717 

James,  R  E  1707 

John,  R  E  1708,  15,  18 

Mr  William,  C  1714 
Aiken,  William,  1709 
Aitken,  James,  R  E  1707,  11,  15 
Allen,  Hector,  R  E  1706,  10,  12 

James,  R  E  1697 

John,  R  E  1694,  1704,  11,  12, 
15 

John,  R  E  1704 

John,  R  E  1718 

Patrick,  C  1691,  1701 

Robert,  C   1718 

Thomas,  R  E  1713 

William,  R  E  1706 
Allison,  John,  R  E  1712* 

Thomas,  bapt.  1663 
Anderson,  Archibald,  R  E  1717 

Isaac,  m.  1727  Margaret 
Cochran 

James,  R  E  1710,  15 

Samuel,  R  E  1710 


Donegal,  Donegal 
Ballycarry,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Drogheda,    Louth 
Sligo,  Sligo 
Ballymena,  Antrim 
Loughbrickland,  Down 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Pinvoy,  Antrim 
Minterburn,    Tyrone 
Ballycogly,  Derry? 
Ballinderry,  Antrim 
Stonebridge,  Monaghan 
Randalstown,  Antrim 

Cairncastle,  Antrim 
Ballykelly,  Derry 
Randalstown,  Antrim 
Dunagor  (Donegore,  Antrim?) 
Garvachy,  Down 
Corboy  and  Tully,  West  Meath 
Garvagh,  Derry 
Donaghmore,  Down 
Londonderry 
Fannet,  Donegal 

Londonderry 
Dunean,  Antrim 
Ballymena,  Antrim 


APPENDICES 


341 


Andrews,  Robert,  C  1708 
Mr  Robert,  R  E  1712 
Thomas,  R  E  1705 
William,  C  1708,  11 

Aebuckle,  James,  R  E  1703,  13, 

16,  C  1708 
Abeskin,  Robert,  R  E  1709,  17 
Armour,  John,  R  E  1704 

John,  R  E  1711 
Armstrong,  Andrew,  R  E  1707 

George,  C  1715 

John,  C  1708 

John,  R  E   1708,   14 

John  and  Janet,  1681 

Joseph,  bapt.  1711 

Robert,  C  1692 

Robert,  R  E  1705 

Thomas,  R  E  1707 

Thomas,  R  E  17£4 

William,  R  E  1711 

William,  R  E  1717 
Atcheson,  George,  R  E  1709 
Austin,  James,  C  1706 


Belfast,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Ramelton,  Donegal 
Glen     and     Drumbanagher, 
magh 

Belfast,  Antrim 
Strabane,  Tyrone 
Dromore,  Down 
Maghera,  Derry 
Castledawson,  Derry 
Monaghan,  Monaghan 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Cavanaleck,  Tyrone 
Londonderry 
Londonderry 
Maghera,  Derry 
Castledawson,  Derry 
Ballybay,  Monaghan 
Clogher,  Tyrone 
Connor,  Antrim 
Braid,  Antrim 
Donegal,  Donegal 
Coleraine,  Derry 


Ar- 


B 


Bagnol,  Mr  Alexander,  C  1718 
Ballentine,  James,  C  1708 

James,  R  E  1708,  9, 12, 16, 17 
Bankhead,  Hugh,  C  1691, 1706, 

R  E  1698 
Barber,  Adam,  R  E  1706 

David,  R  E  1706,  9 

John,  R  E  1705 
Barnet,  John,  married  1681 

Katherine  Gilpatrick 

John,  1709 


Dublin 

Newry?,  Down 
Newry,  Down 

Coleraine,  Derry 
Markethill,  Armagh 
Limavady,  Derry 
Omagh,  Tyrone 

Londonderry 
Ballycogly,    Wexford 


S42 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


Babnet,  Robert,  R  E  1697 

William,       married       1665, 
Catherine  Vance 
Bare,  Charles,  of  Raphoe,  mar. 

1684,  Janet  Ramsey 
Batho,  John,  of  Derry  m.  1701 

Ann  Patterson 
Bayly,  Alexander,  RE  1710 

,  Mr.,  C  1717 

Bety,  James,  R  E  1712,  18 

Richard,  R  E  1698 

Richard,  R  E  1694 

Thomas  (Beatie),  C  1712,  15 

Thomas,  R  E  1694 

William,  C  1692 

William,  R  E  1714 

William  (Beatie),  R  E  1717 
Beggs,  James,  R  E  1706,  9,  11,  14 
Bell,  Alexander,  R  E  1711 

Francis,  R  E  1710,  12,  14 

Francis,  C  1711,  14 

James,  R  E  1711 

Mr  James,  C  1717 

John,  R  E  1694 

John,  R  E  1698 

John,  C  1708 

John,  C  1708 

Thomas  and  Jean,  1683 

Thomas,  1709 

William,  R  E  1694,  1705 
Berry,  Alexander,  R  E  1715 

Thomas,  R  E  1704 
Best,  Thomas,  R  E  1706 
Biddell,  John,  R  E  1703 
Biggar,  Joseph,  C  1708 
Biggom,  Hugh,  R  E  1715 
Billsland,  John,  R  E  1711,  18 
Birney,  Alexander,  R  E  1710 


Carnmoney,  Antrim 

Londonderry 

Londonderry 

Taughboyne,  Donegal 

Bailee,  Down 

Antrim,  Antrim 

Anahilt,  Down 

Anahilt,  Down 

Hillsborough,  Down 

Ballinderry,  Antrim 

Upper  Killead,  Antrim 

Derriloran,  Tyrone 

Ballynahinch,  Down 

Comber,  Down 

Ballycarry,  Antrim 

Drum,  Armagh 

Aughnacloy,   Tyrone 

Aghaloo,  Tyrone 

Comber,  Down 

Antrim,  Antrim 

Downpatrick,  Down 

Ahoghill,  Antrim 

Belfast,  Antrim 

Ballyroney  or  Moneymore,  Derry 

Londonderry 

Tirkvillan,  Derry? 

Carrickfergus,  Antrim 

Saintfield,  Down 

Galway,  Galway 

Sligo,  Sligo 

Monreagh,  Donegal 

Belfast,  Antrim 

Keady,  Armagh 

Clough,  Down 

Cavanaleck,  Tyrone 


APPENDICES 


343 


Black,  John,  C  1708 

Mr  Samuel,  C  1714,  15 
Blackwood,  John,  R  E  1706,  12, 
16 

Robert,  R  E  1716 
Blair,  Bryce,  R  E  1705,  8,  9,  15, 
C  1708 

James,  R  E  1703 
Blakeley,  David,  R  E  1712 
Bolton,  James  and  Margaret, 

1682 
Bones,  John,  R  E  1712 
Boy,  Francis,  R  E  1698 
Boyd,  Adam  and  Katreen,  1678 

Archibald,  R  E  1698 

David,  C  1692 

Hugh,  R  E  1708,  11 

Hugh,  C  1708 

James,  R  E  1704 

James,  R  E  1716 

John,  R  E  1704,  7,  10,  11, 
13,  14,  15 

John,  P  1706 

John,  R  E  1706 

John,  R  E  1709 

Robert,  R  E  1703 

Robert  and  Joanna,  1688 

Samuel,  R  E  171& 

Thomas,  C  1710 

Thomas  and  Jean,  1687 

William,  married  1658 
Agnes  Young 
Boyle,  Henry,  R  E  1709 

Thomas,  R  E  1713 
Brady,  William,  R  E  1711 
Bralton,  William,  R  E  1697 
Bratton,  John,  C  1692 
Brenan,  Thomas,  R  E  1711,  15 


Belfast,  Antrim 
Monaghan 

Bangor,  Down 
Carrickfergus,  Antrim 

Belfast,  Antrim 
Donegore,  Antrim 
Holywood,   Down 

Londonderry 
Donegore,  Antrim 
Burt,  Donegal 
Londonderry 
Dervock,  Antrim 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Dervock,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Dervock,  Antrim 
Larne,  Antrim 

Brigh,  Tyrone 
Macosquin,  Derry 
Cookstown,  Tyrone 
Omagh,  Tyrone 
Ballymena,  Antrim 
Londonderry 
Donaghmore,  Down 
Ballyhalbert,  Down 
Londonderry 

Londonderry 
Monreagh,  Donegal 
Islandmagee,  Antrim 
Ballyrashane,  Antrim 
Burt,  Donegal 
Taughboyne,  Donegal 
Carrickfergus,  Antrim 


344 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


Brisbin,  James,  R  E  1703 
Brodly,  Mr.,  R  E  1712 
Broomfield,  William,  R  E  1707 
Brown,  Charles,  R  E  1713 

Francis,  R  E  1715 

George,  R  E  1692 

Hugh  and  Elizabeth,  1683 

Hugh,  R  E  1713 

Hugh,  R  E  1717 

James,  R  E  1703,  4,  15 

James,  R  E  1709 

James,  R  E  1694,  1710 

James,  R  E  1708 

John,   C   1692 

John,  R  E  1704 

John,  R  E  1713 

John,  R  E  1714 

Mr  John,  P  1716 

Patrick,  R  E  1705 

William,  R  E  1706,  10 

William,  R  E  1708 

William,  R  E  1711 

William,  R  E  1711 

William,  R  E  1714 
Browster,  James,  R  E  1708 
Bryce,  Edward,  Esq.,  C  1708,  18 
Bryson,  Archibald,  R  E  1718 

James,  R  E  1715 

James,  R  E  1705 

James,  R  E  1708 

John,  R  E  1703 

John,  R  E  1712 

Mr  John,  C  1717 

Thomas,  R  E  1704 

Thomas,  R  E  1707 
Burnside,  John,  R  E  1697 
Buttle,  David,  C  1708 

Mr  George,  C  1718 
Byers,  John,  R  E  1717 


Cookstown,  Tyrone 
Strabane,  Tyrone 
Fintona,  Tyron 
Braid,  Antrim 
Glenarm,  Antrim 
Drumall,  Antrim 
Londonderry 
Downpatrick,  Down 
Bangor,  Down 
Braid,  Antrim 
Ramelton,  Donegal 
Connor,  Antrim 
Donegal,  Donegal 
Carrickfergus,  Antrim 
Cookstown,  Tyrone 
Limavady,  Derry 
Killinchy,  Down 
Dungannon,  Tyrone 
Drum,  Monaghan 
Moneymore,  Derry 
Armagh,  Armagh 
Aughnacloy,   Tyrone 
Islandmagee,  Antrim 
Armagh,  Armagh 
Aghadowey,  Derry 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Stonebridge,  Monaghan 
Connor,  Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Cookstown,  Tyrone 
Moneymore,  Derry 
Coagh,  Tyrone 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Randalstown,  Antrim 
Lisburn,  Antrim 
Clogher,  Tyrone 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Clough,  Down 


APPENDICES 


345 


Caderwood,    Hugh,   R   E   1709, 
17 

Mr  Hugh,  C  1718 
Cairns,  William,  C  1691 
Caldwell,  David  and  Jean,  1683 

James,  R  E  1703 

John,  R  E  1692,  8 

John,  R  E  1709 

William,  R  E  1697 
Cally,  John,  R  E  1703,  17 
Camond,  Archibald,  C  1711 
Campbell,  Alexander,  R  E  1694 

Archibald  and  Janet,  1683 

Cornelius,  R  E  1713 

James,  R  E  1708 

John,  R  E  1703,  4,  5 

John,  R  E  1714 

John,  R  E  1697,  1707 

Jos.,  R  E  1718 

Matthew,  R  E  1697,  1706,  9 

Patrick,  R  E  1704,  12 

Robert,  R  E  1714 

Robert,  R  E  1715 

Thomas,  R  E  1705,  11,  13, 
14 

Thomas,  R  E  1706 

William  and  Ann,  1683 
Canny,  John,  R  E  1698 
Cargill,  David,  R  E  1694,  1707, 

17 
Carlile,  William,  C  1698 

William,  R  E  1710 
Carr,  James,  R  E  1697 
Carson,  Andrew,  R  E  1704 

John,  R  E  1705 

John,  R  E  1708 


C 

Drum,  Monaghan 
Cootehill,  Ca'van 
Clogher,  Tyrone 
Londonderry 
Larne,  Antrim 
Cairncastle,  Antrim 
Ballindreat,  Donegal 
Ballindreat,  Donegal 
Kilraughts,  Antrim 
Donaghmore,  Down 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Londonderry 
Ballyrashane,  Antrim 
Bailee,  Down 
Carnmoney,  Antrim 
Magherally,  Down 
Cairncastle,  Antrim 
Killead,  Antrim 
Dervock,  Antrim 
Dublin 

Rathfriland,  Down  <- 
Ballyrashane,  Antrim 

Ballybay,  Monaghan 
Aughnacloy,    Tyrone 
Londonderry 
Ballynahinch,  Down 

Aghadowey,  Derry 
Blarise,  Down? 

(south  of  Lisburn) 
Newry,  Down  * 
Minterburn,  Tyrone 
Ardstraw,   Tyrone 
Cairncastle,  Antrim 
Ballyclare,  Antrim 


346 


SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEEES 


Carson,  Robert,  R  E  1697 

Samuel,  P  1718 
Case,  William,  R  B  1717 
Chads,  Henry,  R  E  1692,  8, 
1704,  C  1708 

Henry,  Jr.,  C  1708 
Chalmers,  Alexander,  R  E  1703 
5,  15 

Alexander,  C  1711 

David,  R  E  1697,  1709,  10 

John,  C  1711 

John,  R  E  1705,  13,  18 

John,  R  E  1706,  11 

John,  C  1708 

Robert,  R  E  1705,  7,  14,  15 
Chanceller,  Robert,  R  E  1703 
Charters,  John,  W  1704 

Robert,  R  E  1706 
Cherry,  John,  1697 
Clandevin,  James,  buried  1675 
Clancy,  William,  R  E  1708 
Clark,  James,  R  E  1718 

John,  R  E  1694,  8,  1714,  16 

John,  R  E  1704,  7,  11,  17 

William,  R  E  1714 
Cltjgston,  James,  R  E  1697, 
1704,  5 

John,  R  E  1694 
Cochran,  Captain,  C  1714 

John,  R  E  1703 

Robert,  R'E  1710 

Thomas,  and  Elizabeth, 
1684 
Coleman,  David,  R  E  1707 
Coltheart,  John,  R  E  1706 

Michael,  R  E  1703,  5 
Comack,  Mr  John,  C  1715 
Conolly,  James,  C  1711 


Strabane,  Tyrone 
Dublin? 
Boveva,   Derry 

Belfast,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 

Tullylish,  Down 
Drumbanagher,  Armagh 
Cookstown,  Tyrone 
Donaghcloney,  Down 
Bailee,  Down 
Tullylish,  Down 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Dromore,  Down   *- 
Drumbo,  Down 
Lisburn,  Antrim 
Lisburn,  Antrim 
Near  Hillsborough,  Down 
Londonderry 
Castlereagh,  Down 
Randalstown,  Antrim 
Lisburn,  Antrim 
Bailee,  Down 
Glenarm,  Antrim 

C lough,  Down   <* 
Clough  or  Drumca,  Down 
Kinnaird,  Tyrone 
Garvagh,  Derry 
[Presbytery  of  Coleraine] 

Londonderry 
Donegore,  Antrim 
Carlingford,   Louth 
Ballywalter,  Down   r 
Moira,  Down 
Drumbanagher,  Armagh 


APPENDICES 


347 


Corbet,  Hugh,  C  1713 

Cbaig,  David,  R  E  1692 

Hugh,  R  B  1715 

John,  C  1710 

John,  R  E  1717 

John,  R  E  1716 
Cbafobd,      "}   Archibald,  R  E 
Cbawfobd,  j    1703,  10 

John,  R  E  1710 

Malcom,  R  E  1694,  98,  1704, 
13,  18 

Oliver,  R  E  1716 

Robert,  R  E  1704,  10,  12 

Thomas,  merchant,  1701 

Thomas,  R  E  1707 

William,  C  1694,  1708 

William,  R  E  1704 

William,  R  E  1709 
Crooks,  John,  R  E  1712 
Cudbebt,  John,  R  E  1713 

John,  R  E  1714 
Cuddie,  Alexander,  R  E  1707, 
9,  10 

James,  C  1715 
Culton,  James,  R  E  1711 
Culvebson,  James,  R  E  1714 
Cummin,  Alexander,  R  E  1703 

James,  R  E  1703 

John,  C  1715 
Cunningham,  Alexander,  mar- 
ried 1681  Mary  Ran- 
kin 

Andrew  and  Mary,  1682 

John  and  Grizell,  1705 

John  and  Mary,  1684 

Capt  Michael,  R  E  1704 


Drummarah       (near 

Down) 
Ballyclare,  Antrim 
Macosquin,  Derry 
Ballywalter,  Down 
Cairncastle,  Antrim 
Randalstown,  Antrim 

Ballycarry,  Antrim 
Donegore,  Antrim 

Donegore,  Antrim 
Donagheady,   Tyrone 
Carrickfergus,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Omagh,  Tyrone 
Brigh,  Tyrone 
Dunmurry,  Down 
Killinchy,  Down     ^ 
Dublin 

Dungannon,  Tyrone 
Moira,  Down 
Minterburn,  Tyrone 
Donaghmore,  Down 
Monaghan 

Loughbrickland,  Down 
Kilraughts,  Antrim 


Londonderry 
Londonderry 
Londonderry 
Londonderry 
Glendermot,  Derry 


Dromore, 


348 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEEES 


Curry,  David,  R  E  1708 
Hugh,  R  E  1714 
John,  R  E  1707 


Letterkenny,   Donegal 
Ballymena,  Antrim 
Comber,  Down 


1) 


Darragh,  James,  R  E  1707 
Davidson,  John  and  Mary,  1705 

John,  R  E  1710 

Robert,  R  E  1706 

Robert,  R  E  1713 

Thomas,  R  E  1718 
Davis,   Theoplihis,   1650 
Dawson,  William,  C  1692 
Dayburn,  Archibald,  R  E  1706 
Dick,  Quintin,  C  1715 

William,  R  E  1706 
Dickson,  Thomas,  R  E  1703 

William,  R  E  1715 
Dickey,  Alexander,  R  E  1704 

John,  R  E  1694,  8,  1704, 
C  1701 
Dingmore,  Robert,  C  1715 
Dingwell,  John,  C  1711 
Dinniston,  John,  R  E  1698 
Dixon,  Hugh,  R  E  1710 
Dobbin,  Hugh,  R  E  1716 
Donelson,  Thomas,  married 

1725  Martha  Parke 
Donnaldson,  John,  R  E  1704, 

8,  16 
Douglas,    Henry,    C    1692 

William,  C  1712 
Drahame,  George,  R  E  1707 
Drenan,  Archibald,  R  E  1716 
Drennan,  James,  1701 
Duchall,  Mr  James,  C  1718 
Dugan,  James,  R  E  1712 

William,  R  E  1718 


Ardstraw,  Tyrone 
Londonderry 
Benburb,  Tyrone 
Braid,  Antrim 
Rathfriland,  Down  f 
Urney,  Tyrone 
Londonderry 
Carrickfergus,  Antrim 
Strabane,  Tyrone 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Randalstown,  Antrim 
Castlereagh,  Down 
Downpatrick,  Down 
Mourne,  Down 

Clare,  Armagh 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Congreg'n  of  Galway 
Ballindreat,  Donegal 
Killinchy,  Down 
Bailieborough,  Cavan 

Londonderry 

Islandmagee,  Antrim 
Lurgan,  Armagh 
Narrow- Water,  Down 
Newry,  Down     •' 
Moneymore,  Derry 
Session  of  Carmony 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Lurgan,  Armagh 
Markethill,  Armagh 


APPENDICES 


349 


Dunbar,  Andrew  and  Mar- 
garet, 1695 
William,  R  E  1697 
William,  R  E  1704 

Duncan,  Mr  Anthony,  C  1717 
William,  R  E  1710 

Dunlap,  Adam,  R  E  1718 

Dunlop,  Allen,  C  1694 
James,  R  E  1694 
Moses,  R  E  1703,  12,  15 
Nathaniel,  R  E  1707,  8,  10 
Mr  Samuel,  P  1716 
William,  R  E  1692 
William,  R  E  1704 
William  R  E  1712 

Dunn,  James,  1709 

Joseph,  R  E  1710,  13 
Jorias,  R  E  1717 
Peter,  C  1698 

Dunwoody,  John,  RE  1713 

Dyatt,  Hugh,  C  1708 

Dyke,  James,  C  1709 


Londonderry 
Ramelton,  Donegal 
Donaghmore,  Donegal 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Fintona,  Tyrone 
Keady,  Armagh 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Ballywalter,  Down 
Aghadowey,  Antrim 
Keady,  Armagh 
Athlone,  Roscommon 
Upper  Killead,  Antrim 
Limavady,  Derry 
Keady,  Armagh 
Inniskillen 

Randalstown,  Antrim 
Randalstown,  Antrim 
Down,  Down 
Drumbo,  Down 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Moneymore,  Derry 


Eccles,  Hugh  R  E  1703,  16 

John,  C  1708 
Edgar,  John,  R  E  1698 

John,  R  E  1717 

John,  R  E  1716 
Edwards,  George,  R  E  1713,  18 

James,  R  E  1707 

Thomas,  Esq.,  R  E  1717 
Egelsham,  Thomas,  R  E  1717 
Eudar,  Samuel,  R  E  1708 

Thomas,  R  E  1716 
Empill,  James,  R  E  1697 
Ennis,  Josias,  R  E  1715 
Espy,  William,  R  E  1713 
Ewart,  George,  R  E  1705,  7,  15 


Killead,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Moira,  Down 
Dunean,  Antrim 
Dunmurry,  Down 
Clare,  Armagh 
Castlereagh,  Down 
Castlederg,  Tyrone 
Connor,  Antrim 
Burt,  Donegal 
Ballyrashane,  Antrim 
Aghadowey,  Derry 
Donegore,  Antrim 
Cookstown,  Tyrone 
Clare,  Armagh 


350 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


F 


Fairise,  John,  W  1704 
Fee,  John,  C  1715 
Fenton,  William,  R  E  1705 
Ferguson,   Andrew,   1709 

Gilbert,  C  1715 

Richard,  R  E  1718 

Dr  Victor,  C  1708,  R  E 
1710,  17 
Ferne,  Anthony,  C  1708 
Ferns,  Samuel,  C  1710 

Mr  William,  C  1714 

William,  R  E  1716 
Ferron,  William,  R  E  1704 
Ferry,  Robert,  R  E  1706 

Samuel,  R  E  1715 
Ferrys,  John,  R  E  1704 
Ferys,  John,  R  E  1707 

John,  R  E  1712 

William,  R  E  1715 
Fettys,  William,  R  E  1706 
Finlay,  James,  R  E  1718 

William,  R  E  1698 
Finnie,  Robert,  R  E  1711 
Fisher,  James  and  Janet,  1661 

James,  R  E  1707 

John,  R  E  1698 

John,  R  E  1707,  11,  16, 
17,  18 
Fleck,  Hugh,  1709 
Fleming,  John,  R  E  1698 
Forbes,  James,  R  E  1716 
Foster,  John,  R  E  1694,  1704 
Francis,  John,  R  E  1718 
Fraser,  Mr  James,  R  E  1717 
Frisell,  Hugh,  R  E  1717 
Fulton,  Peter,  R  E  1704 

William,  R  E   1704,  6,  9 


Dunmurry,  Down 
Monaghan 

Islandmagee,  Antrim 
Drummullan,  Derry? 
Moira,  Down 
Lurgan,  Armagh 

Belfast,  Antrim 
Summer-hill,  Fermanagh? 
Summer-hill,  Fermanagh? 
Kinnaird,  Tyrone 
Glennan,  Monaghan 
Minterburn,  Tyrone 
Islandmagee,  Antrim 
Islandmagee,  Antrim 
Dunmurry,  Down 
Enniskillen,  Fermanagh 
Killeshandra,  Cavan 
Ballynahinch,  Down 
Downpatick,  Down 
Carrickfergus,  Antrim 
Sligo,  Sligo 
Ballindreat,  Donegal 
Londonderry 
Benburb,  Tyrone 
Armagh,  Armagh 

Benburb,  Tyrone 
Achavan,  Derry? 
Ballyclare,  Antrim 
Bailee,  Down 
Ahoghill,   Antrim 
Bailieborough,  Cavan 
Loughbrickland,  Down 
Rathfriland,  Down  «-* 
Macosquin,  Derry 
Cardonagh,  Donegal 


APPENDICES 


351 


G 


Ga,  George,  R  E  1704,  12,  17 
Galbreath,  Capt.  Robert,  C 
1710 

Capt.  Robert,  R  E  1706,  9 
Galland,  Edward,  R  E  1706, 

7,  13,  16 
Galt,  John,  C  1691,  1709 

Mr  John,  R  E  1712 
Garran,  James,  C  1691 
Garvah,  John,  R  E  1710 
Gawdie,  James,  R  E  1714 
Gawdy,  John,  R  E  1713 
Gelsor,  Alexander,  R  E  1714 
Gemble,  John,  R  E  1718 

Peter,  C  1715 

Robert,  R  E  1714 

Robert,  R  E  1718 
Gibson,  James,  R  E  1705 
Gillis,  Robert,  R  E  1718 
Gilmore,  Mr  John,  C  1714,  15 

John,  R  E  1703 
Givan,  John,  C  1715 

Robert,  C  1716 
Glasgow,  George,  R  E  1713 

James,  R  E  1698,  1703 

James,  R  E  1705 
Glen,  John,  R  E  1711 
Gordon,  Alexander,  R  E  1708, 
18 

John,  R  E  1706 

John,  R  E  1711 

John,  R  E  1705,  15 

Rodger,  R  E  1698 

Robert,  R  E  1705,  6 

Robert,  R  E  1710 

Samuel,  R  E  1705,  8,  15 
GRACY,  John,  R  E  17 IX 


Downpatrick,  Down 

Summer-hill,  Fermanagh? 
Killeshandra,  Cavan 

Finvoy,  Antrim 
Coleraine,  Derry 
Coleraine,  Derry 
Maghera,   Derry 
Ballyrashane,  Antrim 
Newtownards,  Down 
Drumbo,  Down 
Donaghmore,  Down 
Ballykelly,  Derry 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Donegore,  Antrim 
Londonderry 
Clogher,  Tyrone 
Islandmagee,  Antrim 
Monaghan 

Rathfriland,  Down   /~ 
Kilraughts,  Antrim 
Kilraughts,  Antrim 
Keady,  Armagh 
Randalstown,  Antrim 
Dunean,  Antrim 
Burt,  Donegal 

Ballycarry,  Antrim 
Larne,  Antrim 
Braid,  Antrim 
Maghera,  Derry 
Braid,  Antrim 
Castlereagh,  Down 
Loughbrickland,    Down    ■* 
Aughnacloy,  Tyrone 
Enniskillen,  Fermanagh 


352 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


Graham,  John,  C  1692 

John,  R  E  1703 

Richard,  R  E  1698,  1704,  7 
Granger,  Gawin,  R  E  1716 

Thomas,  R  E  1706 
Gray,  Alexander,  of  Taugh- 
boyne,  married  1685, 
Alice  Jamison 

Archibald,  R  E  1697 

Gilbert,  R  E  1710,  13 

John,  C  1717 
Greddin,  Alexander,  R  E  1698, 

1709 
Greg,  John,  C  1708 

Robert,  R  E  1705 

Thomas,  R  E  1711 
Grier,  Hugh,  C  1702 

John,  R  E  1709,  14,  16 

Timothy,  C  1691 
Grerson,  Robert,  C  1718 
Griffith,  John,  R  E  1697,  8 
Gutry,  William,  R  E  1710 


Maghera,  Derry 
C lough,  Antrim 
Monaghan 
Cushendall,  Antrim 
Dunmurry,  Down 


Londonderry 
Ahoghill,  Antrim 
Magherally,  Down 
Antrim,  Antrim 

Corboy,  West  Meath 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Enniskillen,  Fermanagh 
Cavanaleck,  Tyrone 
Brechy  and  Kells,  Monaghau 
Markethill,  Armagh     *• 
Kinnaird,  Tyrone 
Kinnaird,  Tyrone 
Comber,  Down 
Ballykelly,  Derry 


Haliday,  Samuel,  R  E  1716 
William,  R  E  1697,  8 

Hall,  Gilbert,  R  E  1704,  7 
Mr  Robert,  C  1715 

Hamill,  Neil,  R  E  1704,  C  1715 

Hamilton,  Andrew,  R  E  1708 
Archibald,  C  1699 

Capt.  Gawin,  C  1691 
Henry,  R  E  1709 
Hugh,  W  1704 
James,  R  E  1703 
James,  R  E  1714,  C  1715 


H 

Anahilt,  Down 
Glenarm,  Antrim 
Ballycarry,  Antrim 
Ballinderry,  Antrim 
Kilraughts,  Antrim 
Ramelton,  Donegal 
Killmakevet,  Antrim 

(north  of  Glenavy) 
Tanoch-Neeve,  Down 
Ray,  Donegal 
Lisburn?,  Antrim 
Dundonald,  Down 
Holywood,  Down 


APPENDICES 


353 


Hamilton,  John,  C  1691 

John,  R  E  1710 

Mr  John,  C  1715 
.      Robert,  R  E  1694 

Robert,  R  E  1708 
Capt.  Robert,  C  1718 
William,  1709 

William,  C  1710 
Handcock,  Major  Thomas,  C 
1704 

Major ,  R  E  1708,  11 

Hanna,  Alexander,  R  E  1705 
Hannah,  John,  R  E  1703,  11 
Hanyng,  John,  R  E  1718 
Hareshaw,  James,  R  E  1718 

John,  R  E  1711,  14 
Harper,  John,  C  1709 

Robert,  R  E  1713,  17 
Harvey,  John,  C  1710 
Hasleton,  George,  R  E  1706,  15 
Hastie,  John,  R  E  1715 
Hemphill,  James,  R  E  1713 
Henderson,  Archibald,  R  E  1715 

James,  C  1715 

Henry,  Alexander,  R  E  1703 

Daniel,  C  1691 

Hugh,  R  E  1706 

Hugh,  R  E  1709 

James,  R  E  1706,  17 

James,  R  E  1712 

Mr  James,  C  1715 

John,  RE  1704 

Samuel,  C  1717 
Here,  Nicholas,  C  1715 
Herron,  Henry,  C  1718 


Tanoch-Neeve,  Down 

Limavady,  Derry 

Holywood,  Down 

Kirkdonnell    (Same   as   Dundon- 

ald,  Down) 
Monaghan 
Drum,  Monaghan 
Ballydally 

(Ballydawley,  Derry?) 
Killyleagh,  Down      - 

Athlone,  Roscommon 
Letterkenny,  Donegal 
Loughbrickland,  Down     r 
Dungannon,  Tyrone 
Newry,  Down 
Donaghmore,  Down 
Loughbrickland,  Down     * 
Coleraine,  Derry 
Ahoghill,  Antrim 
Londonderry 
Ballymena,  Antrim 
Ballycarry,  Antrim 
Macosquin,  Derry 
Convoy,  Donegal 
Twenty-Quarter     Lands      (Near 

Ballymoney) 
Newtownards,  Down 
Maghera,  Derry 
Aghadowey,  Derry 
Bangor,  Down        * 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Castledawson,  Tyrone 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Dungannon,  Tyrone 
Sea  Patrick,  Down 
Moira,  Down 
Sea  Patrick,  Down 


354 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


Hebbon,  Hugh,  R  E  1706 

James,  R  E  1711 

James,  R  E  1710 

Samuel,  W  1704,  R  E  1708 

Samuel,  R  E  1706 

Samuel,  P  1716,  C  1718 

William,  R  E  1710 
Heylyn,  Dominick,  W  1707,  10 
Hill,  John,  R  E  1706 

John,  R  E  1705 

Joseph,  R  E  1718 

William,  C  1694 
Hines,  William,  married  1649 

Jane  Morrison 
Hog,  James,  R  E  1716,  18 

James,  C  1708 

James,  1709 

John,  C  1691 
Holland,  John,  R  E  1704,  8,  15 

Stephen  and  Mary,   1703 
Holmes,  James,  R  E  1711 

Robert,  R  E  1707,  12,  17 
Hood,  or  Hud,  David,  R  E  1697, 

8,  1706,  8 
Hook,  John,  R  E  1703,  6,  8,  10 
Hopes,  John,  R  E  1698,  1707,  8 
Hopkin,  Robert,  R  E  1707,  12 
Hopkins,  Samuel  and  Eliza- 
beth, 1696 
Hobneb,  John,  married  1683 

Jean  Morison 
Hoesbbugh,  John,  R  E  1712 

John,  R  E  1712 
Houston,  James,  R  E  1707,  10 

Thomas,  R  E  1714 

William,  R  E  1697 

William,  C  1712 


Magherally,  Down 
Newry,  Down 
Vinecash,  Armagh 
Lisburn,  Antrim 
Bailee,  Down 
Sea  Patrick,  Down 
Minterburn,  Tyrone 
Macosquin,  Derry 
Dunean,  Antrim 
Braid,  Antrim 
Dunean,  Antrim 
Near  Aghadowey,  Derry 

Londonderry 
Coagh,  Tyrone 
Coagh,  Tyrone 
Ballygurch,  Derry? 
Derriloran,  Tyrone 
Killyleagh,  Down 
Londonderry 
Clough,  Antrim 
Islandmagee,  Antrim 

Carrickfergus,  Antrim 
Dromore,  Down 
Ballywalter,  Down 
Limavady,  Derry 

Londonderry 

Londonderry 
Ballycarry,  Antrim 
Omagh,  Tyrone 
Maghera,  Derry 
Ballyeaston,  Antrim 
Clough,  Antrim 
Ballymagra[an  ?]  Monaghan? 
(Part  of  Aghaloo) 


APPENDICES 


355 


How,  James,  R  E  1709 
Howat,  William,  R  E  1694 

William,  R  E  1703 
Hudson,  James,  R  E  1694 
Hume,  John,  R  E  1706 
Hunter,  Andrew,  C  1706,  9 
Andrew,  R  E  1703 
John  and  Elizabeth,  1683 
John,  R  E  1706,  8 
Thomas,  R  E  1703 
Thomas,  R  E  1703,  5 
Thomas,  R  E  1717 
Hutchen,  Hugh,  R  E  1710 
Hutcheson,  James,  R  E  1718 
Huy,  Robert,  R  E  1709 


Monaghan 
Killinchy,  Down 
Comber,  Down 
Ballyclare,  Antrim 
Ballyeaston,  Antrim 
Coleraine,  Derry 
Ardstraw,   Tyrone 
Londonderry 
Ballinderry,  Antrim 
Minterburn,  Tyrone 
Ballinderry,  Antrim 
Killead,  Antrim 
Ervey,  Meath 
Carnmoney,  Antrim 
Kilrea,  Derry 


Innis,  Josias,  R  E  1706 
Irwin,  James,  R  E  1707 
Thomas,  R  E  1710 
William,  C  1701 


Donegore,  Antrim 
Killeshandra,  Cavan 
Killyleagh,  Down 
Ballynadrento      (near     Glenavy, 
Antrim) 


Ja,  George,  R  E  1716 
Jack,  Andrew  and  Eleanor, 

1713 
Jackson,  Gilbert,  R  E  1711,  18 

James,  R  E  1717 

Peter,  C  1699 

Mr  Thomas,  C  1717 
Jameson,  John,  R  E  1709,  16 

Marmaduke,  R  E  1692 

Thomas,  R  E  1715 
Jamison,  John,  R  E  1697 

Thomas,  R  E  1710 
Johnson,  Duncan,  C  1708 


Downpatrick,  Down 

Londonderry 
Newtownards,  Down 
Larne,    Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Donegore,  Antrim 
Braid,  Antrim 
Anahilt,  Down 
Anahilt,  Down 
Anahilt,  Down 
Coagh,  Tyrone 


356 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEEES 


Johnston,  James,  1709 

James,  R  E  1703,  11,  12,  16 

James,  C  1708 

James,  R  E  1716 

John,  R  E  1697,  1704 

John,  R  E  1710 

John,  R  E  1716 

John,  W  1708 

Mr  Thomas,  C  1714 

Thomas,  C  1715 

William,  R  E  1692 

William,  R  E  1707 

Capt.  William,  C  1717 
Jones,  Richard,  R  E  1713 


Drummullen,  Derry? 
Armagh 

Rathfriland,  Down  ~ 
Ballyroney,  Down   - 
Rathfriland,  Down  ■ 
Strabane,  Tyrone 
Drumbo,  Down 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Trewgh,  Monaghan 
Ballinderry,  Antrim 
Broadisland,  Antrim 
Clough,  Down 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Glendermot,  Derry 


Kell,  James,  R  E  1718 
Kelso,  Henry,  W  1706 

John,  R  E  1717 
Kenkin,  Richard,  C  1708 
Kennedy,  Alexander,  R  E  1709 

Arthur,  Esq.,  C  1715 

Arthur,  R  E  1713  16 

David,  R  E  1698 

David,  R  E  1703 

David,  R  E  1712 

Horace,  C  1710 

Hugh,  R  E  1711 

James,  C  1691 

James,  R  E  1703,  6,  8,  12 

James,  R  E  1706 

James,  R  E  1709 

James,  R  E  1718 

Mr  Jon.,  C  1715 

Joseph,  R  E  1718 

Thomas,  R  E  1717 

William,  R  E  1705 

William,  R  E  1709,  10 


K 

Vinecash,  Armagh 
Raphoe,  Donegal 
Templepatrick,  Antrim 
Coagh,  Tyrone 
Londonderry 
Holywood,  Down 
Holywood,  Down 
Clough,  Down 
Killyleagh,  Down 
Cushendall,  Antrim 
Londonderry 
Kilrea,  Derry 
Clogher,  Tyrone 
Donaghadee,  Down 
Dublin 

Clogher,  Tyrone 
Rathfriland,  Down  *• 
Holywood,  Down 
Ballyroney,  Down    <* 
Ballynahinch,  Down 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Castledawson,  Tyrone 


APPENDICES 


357 


Kennedy,  Mr  William,  C  1717 
Keys,  Roger,  R  E  1713 
Ker,  Hugh,  R  E  1705 

James,  R  E  1705 

James,  R  E  1709 

John,  married  1683  Mary 
McCalam 

Moses,  C  1698 

Robert,  R  E  1708,  10,  16 

William,  R  E  1712 
Kilgour,  James,  R  E  1707 
Kinear,  Mr  John,  C  1717 
King,  James,  R  E  1711 

Robert,  R  E  1698 

Robert,  R  E  1705 

William,  R  E  1718 
Kinkead,  James  and  Mary, 

1705 
Kinly,  Daniel,  W  1704,  R  E 

1710 
Kniven,  William,  R  E  1697 
Knox,   Alexander,  R  E  1705,  7, 12, 
Kyle,  Jon.,  1714 

Robert,  C  1691 

William,  married  1684 
Mary  Gee 


Antrim,  Antrim 
Ballindreat,  Donegal 
Clogher,  Tyrone 
Minterburn,  Tyrone 
Donagheady,  Tyrone 

Londonderry 
Donaghcloney,  Down 
Larne,  Antrim 
Tullylish,  Down 
Donagheady,  Tyrone 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Dunmurry,  Down 
Ballyeaston,  Antrim 
Randalstown,  Antrim 
Fintona,  Tyrone 

Londonderry 

Lisburn,  Antrim 
Glendermot,    Derry 
Cookstown,  Tyrone 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Tanoch-Neeve,  Down 

Londonderry 


Ladley,  Joseph,  R  E  1718 
Lamond,  Andrew,  R  E  1711 
John,  C  1715 
(See  also  Camond) 
Lapsley,  John,  R  E  1709 
Lawrence,  James,  R  E  1716 
Lawrie,  Andrew,  R  E  1714 
La  wry,  John,  R  E  1708 


Brigh,  Tyrone 
Donaghadee,  Down 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 

Glenarm,  Antrim 
Maghera,  Derry 
Bailee,  Down 
Donagheady,  Tyrone 


358 


SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEERS 


Lawson,  Alexander,  R  E  1712, 
14,  16 

John,  R  E  1713 
Layon,  Joseph,  R  E  1706 
Leaths,  Randal,  R  E  1710 
Leman,  James,  C  1715 
Lennan,  John,  R  E  1697 
Lennox,  Mr  Robert,  C  1708,  9, 

18 
Lenox,  Mr  John,  C  1712 
Lernan,  Matthew,  C  1691 
Lessly,  John,  R  E  1692 
Lester,  George,  R  E  1698 
Ligat,  Alexander,  R  E  1711 

John,  C  1691 

Jo.,  R  E  1694- 
Lindsey,  Alexander,  1727 

Mr  John,  R  E  1712,  15 

John,  R  E  1714 

John,  R  E  1714 
Linton,  Robert,  R  E  1711,  14, 
17 

Robert,  C  1712 
Liston,  John,  R  E  1714 
Litton,  Christopher,  R  E  1705 
Livingston,  William,  R  E  1697 
Logan,  Hugh,  R  E  1716 

John,  RE  1697 
Logh,  John,  R  E  1704 

John,  R  E  1709 
Loghridge,  John,  R  E  1705 
Lord,  Mr  John,  C  1718 
Lorimer,  Andrew,  R  E  1712,  15 

James,  R  E  1704,  16 
Love,  John,  W  1704 

John,  C  1715 

Robert,  C  1692 
Lowse,  Hugh,  R  E  1714 


Drum,  Monaghan 
Coagh,  Tyrone 
Ramelton,  Donegal 
Islandmagee,  Antrim 
Moira,  Down 
Limavady,  Derry 

Belfast,  Antrim 
Londonderry 
Maghera,  &c,  Derry 
Coleraine,  Derry 
Newry,  Down 
Glenarm,  Antrim 
Goleraine,  Derry 
Coleraine,  Derry 
Londonderry 
Monreagh,  Donegal 
Carnmoney,  Antrim 
Cushendall,  Antrim 

Carlingford,  Louth 
Narrow-Water,  Down 
Newry,  Down 
Dublin 

Ballynahinch,  Down 
Braid,  Antrim 
Braid,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Templepatrick,  Antrim 
Aghadowey,  Derry 
Dublin 

Randalstown,  Antrim 
Ballyclare,  Antrim 
Coleraine?,  Derry 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Templepatrick,  Antrim 


APPENDICES 


359 


Luke,  John,  R  E  1705 
Lyle,  James,  R  B  1712, 

Thomas,  C  1708 
Lyn,  John,  R  E  1708 
Lynd,  Adam,  R  E  1713 


Bangor,  Down 
15  Larne,  Antrim 

Belfast,  Antrim 
Ballykelly,  Derry 
Cookstown,  Tyrone 


McAlexander,  Mr  Daniel,  C 

1718 
McAllisteb,  Alexander  and 

Ann,  1725 
McAwin,  James,  C  1710 
McBride,  Andrew,  R  E  1694 
McCala,  John,  R  E  1703 

Mr,  R  E  1714 
McCall,  James,  R  E  1716 

John,  R  E  1706  C  1706 
McCane,  Alexander,  C  1709, 
R  E  1715 

Robert,  R  E  1716 
McCartney,  Alexander,  R  E 
1717 

George,  C  1708 

Isaac,  C  1708,  18,  R  E 
1709,    16 
McClane,  John,  R  E  1718 
McClatchy,  James,  R  E  1711 

James,  C  1717 
McClellan,  James,  R  E  1708 

James,  C  1718  (June) 

John,  R  E  1706 

John,  R  E  1710 
McClinsky,  William,  R  E  1708, 

16 
McClure,  James,  R  E  1705,  12 

James,  R  E  1710 

James,  C  1712 


M 

Cootehill,  Cavan 

Londonderry 
Killyleagh,  Down 
Rathfriland,  Down    * 
Finvoy,    Antrim 
Billy,  Antrim 
Keady,  Armagh 
Lurgan,  Armagh 

Moneymore,  Derry 
Dervock,  Antrim 

Killinchy,  Down 
Belfast,  Antrim 

Belfast,  Antrim 
Castlereagh,  Down 
Markethill,  Armagh 
Magherally,  Down 
Loughbrickland,  Down 
Magherally,  Down 
Maghera,  Derry 
Killeshandra,  Cavan 

Ballynahinch,  Down 
Markethill,  Armagh 
Ballinderry  Antrim 
Glenavy,  Antrim 


360 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


McComb,  Alexander,  R  B  1707 
McCome,  Hugh,  R  E  1716 

James,  R  E  1713 
McComphy,  Edward,  R  E  1692 
McConchy,  George,  R  E  1717 

James,  C  1715 

Robert,  C  1694 

William,  R  E  1705 

William,  R  E  1708 

Mr  William,  C  1717 
McConnell,  James,  R  E  1715, 

18 
McCord,  James,  1709 

Thomas,  1709 
McCormick,  Andrew,  R  E  1708 

Hugh,  R  E  1703 

John,  R  E  1703,  7 

William,  R  E  1708 
McCracken,  William,  P  1711 
McCrea,  James,  R  E  1703 
McCreigh,  David,  R  E  1708 

John,  R  E  1703 

John,  1709 
McCrery,  William,  R  E  1718 
McCullogh,  David,  R  E  1714 

Fergus,  R  E  1709 

Henry,  1708 

James,  R  E  1706 

John,  R  E  1692 

John,  R  E  1705 

John,  R  E  1708,  10 

John,  R  E  1718 

Robert,  R  E  1708 

Robert,  R  E  1703 

William,  R  E  1712 
McCully,  Thomas,  R  E  1692 
McCutchen,  James,  R  E  1711, 
15 


Portaferry,  Down 
Portaferry,  Down 
Minterburn,  Tyrone 
Lisburn,  Antrim 
Moneymore,  Derry 
Monaghan 
Armagh,  Armagh 
Ballyeaston  Antrim 
Ballymena,  Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 

Comber,  Down 
"In  the  Moor" 
Edruna,  Derry? 
Carnmoney,  Antrim 
Portaferry,  Down 
Ballyclare,  Antrim 
Clough,  Down 
Letterkenny,  Donegal 
Ray,  Donegal 
Moneymore,  Derry 
Ballybay,  Monaghan 
Drumady,  Derry? 
Bangor,  Down 
Carrickfergus,  Antrim 
Minterburn,  Tyrone 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Ballynahinch,  Down 
Broadisland,  Antrim 
Ballycarry,  Antrim 
Ballybay,  Monaghan 
Larne,  Antrim 
Carlingford?,  Louth 
Vinecash,  Armagh 
Rathfriland,  Down- 
Ballyeaston  Antrim 

Portaferry,  Down 


APPENDICES 


361 


McCutchen,  William,  R  E  1706 
McDonnell,  Robert,  R  E  1717, 

18 
McDowell,  Daniel,  R  E  1717 

John,  R  E  1713 
McDug,  Robert,  R  E  1713 
McElwayne,  John,  R  E  1710, 

12,  18 
William,  R  E  1697 

McEntyr,  Robert,  R  E  1705 
McFarlin,   John,   R  E   1716 
McFedrick,  Gilbert,  R  E  1710 
McFerran,  Patrick,  C  1714,  18 
McFrudin,    Gib.,   R   E    1697 
McGahy,  Samuel,  R  E  1718 
McGarroch,  John,  R  E  1716 
McGau,  Richard,  1709 
McGee,  John,  R  E  1710,  16 
McGennis,  Glassny,  P  1712 
McGie,  Hugh,  R  E  1717 
McGill,  Hugh,  C  1710 

James,  C  1718 

Mr  John,  C  1713,  R  E  1712, 

13,  16 
John,  Esq.,  1708 
John,  R  E  1710 

McGlahry,  Andrew,  R  E  1718 
McGown,  Cornet  Alexander, 

C  1715 
Hugh,  R  E  1704,  13,  14,  16 
McGuffock,  Fergus,  C  1714 
McGusty,  David,  R  E  1709 
McIlwain,  Andrew  and  Kath- 

erine,  1726 
McKa,  John,  R  E  1717,  18 
MacKee,  David,  married  1665 

Margaret  Patterson 
James,  R  E  1707 


Corboy,  West  Meath 

Portaferry,  Down 
Markethill,  Armagh 
Newry,  Down 
Castledawson,  Tyrone 

Braid,    Antrim 
Moneymore,  Derry 
Donagheady,  Tyrone 
Badoney,  Tyrone 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Breaky,  Monaghan? 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Killinchy,  Down 
Comber,  Down 
Ballynarga,  Tyrone 
C  lough,  Down 
Newry,  Down 
Donaghmore,  Down 
Ballywalter,  Down 
Girvachy,  Down? 

Dromore,  Down 
Rathfriland,  Down  - 
Ballyeaston,  Antrim 
Glennan,  Monaghan 

Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Donaghadee,  Down 
Minterburn,  Tyrone 
Enniskillen,  Fermanagh 

Londonderry 
Glenarm,  Antrim 

Londonderry 
Drumbo,  Down 


362 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


MacKee,  James,  R  E  1709 

John,  R  E  1694 

John,  R  E  1694 

John,  1709 

William,  R  E  1711 
McKelly,  Daniel,  C  1694 
McKenry,  William,  R  E  1703 
McKewn,  Alexander,  R  E  1709 
Mackey,  John,  R  E  1703 
Macky,  Alderman,  C  1716 
McKibbin,  Hugh,  R  E  1713 

James,  R  E  1707,  12 
McKinly,  Patrick,  R  E  1705 
McKitrick,  John,  C  1704 

John,  R  E  1710 
McKnaight,  James,  C  1698 

James,  R  E  1703 

John,  W  1704 

William,  R  E  1703 
McKneely,  John,  R  E  1715 
McMaighan,  William,  R  E 

1711,  C  1712,  15 
McMaster,  Mr  George,  C  1717 

John,  R  E  1692,  C  1717 

John,  R  E  1705 
McMuixen,  John,  1708 

Mr  Robert,  R  E  1712,  14,  15, 

William,  1709 
McMurdy,  Hans,  C  1718 
McMurran,  Mr  William,  C  1716 
McMurray,  John,  R  E  1710 

John,  R  E  1712 

Robert,  R  E  1711 
McNedny,  Robert,  R  E  1715 
McNeil,  C  1718 

Capt,  O  1713,  R  E  1716 

John,  C  1708 
McQuistin,  David,  R  E  1710 


Ballydally,  Derry? 

Moneymore,  Derry 

Maghera,  Derry 

Ballygurch    (Ballygurk,  Derry?) 

Ballywalter,  Down 

Near  Aghadowey,  Derry 

Carrickfergus,  Antrim 

Moneymore,  Derry 

Ramoan,  Antrim 

Londonderry 

Newry,  Down 

Loughbrickland,  Down 

Ballyclare,  Antrim 

Kirkdonnell,  Down 

Cushendall,  Antrim 

Down 

Downpatrick,  Down 

Lisburn,  Antrim 

Moira,  Down 

Bailieborough,  Cavan 

Moira,  Down 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Donegore,   Antrim 
Rathfriland,  Down- 
Ballyroney,  Down 
Millinaho,  Derry? 
Sea  Patrick,  Down 
Monaghan 
Comber,  Down 
Bailee,  Down 
Ballyroney,  Down  < 
Castledawson,  Tyrone 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Dundalk,  Louth 
Coagh,  Tyrone 
Enniskillen,  Fermanagh 


APPENDICES 


363 


McRobebt,  Andrew,  R  E  1717 
McTyre,  Andrew,  RE  1707 
Magee,  James,  R  E  1708 
Maglaghlin,  Robert,  R  E  1704 
Mahaffy,  Hugh,  R  E  1709 
Mains,  John,  R  E  1712 

John,  R  E  1714 
Maiks,  David,  C  1715 
Maithland,  Alexander,  R  E 

1704,   16 
Man,  John,  R  E  1714 
Marshall,  Mr  Hugh,  R  E  1712 

James,  C  1691 

Walter,  R  E  1713 
Martin,  Alexander,  R  E  1710 

Colin,  R  E  1709 

Daniel,  R  E  1710 

David,  R  E  1710 

James,  R  E  1711,  12,  13 

James,  R  E  1715,  17 

John,  R  E  1705 

John,  1705 

William,  R  E  1706 
Maskimine,  John,  R  E  1708 
Mathew,  John,  R  E  1705 
Mathy,  William,  R  E  1694 
Matire,  Maurice,  R  E  1706 
Maxwell,  Andrew,  R  E  1704 

Andrew,  C  1708,  R  E  1711 

Arthur,  R  E  1706,  8,  10, 
11,  12 

Arthur,  C  1712 

William,  R  E  1705 
Menzies,  Adam,  R  E  1708 
Mercer,  John,  R  E  1697 

John,  R  E  1703 

Thomas,  R  E  1697 
Metcalf,  Mr  George,  R  E  1709, 
12 


Kilmore,  Down 
Cardonagh,  Donegal 
Dunmurry,  Down 
Clough,  Antrim 
Ballybay,  Monaghan 
Saintfield,  Down 
Clough,  Down 
Ballinderry,  Antrim 

Enniskillen,  Fermanagh 
Islandmagee,  Antrim 
Clough,  Down 
Taughboyne,  Donegal 
Londonderry 
Omagh,  Tyrone 
Killinchy,  Down 
Markethill,  Armagh 
Ballynahinch,  Down 
Carnmoney,  Antrim 
Castlereagh,  Down 
Lisburn,  Antrim 
Drumbo,  Down 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Downpatrick,  Down 
Dunmurry,  Down 
Glenarm,  Antrim 
Cavanaleck,  Tyrone 
Ballynahinch,  Down 
Belfast,  Antrim 

Drumbo,  Down 
Ballinderry,  Antrim 
Strabane,  Tyrone 
Stonebridge,  Monaghan 
Killead,  Antrim 
Dunmurry,  Down 
Enniskillen,  Fermanagh 

Dublin 


364 


SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEEES 


Metch,  Mr,  R  E  1712 
Miles,  William,  R  E  1703 
Millar,  David,  R  E  1704,  16 

John,  R  E  1712,  14 

Mr  John,  C  1717 

Robert,  R  E  1709 

Robert,  R  E  1717 
Milliken,  Robert,  C  1708 

Thomas,  R  E  1707,  18 
Milling,  Archibald,  R  E  1715 
Mills,  Daniel,  R  E  1703,  5,  10 

John,   R  E   1703 
Mitchell,  Alexander,  1709 

David,  C  1691 

James  and  Jane,  1686 

John,  R  E  1692,  1710,  13, 
C  1705 

John  and  Esther,  1686 

William,  R  E  1718 
Montgomery,  Francis,  C  1711 

John  and  Joanna,  1682 

John,  R  E  1717 

Nathaniel,  R  E  1704,  7,  13, 
17 
Monypenny,  Robert,  C  1708 
Moodie,  John,  R  E  1714,  16 
Moore,  Adam,  R  E  1717 

Alexander,  C  1708 

David,  R  E  1708 

Francis,  R  E  1710,  17 

Mr  Francis,  C  1718 

Hugh,  R  E  1707 

John,  C  1694 

John,  R  E  1703 

John,  R  E  1705 

John,  1706   (brother-in-law 

of  John  Whitehead;    Bar- 

bary  captive) 


Cavanaleck,  Tyrone 
Anahilt,  Down 
Aghadowey,  Derry 
Ballyclare,  Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Fintona,  Tyrone 
Ballykelly,  Derry 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Ballynahinch,  Down 
Donaghadee,  Down 
Dublin 

Macosquin,  Derry 
Liseasy,  Tyrone 
Donaghmore,  Tyrone 
Londonderry 

Glenarm,  Antrim 
Londonderry 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Cong'n  of  Galway 
Londonderry 
Donegore,  Antrim 

Tullylish,  Down 
Dundalk,  Louth 
Clare,  Armagh 
Ballyeaston,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Cairncastle,  Antrim 
Ballyroney,  Down" 
Magherally,  Down 
Omagh,  Tyrone 
Aghadowey,  Derry 
Aughnacloy,  Tyrone 
Macosquin,  Derry 


Coleraine,  Derry 


APPENDICES 


365 


"Moore,  John,  C  1711 
John,  R  E  1712 
John,  R  E  1713 
John  and  Ann,  1699 
John,  married  Elizabeth 

Morrison,  1701 
Patrick,  R  E  1708 
Robert,  R  E  1697,  8 
Robert,  R  E  1704,  8 
Mr  Robert,  C  1714 
Mr  Robert,  C  1718 
Samuel,  R  E  1708 
Thomas,  R  E  1707 
Thomas,  R  E  1709 
William,  R  E  1709 
William,  C  1706,  12,  R  E 

1710,  12,  17 
William,  R  E  1710,  12,  C 

1715 
William,  C  1712 
Moorhead,  Thomas,  R  E  1716 

William,  C  1694 
Morehead,  William,  R  E  1709 
Morrison,  James,  R  E  1714 
James  and  Mary,  1701 
Mr  Joseph,  C  1712,  16 
Robert  and  Ann,  1683 
Robert,  R  E  1709 
Morson,  James,  R  E   1698 
Mundale,  William,  R  E  1698 
Murdoch,  James,  R  E  1704 

James,  R  E  1712 
Murphy,  Daniel,  C  1708 
Murray,  Horas,  R  E  1706 
James,  R  E  1707 
James,  R  E  1713 
William,  R  E  1711 


Aghaloo,  Tyrone 
Newtownards,  Down 
Ballycarry,  Antrim 
Londonderry 

Londonderry 
Fintona,  Tyrone 
Killyleagh,  Down 
Monreagh,  Derry 
Ballymagraan? 
Drum,  Monaghan 
Maghera,  Derry 
Ramelton,  Donegal 
Urney,   Tyrone 
Ray,  Donegal 

Moira,  Down 

Clough,  Antrim 
Ballymagraan? 
Ballywalter,  Down 
Killinchy,  Down 
Ardstraw,  Tyrone 
Macosquin,    Derry 
Londonderry 
Londonderry 
Londonderry 
Ballykelly,   Derry 
Donaghmore,    Doneg* 
Dunean,  Antrim 
Ballymena,  Antrim 
Maghera,  Derry 
Dundalk,  Louth 
Minterburn,    Tyrone 
Newtownards,    Down 
Comber,   Down 
Larne,  Antrim 


366 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEEES 


N 


Neil,  Daniel,  R  E  1715 

Robert,  R.  E  1717 
Neilson,  Alexander,  R  E  1707 

Robert,  R  E  1694,  1707 

Robert,  R  E  1697,  8 

William,  R  E  1704 
Nesbit,  John,  R  E  1703,  5,  6 

Nathan,  C  1718 

Richard,  R  E  1713 
Nesmith,  James,  married  Jane 

Bennuinas,   1659 
Nevin,  Andrew,  R  E  1697,  1706 

William,  C  1691 
Norton,  Mr.  Richard,  C  1718 
Nutt,  Robert,  R  E  1698,  1709 


Bangor,  Down 
Cushendall,  Antrim 
Dunean,  Antrim 
Larne,  Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Ervey,  Meath 
Ban  Breaky,  Monaghan? 
Donagheady,  Tyrone 

Londonderry 
Ballyclare,  Antrim 
Glendermot,    Derry 
Dublin 
Glendermot,  Derry 


O'Cahan,  John,  R  E  1704,  13 
O'Neill,   John,   Esq.,   P.   1717 
Ore,  Abel,  R  E  1711 

David  and  Isabel,  1683 

James,  R  E  1710 

James,  R  E  1712 

John,  R  E  1708 

John,  R  E  1714 

Mr  Patrick,  C  1715 
Oughteeson,  John,  C  1711 
Oustean,  James,  C  1691 
Owens,    Hugh,  R  E  1709  14, 16, 


O 

Maghera,  Derry 
Shane's  Castle,  Antrim 
Dublin 
Londonderry 
Mourne,    Down 
Comber,  Down 
BoVeva,  Derry 
Drumbo,    Down 
Clough,  Antrim 
Drumbanagher,  Armagh 
Coleraine,  Derry 
18  Connor,  Antrim 


Page,  John,  R  E  1716 

Park,  Andrew  and  Jane,  1704 
John,  R  E  1713,  15 
Robert  and  Mary,  1697 


P 

Armagh? 
Londonderry 
Ballyclare,  Antrim 
Londonderry, 


APPENDICES 


367 


Parker,  John,  R  E  1716 

Samuel,  R  E  1712 
Paterson,  Arthur,  R  E  1704 

Arthur,  R  E  1709 

David,  R  E  1711 

Garvin,  R  E  1707,  11,  13,  14, 

John,  R  E  1694 

John,  R  E  1697 

John,    R   E    1707 

John,  R  E  1708,  18 

John,  C  1708 

John,  R  E  1708,  14 

John,  R  E  1711,  15 

John,  married  Margaret 
King,  1681 

John  and  Anne,  1695 

Peter,  R  E  1706 

Robert,  R  E  1715 

Samuel,  R  E  1703 

Walter,  C  1691 

Walter,  R  E  1707 
Paton,  John,  R  E  1715 

Joseph  parish  Donagh, 
married  1699,  Mary  Mc- 
Gillharan 

Thomas,  R  E  1707 
Patrick,  Robert,  R  E  1697 
Paxton,  James,  R  E  1713 

Thomas,  C  1713 
Peacock,  Doctor,  C  1708,  9,  R  E 

1710 
Pikan,  Andrew,  R  E  1704 
Pinkerton,  John,  married  Eliza- 
beth Graham,  1684 
Piper,  Hugh,  R  E  1718 
Pollock,  Charles,  R  E  1706 

William,  R  E  1717 
Porter,  Alexander,  R  E  1704 


Dunean,  Antrim 
Connor,   Antrim 
Ray,   Donegal 
Burt,  Donegal 
Monreagh,  Donegal 
Killyleagh,  Down 
Newry,  Down 
Dunpatrick,  Down 
Carrickfergus,   Antrim 
Dungannon,  Tyrone 
Elden-derry,  Armagh? 
Tullylish,  Down 
Lurgan,  Armagh 

Londonderry 
Londonderry 
Kilraughts,  Antrim 
Billy,  Antrim 
Ballywillan,    Antrim 
Taughboyne,  Donegal 
Monreagh,  Donegal 
Ballykelly,   Derry 


Londonderry 
Urney,  Tyrone 
Ardstraw,  Tyrone 
Ballyroney,  Down  - 
Monaghan 

Belfast,  Antrim 
Donagheady,  Tyrone 

Londonderry 
Winterburn,  Tyrone 
Donagheady,  Tyrone 
Dunmurry,  Down 
Comber,  Down 


368 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


Porter,  Andrew,  R  E  1711 
James,  R  E  1703 
James,   R   E   1705 
James,  R  E  1709 
James,  R  E  1716 
John,  R  E  1716 
Mr  William,  C  1715 

Potts,  Mr  David,  C  1716 
John,  R  E  1717 
Thomas,  R  E  1715 

Pringle,  Alexander,  C  1714 
Hugh,  R  E  1710 

Purly,   Thomas,    R   E    1708 


Ballyclare,  Antrim 
Burt,  Donegal 
Magherally,  Down 
Loughbrickland,    Down 
Ballindreat,  Donegal 
Dromara,   Down 
Monaghan 
Monaghan 

Letterkenny,  Donegal 
Cushendall,  Antrim 
Kinnaird,   Tyrone 
Drum,   Monaghan 
Magherally,  Down 


Quigley,  John  and  Mary,  1618 


Q 

Londonderry 


R 


Rainey,  Hugh,  R  E  1698,  1704 
James,  R  E  1694,  7 
John,  C  1708 
John,  R  E  1714 
Robert,  R  E  1706,  9,  11 
Mr  Robert,  Sr.,  C  1717 
Mr  Robert,  Jr.,  C  1717 
William,  R  E  1697,  1711 
William,  Sr.,  C  1708 
William,  Jr.,  C  1708 
Ramage,  John,  R  E  1711 
Ramsey,  James,  married  Martha 

Henderson,   1685 
Randle,  John,  R  E  1705 
Rankin,    James,    married    Con- 
stance McCormen,  1699 
John,  married  Martha  Kin- 

kead,  1703 
Richard,  1709 
Tomlin  and  Eleanor,  1683 


Castledawson,  Tyrone 
Dunean,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Castledawson,  Tyrone 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Glendermot,  Derry 

Londonderry 
Monaghan 

Londonderry 

Londonderry 
Tirkvillan,  Derry? 
Londonderry 


APPENDICES 


369 


Aughnacloy,  Tyrone 
Moneymore,  Deny 


Rawlston,  Robert,  R  E  1707 
Rea,  James,  C  1692 
Read,    George,    parish    Dunboe, 
married     Janet     Skewin, 
1684 

Samuel,  R  B  1703 
Redman,  ,  1697 

Moses,    1709 
Reid,  Henry,  R  E  1718 

Hugh,  R  E  1704 

Hugh,  R  E  1705 

James,  C  1694,  R  E  1707 

John,  R  E  1694,  1714 

John,  R  E  1705 

John,  R  E  1709 

John,  R  E  1716 

Samuel,  R  E  1707 

Thomas,  R  E  1715,  18 

Thomas,  C  1715 

William,  R  E  1704,  10,  13 
Rely,  Myles,  R  E  1707 
Riddel,  Robert,  R  E  1698 
Ritchie,  Daniel,  R  E  1715 
Ritchy,  James,  R  E  1707 
Robb,  Alexander,  R  E  1710,  13 
Robertson,  John,  R  E  1698 
Robinson,  George,  R  E  1709 

Robert,    R    E    1708 

Thomas,  R  E  1708 

Hugh,  R  E  1710 
Rodger,  James,  R  E  1703 
Rogers,  Robert  and  Abigail,  1703  Londonderry 


Londonderry 
Kilrea,  Derry 
Near  Hillsborough,  Down 
Edruna,   Derry? 
Donaghadee,  Down 
Ballywillan,  Antrim 
Cavanaleck,  Tyrone 
Armagh 
Braid,  Antrim 
Portaferry,  Down 
Carlingford,  South 
Loughbrickland,   Down     - 
Kilrea,  Derry 
Ballywillan,  Antrim 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Portaferry,  Down 
Lurgan,  Armagh 
Urney,  Tyrone 
Templepatrick,  Antrim 
Randalstown,  Antrim 
Saintfield,  Down 
Dunmurry,  Down 
Newtownards?,  Down 
Glendermot,  Derry 
Benburb,  Tyrone 
Glendermot,  Derry 
Omagh,  Tyrone 


William,  C  1708 
Rolan,  Claud,  1709 
Ross,  Alexander,  R  E  1704 

James,  R  E  1710 

James,  P  1712 

John,  R  E  1716,  17 

Robert,  C  1691 


Belfast,  Antrim 

Ballynahone,  Derry? 

Bangor,  Down 

Finvoy,  Antrim 

Derry 

Ballymena,  Antrim 

Tanoch-Neeve,  Down 


370 


SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEEES 


Rossbothom,  Matthew,  R  E  1697  Lisburn,   Antrim 


Russel,  George,  R  E  1706 

James,  R  E  1698 

James,  C  1715 

John,   R   E    1707 

John,   R   E    1709 

William,  R  E  1711 
Rutherford,  Elias,  R  E  1716 


Carnmoney,  Antrim 
Dundonald,  Down 
Holywood,  Down 
Boveva,  Derry 
Castlereagh,  Down 
Letterkenny,  Donegal 
Ballybay,  Monaghan 


Scot,  George,  R  E  1716 

Hugh,  R  E  1711 

James,   R  E   1717 

Matthew,  R  E  1705,  7,  10 

Patrick,  R  E  1717 

Thomas,  R  E  1718 

William,  R  E  1703 

William,  R  E  1711 
Seawright,  Gilbert,  R  E  1715 
Selkirk,  William,  R  E  1694 
Sharp,  Nicholas,  C  1708 
Sharpes,  William,  C  1708 
Shaw,  George,  R  E,  1717 

Capt.    John,    R    E    1708,    C 
1717,  18 

Mr  John,  C  1712,  18 

Mr  Patrick,  C  1712 

William,  C  1691 

William,-  C    1699 

William,    R    E    1705 

Capt.  William,  R  E  1715 

Col.  William,  C  1717,  18 

William,  Esq.,  R  E  1707,  12, 
C  1712 
Shennan,  James,  R  E  1698 

John,  P  1704 

John,  R  E  1708 
Shields,  George,  R  E  1703,  16 


Rathfriland,  Down    § 
Donegore,  Antrim 
Bailieborough,  Cavan 
Donaghadee,  Down 
Drumbo,  Down 
Ballywalter,  Down 
Ramelton,  Donegal 
Rathfriland,  Down  «* 
Magherally,  Down 
Lagan  Presbytery 
Coagh  or  Ballinderry,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Lurgan,  Armagh 

Antrim,  Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Donegore,  Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Comber,  Down 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 

Antrim,  Antrim 
Tyrone? 

Tandro-gee,  Armagh? 
Limavady,  Derry 
Killinchy,  Down 


APPENDICES 


371 


Sim,  William,  R  E  1714 
Simpson,  Thomas  and  Elizabeth, 
1680 

William  and  Janet,  1684 
Simson,  James  and  Ann,  1681 

John,  R  E  1711 
Sinclair,  William,  R  E  1717,  18 
Sirrilaw,  John,  R  E  1709 
Skelton,  John,  R  E  1705 
Sloan,  Jo:,  R  E  1694 

John,  R  E  1705  13 

John,  R  E  1712,  18 
Smart,  John,  R  E  1697 
Smely,  Robert,  R  E  1708 
Smily,  Samuel,  R  E  1704 
Smith,  David,  C  1694 

George,  R  E  1718 

James,  C  1691;   1701 

James,  C  1694 

James,  R  E  1713 

John,  R  E  1703,  9 

John,  R  E  1712 

John,  R  E  1707,  10,  15 

John,  R  E  1715,  18 

John,  R  E  1715 

Lancelot,  R  E  1718 

Robert  and  Mary,  1686 

Robert,  R  E  1698 

Robert,  R  E  1712 

Samuel  and  Katherine,  1692 

Samuel,  R  E  1713 

Samuel,   Jr.,   1714 

William,  C  1691 
Smyth,    William,    C    1711 
Speir,  Robert,  C  1691,  1709 
Spens,  James,  R  E  1694 
Starrat,  James,  R  E  1706 
Steel,  Andrew,  R  E  1715 

Francis  and  Martha,  1696 


Comber,  Down 

Londonderry 
Londonderry 
Londonderry 
Keady,   Armagh 
Dublin 

Aghadowey,  Derry 
Ballynahinch,  Down  - 
Broadisland,  Antrim 
Moneymore,  Derry 
Ballybay,  Monaghan 
Vinecash,  Amargh 
Ardstraw,  Tyrone 
Larne,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Kilmore,  Down 
Donegore,  Antrim 
Macosquin,  Derry 
Cushendall,  Antrim 
Lisburn,  Antrim 
Magherally,  Down 
Carnmoney,  Antrim 
Carlingford?,  South 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Dunmurry,  Down 
Londonderry 
Kilrea,  Derry 
Ballymena,    Antrim 
Londonderry 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Newry,  Down 
Moy-water,  Mayo 
Ballyclug,   Antrim 
Drumbo,  Down 
Ahoghill,  Antrim 
Ballindreat,  Donegal 
Londonderry 


372 


SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEERS 


Steel,  Gawin,  C  1715,  R  E  1718 

John,  R  E  1707,  10,  13 

John,  R  E  1718 

Thomas,  R  E  1708 
Stephenson,  James,  R  E  1712 

Robert,  R  E  1716 

William,  R  E  1712 
Steuart,  Alexander  and   Sara 
(McLaughlin),  1694 

Archibald,  R  E  1706 

James,   R    E    1708 

John,  R  E  1698 

John,  R  E   1708 

Robert,   C   1700 

William  and  Mary,  1697 

William,  R  E  1704,  6,  8 
Stevenson,  James,  R  E  1703,  5 

James,  C  1709 

James,  R  E  1709 

John,  R  E  1708 

Robert,   1707 

Steward,     William,     parish    of 
Lifford,  married  Margaret 
Wallis  of  Lifford,  1700 
Stewart,    Andrew    and    Kath- 
erine,  1693 
George  and  Charity,  1683 
James,  R  E  1703 
John,   R   E    1698 
William,  R  E   1711 
Stirling,  Archibald,  R  E  1704, 
9,   12 
John,  R  E  1692,  4 
John,  R  E  1715  " 
Stitt,   Thomas,   R  E   1717 
Stones,  Edmund,  R  E  1710 
Straight,  James,  R  E  1713 


Clough,  Antrim 
Bangor,  Down 
Dunpatrick,  Down 
Vinecash,  Armagh 
Brigh,  Tyrone 
Vinecash,  Armagh 
Ballindreat,  Donegal 

Londonderry 
Comber,  Down 
Dunean,  Antrim 
Killinchy,  Down 
Bangor,   Down 
Lisburn,  Antrim 
Londonderry 
Killinchy,  Down 
Brigh,  Tyrone 
Ballyclug,  Antrim 
Boveva,   Derry 
Brigh,   Tyrone 
Molena 

(near  Londonderry) 


Donegal 

Londonderry 
Londonderry 
Dunean  Antrim 
Dungannon,  Tyrone 
Killinchy,    Down 

Finvoy,  Antrim 
Templepatrick,  Antrim 
Benburb,  Tryone 
Mourne,  Down 
Armagh,  Armagh 
Loughbrickland,  Down 


APPENDICES 


373 


Straiton,  George,  C  1692 
Strawbridge,  James,  R  E  1706 
Strean,   Adam,   R   B   1692 

John,    R   E    1711 
Stuart,  Archibald,  C  1715 

Hugh,  R  E  1692 

John,  C  1694 

John,  R  E  1718 

Thomas,  R  E  1714 

William,  R  E  1716 

Mr  William,  C  1717 
Sutler,  James,  R  E  1704 
Swan,  John,  R  E   1692 

William,  C  1691 
Swarnbeck,  George,  R  E  1717 
Syminton,  John,  R  E  1713 


Lurgan,  Amargh 
Burt,  Donegal 
Ahoghill,  Antrim 
Stonebridge,  Monaghan 
Kilraughts,  Antrim 
Ballyclug,  Antrim 
Killinchy,  Down 
Kilraughts,  Antrim 
Dunmurry,  Down 
Killyleagh,  Down 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Garvagh,  Derry 
Under   Killead 
Donaghmore,  Tyrone 
Dunmurry,  Down 
Donaghmore,  Down 


Taggard,  Thomas,  R  E  1705 
Taggart,  Francis,  R  E  1717 
Tate,   William,   C    1691 
Taylor,  Alexander,  R  E  1718 
David,  R  E  1710,  15 
James,  R  E  1714 
John,  C  1708 
Thomas,  R  E  1694 
Tayt,   David,   R   E   1711 
Teat,   Thomas,   C   1698 
Templeton,   Adam 
Alan,    C    1715 
John,  R  E  1707,  11 
Matthew,  R  E  1707,  9 
Thomb,  Hugh,  R  E  1708 
Thompson,  David,  R  E  1698, 
1704,  7 
David,  R  E  1714,  15,  17 
George,  R  E  1709 


Ardstraw,  Tyrone 
Ballyclare,   Antrim 
Armagh 

Lisburn,  Antrim 
Donaghmore,  Down 
Saintfield,  Down 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Killyleagh,  Down 
Cushendall,  Antrim 
Blarise?,  Down 
Ballywillan,  Antrim 
Ballymoney,  Antrim 
Magherally,  Down 
Braid,  Antrim 
Braid,  Antrim 

Moneymore,  Derry 
Coagh,  Tyrone 
Ballymena,  Antrim 


374 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


Thompson,   James  and  Kather- 
ine,  1695 

John,  R  E  1697,  C  1709 

John,  R  E  1713,  18 

John,  R  E  1710,  17 

Robert,  R  E  1706 

Robert,  R  E  1706 

Robert,  R  E  1717 

Thomas,  R  E  1713 

William,  R  E  1708 
Thomson,  Alexander,  R  E  1711 

Andrew,  C  1698 

Michael,  R  E  1697,  1718 

Samuel,  R  E  1710 
Todd,  Andrew,  R  E  1711,  16,  17 

George,  R  E  1708 

James,  R  E  1717 

John,   C    1708,    9,    11,   R   E 
1708,  9,  11 

John,  C  1714 

John,  R  E  1714 
Tom,  Robert  and  Mary,  1684 
Toplis,  Joseph,  R  E  1707,  10 
Toulan,  John,  R  E  1692 
Trail,  Mr.  James,  R  E  1717 
Trymble,  Robert,  R  E  1709 
Turk,  John,  C  1715 

Tweed,  David,  R  E  1708 
Tyler,  Evan,  C  1711,  R  E  1718 


Londonderry 
Coleraine,  Derry 
Ballymena,  Antrim 
Newtownards,  Down 
Ballykelly,  Derry 
Glendermot,  Derry 
Cavanaleck,  Tyrone 
Cavanaleck,  Tyrone 
Randalstown,  Antrim 
Maghera,   Derry 
Loughbrickland,  Down 
Moira,  Down 
Antrim,   Antrim 
Saintfield,  Down 
Ballyeaston,  Antrim 
Vinecash,  Armagh 

Donaghmore,  Down 

Kinnaird,  Tyrone 

Minterburn,  Tyrone 

Londonderry 

Dublin 

Carrickfergus,  Antrim 

Killyleagh,  Down 

Clough,  Down 

Twenty  Quarter  Lands   (near 

Ballymoney,   Antrim 
Cong'n  of  Galway 
Kilraughts,  Antrim 


u 


Upton,    Clotworthy,   R   E    1711, 

12,  16 
Ury,  William,  C  1691 


Templepatrick,  Antrim 
Clogher,  Tyrone 


APPENDICES 


375 


Vans,  Mr  Archibald,  C  1718 

John,  parish  Moville,  mar- 
ried Elizabeth  Quinne, 
1683 

Patrick,  R  E  1699,  1703,  4 

Patrick,  R  E  1717 

William,  1709 
Vernob,  John,  R  E  1697 

Jon.,  C  1691 

Robert,  R  E  1067,  7 

William,  R  E  1706,  8 


Drum,  Monaghan 


Londonderry 
Magherally  Down 
Ballywalter,  Down 
Achavan,  Derry? 
Castledawson,  Tyrone 
Maghera,  Derry 
Connor,  Antrim 
Castledawson,  Tyrone 


W 


Wachop,  Samuel,  R  E  1713 
Walbub,    John,    married    Janet 

Hog,  1684 
Walkeb,  Andrew,  C  1713 

John,  R  E  1698 

John,  R  E  1705 

John,  R  E  1718 
Wallace,  David,  R  E   1709 

Hugh,  R  E  1707 

Hugh,  R  E  1718 

Hugh,  R  E  1707,  12 

Hugh,  R  E  1706,  10,  14 

Hugh,  R  E  1711 

James,  R  E  1708 

James,  R  E  1715 

John,  R  E  1692 

Robert,  R  E  1718 

William,  married  Margaret 
Morrison,  1663 
Ward,  Thomas,  R  E  1705 
Wabbington,  Thomas,  R  E  1708 
Watebson,  William,  C  1708,  9 


Pintona,  Tyrone 

Londonderry 
Drummarah,   Down 
Limavady,  Derry 
Burt,  Donegal 
Ballyrashane,  Antrim 
Fannet,  Donegal 
Ballymena,  Antrim 
Saintfield,  Down 
Killinchy,  Down 
Ballywalter,  Down 
Ravara,  Down    • 
Portaferry,  Down 
Loughbrickland,  Down 
Donegore,  Antrim 
Loughbrickland,  Down 

Londonderry 
Dunfanaghy,  Donegal 
Dublin 

Glen  and  Drumbanagher, 
Armagh 


376 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


Watson,  Gilbert,  R  E  1704 

James,  C  1711 

John,  R  E  1716 

Robert,  R  E  1712 

William,  R  E  1697 

William,  R  E  1712 
Watt,  Hugh,  R  E  1703,  4,  7 
Weir,  Mr  Robert,  C  1717 

William,  R  E  1712,  14 
White,  James,  R  E  1697 

John,  R  E  1717 
Whitelaw,  Alexander,  R  E  1714, 

15 
Whiteside,  Mr  Arthur,  C  1717 

Peter,  R  E  1705 
Whyte,  James,  R  E  1715 
Wigton,  William,  R  E  1717 
Williams,  George,  R  E  1713 
Williamson,  John,  R  E  1711 

Thomas,  R  E  1713 
Wilson,  Alexander,  R  E  1710 

Alexander,  R  E  1717 

Alexander,  R  E  1715 

Andrew,  R  E  1707 

Edward,  C  1708 

Capt.  Francis,  R  E  1704,  5, 11 

Hugh,  R  E  1711 

James  and  Elizabeth,  1683 

James,  R  E  1692 

James,  R  E  1705 

James,  R  E  1711 

John,  R  E  1698 

John,  C  1699,  1716 

John,  R  E  1714,  16 
John,  R  E  1706 
John,   R   E    1708 
John,  R  E  1710 


Aughnacloy,  Tyrone 
Aghaloo,  Tyrone 
Castlereagh,  Down 
Urney,  Tyrone 
Dungannon,  Tyrone 
Killyleagh,  Down 
Markethill,  Amargh 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Moneymore,  Derry 
Ballywalter,  Down 
Billy,  Antrim 

Vinecash,  Armagh 

Antrim,  Antrim 

Killead,  Antrim 

Larne,  Antrim 

Clogher,  Tyrone 

Ballyeaston,  Antrim 

Anahilt,  Down 

Ballywalter,  Down 

Tullylish,  Down 

Ballybay,  Monaghan 

Kilrea,  Derry 

Ballyeaston,  Antrim 

Belfast,  Antrim 

Corboy,   West   Meath 

Ballykelly,    Derry 

Londonderry 

Islandmagee,  Antrim 

Ballymena,  Antrim 

Fintona,  Tyrone 

Ardstraw,  Tyrone 

Killmakevett,  Antrim    (north  of 

Glenavy) 
Ballinderry,  Antrim 
Brigh,  Tyrone 
Donegore,  Antrim 
Dunmurry,  Down 


APPENDICES 


377 


Wilson,  John,  R  B  1711 

John,  R  E  1714 

John,  R  E  1717 

Robert,  R  E  1698 

Robert,  R  E  1709,  16 

Robert,  R  E  1706,  10 

Robert,  C  1708,  14 

Samuel,  R  E  1713 

Thomas,  R  E  1711 

Mr  Thomas,  C  1717 

William,  R  E  1694 

William,  R  E  1707,  13 

William,  R  E  1712,  15 

William,  R  E  1717 
Windron,  John,  R  E  1710 
Wibling,  James,  R  E  1708 
Woodburn,  George,  R  E  1710 
Woods,  James,  R  E  1707 

James,  R  E  1710,  14 

James,  C  1714 

John,  R  E  1716,  18 
Woodside,  Robert,  R  E  1718 
Wool,  John,  R  E  1703 
Workman,  John,  P  1706 
Wright,  John,  R  E  1718 
Wylie  ) 
Wyly  (  James»  R  E  1698 

John,  R  E  1703,  11,  12,  14, 
16,  18 

William,  R  E  1705 

William,  R  E  1707,  10,  13 


Bangor,    Down 
Portaferry,  Down 
Keady,  Armagh 
Rathfriland,  Down  •* 
Ballyeaston,  Armagh 
Clogher,  Tyrone 
Belfast,    Antrim 
Newtownards,  Down 
Ballyeaston,   Antrim 
Antrim,  Antrim 
Islandmagee,  Antrim 
Ballykelly,  Derry 
Ballyeaston,   Antrim 
Anahilt,  Down 
Templepatrick,  Antrim 
Newtownards,  Down 
Kilrea,  Derry 
Dunmurry,  Down 
Lurgan,  Armagh 
Belfast,  Antrim 
Tullylish,    Down 
Ballyclare,  Antrim 
Bailee,  Down 
Macosquin,  Antrim 
Ballymoney,   Antrim 

Carnmoney,  Antrim 

Ahoghill,  Antrim 
Finvoy,  Antrim 
Dervock,  Antrim 


Young,  John,  merchant,  1701,  15  Belfast,  Antrim 


INDEX 


Abbeville,  294 

Abbott,  C.  H.,  quoted,  200,  202 

Abercrombie,  James,  285 

Rev.    Robert,    115 
Abernatby,  294 
Abernethy,  Rev.  John,  75 
Ability,   308,   309 
Acheson,  Mattbew,  231,  233 
Acton,  James,  328 

Richard,  328 
Adair,  292 
Adams,  294 

William,  262 
Adrian    292 

Aghadowey,  106,  107,  156,  188;  on 
map,  39  ;  session  book  of  Pres- 
byterian church,  119 ;  site  of 
meeting  house,  120 ;  poor  in, 
122 ;  letter  from  church  at, 
259 ;  view  of  Parish  church, 
297 
Agnew,  Andrew,  227 

William,   330 
Agriculture,  283 
Aiken,  Edward,  262 

James,   262 

William,  262 
Alderchurch,  Edward,  333 
Alexander,  231    233 

David,   228,   233 

James,  184,  262,  325 

John,  183,   184 

Randall,     102,     262,     327;     no- 
ticed, 255 

William,  228,  233 
Alison.   282 

John,  336 

Robert,    125 
Allan,  David,  288,  333 
Allen,   Eben,   320,    322 

Edward,  170,  333,  335 

John,  82,  285 

Joshua,  82 

Peter,  271 

Sylvanus,  82 

William.  278 
Allen  township,  278 
Allison,  281,  292 

Richard,  271 

Samuel,   noticed,   255,   262 
American  Antiquarian   Society,  197 
"Amity,"  ship,  322 


"Amity,"   snow,   317 
"Amsterdam,"  ship,  321 
Anderson,  275,  294 

Allen,  noticed,  255,  262 

James,  262 

noticed,  255 

Rev.  James,  277 

John,  262,  330 

Patrick,  330 

William,  125 
Andover,  on  map,  178  ;   Scotch  Irish 

at,  200-202 
Andrews,  Rev.  Jedediah,  28,  36,  280 
Annapolis,  N.  S.,  155 
Anne,     Queen,     Presbyterians    under, 

15;  Ulster  under,  63-64 
Anton,  George,  326 

James,  327 

Samuel,  326 

Thomas,    327 
Antrim,   town,   view   of,   73 
Archibald,  John,  262 

Robert     121,    125 
Ardreagh,  123,  128 
Ardstraw,  100,  187,  191,  223 
Armenius,  75 
Armstrong,  James,  213,  288 

John,   209,   213 

John,  in  Boston,  146,  149  ;  and 
the  "Robert,"  205 ;  petition 
of,  249 

Robert,  262 

Simeon,  209,  213 
Armstrong  family,  209 
Arnold,  Thomas,  322 
Arrowsic,  331,  372  ;  on  map.  204 
Art,  Scotch  Irish  in,  301,  303,  309 
Ashe,  Bishop,  67 
Aston,  281 

Atlantic,  crossing,  151 
Auburn,  185 

Auchmuty,  Robert,  166,  262,  333 
Aul,  Abraham,  170,  335 

James,   155 
Austin,  Joseph,  333 
Ayrshire,  1 

B 


Bacon,  Edwin  M.,   153 
Jacob,  114 

Baird,  James,  335 

Thomas,  183,   188 
William,   326 


380 


SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEERS 


Bailey,  Henry,  272 
Ball,  James,  330 

Ballykelly,  42,  100,  156,  196,  197 
Ballymena,  101,  127 
Ballymoney,   100 ;   view  of,   255 ;   ex- 
planation of  view,  254 
Ballyrashane,   100 
Ballywillan,  102 ;  on  map,  39  ;  view 

of,  265 
Banerlen,  Mary,  233 
Bangor  Castle,  view,  7 
Bankhead,   James,   327 
Bann,  river,   1 
Bann    Valley,    discord    in,    38 ;    road 

map,  3y 
Bapti,  Arthur,   121 
Barbadoes  store,   280 
Barber,  -Robert,   183,   184,   188 
Barbour,  John,  210,  213,  229 
Bare-foot  habit,   303 
Barkley,   James,   328 
Barnett,  Annis,  258 

John,    278,    262;    noticed,    252 
Barns,    James,    219 

V^illiam,   233 
Barr,   Gabriel,   300 

Robert,  329 
Barrow,  John,  quoted,  96 
Barry,  294 
Barton,   294 

Edmund  M.,   131 
Bass,  Philip,  219,  321,  322,  323 
Bath,  on  map.  204 
Batty,  John,  183,  188 
Baxter,  Rev.  Joseph,  221 
Bayly,  Thomas,  272 
Beach,  John,  317 
Beall,   Ninian,   27 
Beard,  294 
Beath,  John,   333 

Walter,  155,  239 
Beaufort,   286 
Beaver  Brook,  242 
Bee,  John,  285 
Beeson,  281 

"Beginning,"  sloop,  320 
Belcher,  Jonathan,  159 
Belfast,  ships  at,  67  ;  view  of,  147 
Belfast  Society,  75 
Bell,  Joanna,  279 

John,  12,  259,  262,  336 

Thomas,  230 
Bennett,  Captain,  152 

Thomas,  333 
Bensalem,  278 
Benson,  281 

Bertram,   Elizabeth,   277 
Bethune,  George,  140 
Bety,  John,  183 
Beverley,  Abram,  328 

Agnes,   272,   273 

James,  232,  233,  328 

Joseph,  232,   233.  325 

Samuel,  232,   233,  252,   328 


Bible,   in   Celtic,    106;   love   for,   302 
Bigger,  David,  329 
Billerica,   155 
Bishop,  280 
Black,   280,   292 

Jacob,  328 

James,  327 

John,  328,  329.  330 

Marmaduke,   335 

Samuel,  333 

Thomas,  328 
Blackshaw,  281 
Blackwell,  Thomas,  327 
Blair,   Abraham,   188 

Alexander,  330 

Hugh,  326 

Capt.  Hugh,  126 

James,  157.  244,  261,  263,  328 

Jeremiah,  328 

John,  263,  327 

Joseph,  326 

Rachel,   157 

Robert,  183,  188 

Rev.  Robert,  7-10 

William,  164,  188,  326 
Blair's  House,  126 
Blakely,  288 
Blandford,  115,  117 
Bleaching  greens,  49 
Blelock,  282 
Blaine,  Ephraim,  275 

James  G.,  275 
Blyth,  281 
Bogachoag,  185 
Bogan,  293 
Boggle,  Thomas,  336 
Boggs,  292 
Bogle,  David,  263 

Thomas,   155,   263 
Bolton,  Geoffrey,  155 

Dr.  Hugh,  263 

John,   202 

Stanwood  K.,  155 

Thomas,  213 

William,  201,  202,  263 
Bolton,   Mass.,   155 
Bond,  Susan,  218 
Bonner's  map,  161 
Books  read  by  Presbyterians,  174 
Boothbay,  117,  155 
Boscawen,  111 

Boston,     provisions     provided,     158 ; 
Scotch  Irish  in,  154  ;  warnings 
from,  229 
Bothwell,  Alexander,  191 
Bouie,  William,  125 
Boulter,   Hugh,  Archbishop,  29,  130; 
on    a    tillage    bill,    46-48 ;    on 
tythes,  65-68  ;  and  King,  69 
Boulton,   George,   333 
Bourns,  Michael,  333 
Bovedy,  156 
Boxford,   201 
Boyce,  293 


INDEX 


381 


Boyce,  John,  122 
Boyd,  278 

Adam,  333 

Rev.  Adam,  87,  92,  282 
Rev.  Alexander,  117 
Rev.  Archibald,  107,  108 
Archibald,  his  petition,  240,  249 
James,  122 

John,  126,  252,  327,  329 
Robert,  327,  329 
Samuel,   330 
Thomas,    327,   328 
Rev.  Thomas,  91 
William,   326,  329 
Rev.  William,  18,  105,  132,  133, 
144,   197,   324  ;   sketch  of,   91, 
99 ;    dines    with    Sewall,    136 ; 
in  Gray's  bookstore,   165  ;   his 
arrival,  239;  and   Sewall,  244 
Boyes,  Robert,  261.  267 
Boyle,  Benjamin,  327 

William,   327 
Boyse,    Rev.    Joseph,    67 ;    replies    to 

king,  69,  70,  82 
Bradford,  Mass.,  200,  242 
Bradford,  James,  175 
Bradley,  James,  288 

Samuel,  288 
Braintree,  155 
Brandon,  293 
Brandywine  farms,  280 
Bratton,  292 

Robert,  156 
Breaden,  Philip,  333 
Breakenridge,  James,  184,  192 

William,  193 
Breakenridge  music  book,   193 
Breed,  Nathaniel,  317 
Brewington,   288 
Brewster,  James,  328 

John,  122 
Brice,  James,  328 
Bridgewater,  155 
Brigantine,  view  of,  150 
Brigham,  James,  327 
Bristol,  116 
Britton,  John,  336 
Erode,    113 
Brookfield,   155 
Brooks,  Silvanus,  125 
Broone,  292 
Brown,  294 
David,  22 
George,   87 
Jenet,   122 
Thomas,  336 
Browning,   James,    191 

John,  191 
Brownlie,  John,  155 
Brunswick,  116  ;  on  map,  204  ;  Wood- 
side  at,  220-227 
Bryan,  William,  272 


Bryant,  William,  335 
Bryce,  293 
Buchanan,  281,  292 

Arthur,  272 

Robert,  272 
Burgis,  William,  150 
Burkitt's   Expository,   174 
Burns,  James,  233 

Michael,  335 

Robert,  155.  335 

William,  219 
Burr,  Rev.  Isaac,  111 
Burton,  281 
Bushmills,   100,   111 
Buyers,   John,  227 


Cairnes,  Robert,  193 
Caldbreath,  Humphrey,  336 
Caldwell,  294 

Alexander,  106,  333 

Hugh,  326 

Malcom,  326 

Seth.  131 

Thomas,  263 

William,     183,     188,     325;     his 
church  letter,  131 
Calhoun,  294 

John  C,  292,  310 
Cambridge,  155 
Cameron,  294 

William,  335 
Campbell,  278 

Charles,  114 

Cornelius,  164 

Daniel,  334 

George,  329 

Hugh,   12 

Rev.  Hugh,  116 

James,  329 

John,  114 

Margaret,   186 

Patrick,   272,   334 

Robert,  114,  318 

Samuel,   114 

William,  263,  327.  335 
Canedy,  Alexander,   156 
Canworthy,   Andrew,   333 
Cape  Cod,  201 
Cape  Elizabeth,  204 
Cape  Pear  Mercury.  87 
Cappagh,   188 
Carey,  George,  327 
Cargill,  Annis,  252 

David,    94,    121,    125,    248,    259, 
260,  261,  263;  noticed,  258 

James,  155 

Jane,  127 

Janet,  252 
Carlile,   James,   336 
Carmichael,  294 


382 


SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEERS 


Carolinas,  and  Ireland,  91 
Carr,   John,  335 
Thomas,   155 
See  also  Karr,  272 
Carrickfergus,  31 
Carrol,  293 
Carson,  293 

Carter,  Katherin,  231,  233 
Carver,  Josiah,  323 
Cary,  Mr.,  232,  233 
Casco    Bay,    111,    157;    Scotch    Irish 
at,  203-214  ;  map  of,  204  ;  set- 
tlers at,  213,  214 
Cass,  Daniel,  114 
Castledawson,  156 
Cathance,   219,   331 ;   on   map,   204 
Catholics,  57,  64 
Celtic,  Bible  in,  107 
Celtic  catechism,  94 
Celts  in  Ulster,  3-4 
"Cezer,"  ship,  270 
Chalmers,  294 
Chambers,  278,  293 

Patrick    335 
Character  of  the  Scotch  Irish,  chap- 
ter 16,  296 
Characteristics,    118 
Charitable  Irish  Society,  175,  333 
Charles    II,    Presbyterians   under,    60 
Charleston,     155 ;     Presbyterians    at, 
30-35;    Scotch    Irish   at,    285; 
ships  entering,  268 
Chelsea,  155 
Cherry  Valley.  266 
Chessnutt,    William,    335 
Chester  County,  Penn.,  271 
Children,  hiring  out  of,  283  ;  number 

of,  308 
Chilmark,  82,  84 
Christiana  Creek,   58 
Christy,  Peter,  330 

William,  329 
Church,  Samuel,  114 
Cishiel,  John,  183 
Clackens,   299 
Claflin,  11 

Clare,  Chancellor,  20 
Clark,  278 

Adam,   184 

L>r.  Alexander,  106 

George,   263 

James,  136.  191,  263,  333 ;  no- 
ticed, 255 

John,  181,  191,  230,  233,  263, 
333,   335 

Mary,  126 

Matthew,  183,  263 

Rev.  Matthew,  94,  100,  108,  128  ; 
his  preaching,  302 ;  marries 
Mrs.  McGregor,  106 

Robert,  263 

Thomas,   263 

See  also  Clerk 


Clarke.  George  K.,  196 
Claverhouse,  Graham  of,  300 
Clavers,  as  a  bogey,   300 
Clendenin,   Archibald,   252,   263 
Clerk,  John,  183 
Joseph,   183 
Clinton,   Charles,  his  voyage,  271 
Clogher,   100,   207 
Clothworkers  Companv,   38,   41 
Clough,   101 
Clougherny,   156 

Cobham,  Rev.  Thomas,  101,  330 
Coburn,   Silas   R.,   199 
Cochran,  Andrew.  263,   326,  328 
Boulonget,  330 
James,   126.   326 
Janet,  252 

John,  202.  2d4,  263,  326,  328 
Peter,   263 
William,  263.  326 
Code,  Samuel,  327 
Coffee,  294 
Cofferiri,   John,   202 
Coin,   scarcity   in   Ireland,   57 
Colbreath,  John,  326 
Cole,  Thomas,   114 
Colerain,   Penn.,   280 
Coleraine,  Ireland,  41,  155.  156,  320  ; 
and   the   Jackson   family,    37 ; 
control   of.  42  ;  described,  96  ; 
view  of,  97 
Collins,   294 
Colvil,  John,  329 
Conagher's  Farm.  310,  311 
Concord,  155,  184 
Connecticut  Valley,   Irish  of,   112 
Conner,  294 
Cookson,  280 
Coolidge,    Ruth   D.,    5 
Cord,  Andrew,  330 
Cork,  Ireland,  219 
Cork,  Maine,  on  map,   204 
Cornbury,  Lord,  268,  269 
Cornwall,  Rev.  William,  95,  100,  110, 

207.  213,  221 
Cowan,   282 

Ephraim,  184 
George,   184 
James,  336 
Cowden,  Matthew,  278 
Cowen,   281 

Cowman,  Matthew,  270 
Craig,   David.   263,   325 
James,   328 
John,  327 
Robert,  325 
Craighead,  280 

Rev.   Robert,   70 ;   daughter  mar- 
ries Homes,  80 
Rev.  Robert,  Jr.,  86 
Rev.  Thomas,  18,  30,  79,  84,  86, 
130  ;  sketch  of,  87 
Craigie,  William,  229,  234 


INDEX 


383 


Crain,  William,  278 
Crawford,  228,  281,  293 

Aaron,   191 

Daniel,  285 

James,   329 

John,  191 

Robert,  188 
Crevecoeur,  quoted,  78 
Crockett,  293 
Crombie,   John,   202,   263 
Crook,  Thomas,  156 
Cross,  Rev.  Robert,  281 
Crozier,  James,  334 
Crumey,  Giziell.  201 
Crumney,  William,  202 
Cumerford,  Thomas,  333 
Cumings,  Alexander,  336 
Cunningham,   294 

Andrew,  172 

George,  228,  234 

James,  272 

Robert,  335 
Currv,  Andrew.   327 

James,  328 

Joseph,   330 
Cuthbertson,   Robert,   376 


Daggett,  Benjamin,  82 
Dalton,  James,  333 
Dame,   William,   335 
Darby,  281 
Darien  Colony,  31 
Davenport,  Jonas,  272 
Davidson.  James    335 
Davis,    George,   279 

John,  335 

Samuel,  36 

Rev.  Samuel,  26 

William,   333 
Dawsonbridge,  156 
Dean,  Adam,  327 

Andrew,  330 
Deane,  Nathaniel,  114 
Dennis,  Captain,  322 
Denny,  281 
Derby,  Michael,  333 
Dering,  Henry,  172 
Derry,  Ireland,  siege  of,  13-15,  126 
Derry,   Penn.,   266 ;   view  of  meeting 

house,  276 
Derry  and  Londonderry,  42 
Derryfleld,  N.  H..  on  map,  178 
Desertion,  227,  228 
Diaries,  301 
Dick,  John,  184 

Thomas,  184 
Dickey,  282,  288 

Adam,  326 

David,  263 

Samuel,  263 
Dicky,  John,  335 


Dill,  Daniel,  114 
Dillon,  Peter,  333 

Dissenters,    under    William    III,    62 ; 
under   George    II,     65 ;    criti- 
cised, 70  ;  at  Drogheda,  71 
Dixon,  Robert,  335 
Dixwell,  James.  230,  234 
Doak,  James,  263 

John,  263 

Robert.   263 
Dobbins,  288 
Dodd,  294 

Dodge,  Andrew,  328 
Doke,  William.  164 
"Dolphin,"  141,  320 
Donagh,  156 

Donaghmore,  Donegal,  81,  100 
Donald,  Robert,  127 
Donaldson,  Alexander,  329 
Donegal,  Lord,  55 
Donegal,   Ireland,   100 
Donegal,   Penn.,   266 ;   view  of  meet- 
ing house,  273  ;  description  of 
meeting  house,  275 
Dorus,  Hugh,  333 
Dorrance,  George,  114 

John,  114 

Samuel,  114 

Rev.  Samuel,  113 
Dougherty,    Edward,    272 

Walter,  333 
Doughty  and  Hill,  21 
Douglas,  281,  293,  329 
Douse,  Samuel,  333 
"Dove,"   ship,   270 
Dow,   Ebenezer,  114 
Dowglase,  Alexander,  318 
Downing,  James,  333 
Dracut,       156,       198,       242;       calls 

McGregor,  199  ;  on  map,  178 
Draper,  George,  333 
Drapers,  41 

Dresden,  Maine,  on  map,  204 
Dress,  107  ;  of  Presbyterians  in  Bos- 
ton, 174 
Drink    habit,    108 
Drogheda,  trouble  at,  71 
Drumbo,  193 
Drummond,   William,   333 
Drumore,   Penn.,   280 
Ducat,  George,  285 
Duffleld,  281 
Dummer's  war,  229 
Dunbar,  battle  of,  11 
Dunboe,  131,   156 
Duncan,  David,  326 

George,  263 

James,  164 

John,  182,  183,  188 

Robert,  333 

William,  326 
Dungannon,  meeting  house,  view  of, 
62 


384 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


Dungiven,  42,   107 
Dunlap,  Andrew,  327 

Moses,  121,  125 

Rev.  Robert,  116 

William,  188 
Dunlop,    293 

Alexander,  102,  330 

Robert,  336 

Thomas,  328 
Dunmore,   51 
Dunning,   Andrew,  228,  234 

David,   his  deposition,   144,   216, 
217 

William,  333 
Dunworth,  Henry,  333 
Duroy  coat,  174 
Dyer,  280 


E 


Eagle  Wing,  voyage  of,  9-10 
Eayers,  William,  263 
Economic  conditions  in  Ulster,  chap- 
ter 3. 
Edgar,   William,   333 
Edgefield,  294 

Edmonds,   John   H.,   153,   216,   331 
Education  of  Scotch  Irish,  303,  305, 

306 
Egart,  James,   333 
Egle,  W.  H.,  referred  to,  277,  278 
Elbows,  115 
Elder,  James,  328 

Rev.  John,  121 

Robert,  278 

Thomas,  327,  328 

Rev.  Thomas,  100,  102,  330 
Elk  River,  282 
Eliot,  Simon,  336 

Elizabeth,  Queen,  religion  under  61 
"Elizabeth,"    ship,    321 
"Elizabeth  and  Kathrin,"  160,  317 
"Elizabeth  and  Margaret,"  ship,  270 
Elizabeth  River,  27 
Ellington,  113 
Ellis,  Edward,  165 

Robert,  165 
Elson,  Benjamin,  317 
Emigration,   268;   fever   of,    130;   in- 
fluences   to,    43 ;    and    manu- 
facturers,  88 
English,  ability  of,  309 
Enoch,  Thomas,  329 
Episcopalians,   71 
Erskine,  Archibald,  22 
Erwin,  288,  293 

Hugh,  288 

John,   288 

William,  288 
"Essex,"  brigantine,  323 
Established  church,  71 
Eton,  James,  326 

Richard,   326 


Eton,  Thomas,  326 
Evans,  David,  232,  234 

John,  234 

William,  232,  234 
"Experiment,"  ship,  323 
Eyre,  Humphrey,  279 


Fair,  294 

Fallowfleld,  Penn.,  280 

Falmouth.  Maine,  203  ;   life  at,  208 

Families  in  Ulster,  339-377 

Family,  size  of,  308 

Farrand,  Andrew,  192 

Thomas,  192 
Farrel,  John,  333 
Farrend,  Andrew,  182 
Farwell,  John  W.,  216 
Faust's  German  Element,  quoted,  78 
Federal  Street  Church,  170 
Feet,  303 

Fenton,  William.  191 
Fergus,  Owen,  333 
Ferguson,  Alexander,  234 

George,   333 

James,  146,  149,  234,  319 

John,  184 

Samuel,  231,  234 

of  Charleston,  31 
Ferrell,  Robert,  191,  192 
Filson,  282 
Finn,  river,  1 
Fishmongers,  42 

FitzGerald,    Rev.    Edward,    111,    179- 
182,  188 

Richard,   111 
Fitzgibbon,  Patrick,  333 
Flax,  cultivation.  49-50 
Fleming.   282,   293,   294 

Andrew,  328 

Joseph,   192 

Samuel,  188 

Thomas,  234 
Forbish,   William,   164 
Forbush,  James,  183,  188 

Robert.  191 
Forsaith,  James,  328 
Forster,  John,  278 
Foster,  Thomas,  279 
Foyle,  river,  1,  195 
Francis,  281 
Franklin.  Benjamin,  81 
Eraser,  John,  285 
Freeland,  John,  127 

Thomas,  327 

William,  333,  335 
Freeman,  Edith  S.,  325 
Freetown,  87,  88,  89,  155 
French,  Nath.,  114 

William,  333 
"Friends   Goodwill,"   151,   319 
Frierson,   William,   288 
Frizwell,  Benjamin,  335 


INDEX 


385 


Frost,  Charles,  12 
Fullerton,  281 
Fulton,   John,    335 

Peter,  329 

Samuel,  272 
Futhey,  J.  S.,  quoted,  30 


Gaelic,  304 

Galbraith,  Andrew,  271 

James,  271,  277 

John,  22,  275 

Rebecca,  275 
Gale,   Abraham,   22 
Gales,   281 
Gallard,  John,  318 
Gallup,  John,  114 
Gait,   Benjamin,   329 

William,  330 
Gamble,  288 

John,   on  drinking,   108;   on   the 
Scotch  Irish,  4 
Gardner,  282 

James,  333 
Garrison  life,  228 

Garvagh,   41,   217,   331 ;   on   map,   39 
Gate,  Susanna,  230 
Gaudy,  James,  335 
Gay,  Frederick  L.,  216 
"George,"  snow,  321 
"George,"  ship,  voyage  of,  12 
Georgetown,   116,   117 ;   on  map,   204 
Geoghegan,   Michael,   333 
Georgia,  Gaelic  in,  304 
Germans,    ability    of,    309 ;    as   farm- 
ers, 78 
Gibbs,  Captain,  319 

Daniel,  333 
Gibson,  John,  114 

Samuel,  336 
Gillespie,  Elizabeth,  277 

Matte,  279 
Gilmore,   281 

Helen,  125 

Isabel,  188 

James,  125,  184,  326 

John,  125 

Joseph,   333 

Robert,   263  ^    ^ 

Samuel,  326 

William,  263 
Gisham,  294 
Giveen,    Robert,    329 
Given,  David,  229,  234 

John,  122,  259,  260,  263 
Glasford,  James,  155,  183 

John,  192 
Glasgow,   32,   294 
Glen,  George,  169,  175,  333 

Robert,   114 
Glendenning,  282 
Glenn,  294 
Glenravil,  194 


"Globe,"  ship,  318,  321 
Goddard  house,  view  of,  189 
Goffe,   John,   256,    261,    262,   263 
Gold,  John,  122 
Goldsmiths,  42 
Gooding,    Edward,    319 
Goodman,  James,  322 
Gordon,  Alexander,  114 

James,  155 

John,  114 

Robert,   114 

Roger,  288 
Gough,   Captain,   270 
Government,  training  for,  301,  309 
Gradon,  John,  333 
Grafton,  184 

Graham,  Duncan,  183,  192 
Grants,  the,  11 
Graves,  228 

John,  234 

Samuel.  248,  256,  261,  262,  263 
Gray,   Asa,   187,   310 

Benjamin,  165 

John,  182,  183,  184,  187,  188, 
230,    234,    267,    278,    326,    330 

Joshua,  214 

Matthew,  182,  183,  184,  187 

Samuel,   183,   184 

William,  182,  183,  184 
Gray  family,  187,  188 
"Gray-hound,"  sloop,  317,  322 
Grazing  in  Ireland,  45,  48 
Greeley,  Horace,  310 
Green,   280,   294 

Henry,  263 
Greenleaf,  Jonathan,   117 
Greenough,  Charles  P.,  159 
Gregg,  294 

Andrew,  278 

David,   263 

George,   330 

Hugh,   336 

James,  145.  -i*9,  198,  242,  248, 
251,  261.  263,  329,  330;  no- 
ticed, 252. 

John,  263 

Samuel,  145,  263 

William,  263 
Gregory,  George,  328 

Patrick,  192 
Griffin,  John,  333 

Nehemiah,  263     . 
Grocers,  41 
Grow,  James,  327 

Thomas,  327 
Gwinn,  John,  335 
Gyles,  William,  214 


Haberdashers,    42 
Haliday,  Rev.  Samuel,  100 
Halifax,  Fort,  332 
Halkins,  William,  326 


386 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


Hall,  Jean,  230,  234 

Mrs.  S.  C,  50 

Virginia,  258 

William,    170,    175,    333 
Halliburton,  Thomas,  174 
Hambleton.  Thomas,  183 

William.  231,  234 
Hamilton,  Abel,  234 

Alexander,  187 

Archibald,  288 

Frederick,  333 

Gabriel,  234 

James,  182,  183,  188,  318 

Rev.  James,  7 

John,  192,  228,  232,  234 

Patrick,  234 

Robert,  234 

William,  114,  288 

Professor,  75 
Hamiltons,  191 
Hammond,  Otis  G.,  106 
Hampton,  Rev.  John,  27,  36  ;  in  New 

York,  269 
Hancock,  293 
Handsard,  William,  234 
Hannah,  294 
Hanover,   278 
Hanson,  Anne,  157,  210,  214 

David,  328 

John,  333,  335 

Samuel,  326 

Thomas,  326 
Hardships,  292 
Harkness,   Thomas,   155,   336 
Harmon,  William,  336 
Harper,   James,   220,  232,  238 

John,  333.  335 

Joseph,   235 

Moses,  183,  185,  231,  235 

William,   235 
Harris,   278 

Samuel,  321 
Hart,  James,  335 
Harvey,  Rev.  John,  115 
Hathaway,   John,    88,   89 
Haverhill,   241 ;   greets  Irish,   242 
Hay,  William,  272,  335 
Hays,  278 

Hazlitt,  W.  C,  quoted,  42 
Health  of  passengers,  160 
Heart,   James.   188 
Heath,  John,  282 

Joseph,  222 
Hebrew,  to  be  taught,  70 
Hemphill,    Gawin,    335 
Henderson,  James,  329 

Samuel,  155 
Hendery,  Malkem,  191,  192 
Hendry,   Hugh,   122.   125,   127 

Robert,  326,  329 

William,  326 
Henry,  Hugh,  271 

Rev.   Hugh,   116 


Henry,  James,   155,  329 

Rev.  John,  27 

Robert,  329 

Thomas,  155 
Heron,  Rev.  Robert,  288 
Hersey,  281 
Heslep,   282 

Heywood,  Daniel,  177,  181 
Hezlet,  John,  329 
Hides,  Gilbert,  336 
Higgenbothem,  281 
Higgins,  Alice,  125 

Ananias,  282 
Higinbotham,   Rev.   Robert,  100,  101, 

330 
Hildersam,  Rev.  Arthur,  174 
Hill,  Benjamin  T.,  178 

Robert,  335 

Rev.  William,  quoted,  26 
Hillhouse,  Rev.  James,  sketch  of,  113 

William,  113 
Hines,  Thomas,  326 
Hodge,  Henry,  335 

Robert,    335 

William,   127 
Hodgen.  Robert,  335 
Hogg.  George,  336 

Thomas,  233,  235 

William,  334 
Holmes,    Abraham,    263 ;    his   church 
letter,  259,  260 

Andrew,  333 

Hugh,  329 

J.  Albert,  referred  to,  260 

John,  156 

Robert,  213,  214 

Thomas,  156 

William,   157,   213,   214,   333 
Homes,  Rev.  Benjamin,  83,  100 

Rev.  John,  100 

Captain  Robert,  58,  81,  157, 
319,  320,  321,  323;  and  emi- 
gration,  84-85 

Rev.  William,  18,  130;  sketch 
of,   79;  death,   84 

Rev.  William,  of  Urney,  79 
Homes  family,  81-82 
Home-towns  of  Ulster  families,   339- 

377 
Hood,  James,  184 
Hoog,   James,   326 

John,  333 

Robert,  326 
Hope,  282 

Hopkin,   Robert,   114 
Hopkins,  James,  114 
Hopewell  Church,  288 
Houses  in  Ulster,  2 
Houston,  James,  282 

John,  326 
Howard,  Gordon,  271 

Joseph.  271 
Hugh,  294 


INDEX 


387 


Hughes,  281 

James,   333 
Huguenots,  ability  of,  309 
Hulton,  James,  326 

Thomas,  326 
Humphrey,  John,  8 

William,  263 
Hunter,   294 

Abraham,  155 

Adam,  235 

Archibald,  135,  136,  320 

Daniel,  232,  235 

Isaac,  231,  235 

James,  235 

Jean,  230,  235 

John,  235,  326 

Marion,  127 

Robert,   125 

Samuel,  326 

Thomas,  326 
Huston,    David,    174 

Samuel,  263 

William,    126 
Hutchinson,  Alexander,  271 

Elizabeth,  335 

James,    82,   271 

John,  333 

I 

Immigration  in  1717,  18;  in  1718, 
130-153 

Impressment,  227 

Indian  Town,   church   at,   288 

Indians,    Nutfield   free   from,    244 

Inventions  of  Men,  69 

Ireland,  labor  in,  44  ;  grazing  in,  45  ; 
poverty,  47  ;  farm  profits,  56  ; 
in  1718,  57 ;  and  New  Eng- 
land, 58 ;  learning  in,  68 ; 
fevers  in,  160 

Irish  language,  94 

Irish  new  settlement,  216 

Irish  Society,  37  ;  charter,  42 

Irishmen,  who  are  called,  44 ;  as 
tenants,  55 

Ironmongers,  41,  129 

Irwin,   z«l,   293 

Isle  of  Burt,  186 


Jackson,  281 

Andrew,  292,  310 

John,  328 

Richard,  38 

William,  37,  269 
Jackson    Hall,   99 
James,  Mrs.,  155 

John.  288 
James  II,  Ireland  under,  13 
Jameson,  James,  85 

John,  328 

William,  210,  214,   330 


Jamison,  294 
"Jane,"   ship,   321 
Janeway,  Rev.  James,  174 
Jarvie,  John,  32 
Jarvis,  Nathaniel,  322 

William,  322 
Jeffries  Creek,  S.  C,  288 
Jenison,   Samuel,   185 
Jenson,  William,  327 
Jirwin,    Gawen,    328 
Johnson,  Adam,  184 

Euphemia,  174 

George,  174 

James,  175,  231,  235 

John,  184 

William,  184 
Johnston,  228 

Daniel,  327 

John,   335 

Robert,  328 

Samuel,  328 

Rev.    William,    181 ;    sketch    of, 
112 

William,  327 
Johnstone,  John,  269 
Jolly.  293 

Jones,  Nathaniel,  179 
"Joseph,"   ship,   321,  322,   323 
"Joseph  and  Mary,"  ship,  321 
Junkinses,  11 

K 

Karr,  John,  272 

Malcom,   272 
Kasson,   Adam,   114 

John,  114 

William,  114 
Kearns,   Jean,   125 
Keigwin,  John,  114 
Kelly,  Henry,  335 
Kelso,  Hugh,  183,  188 
Kennebec  River,  215,  219 
Kennebec  settlement,  144 
Kennedy,  293 

David,  333 

Fergus,   326 

Rev.  Gilbert,  279 

Hugh,  121,  125 

James,  327 

John,  155.  336 
Ker,   Hugh,   329 

William,  328,  330 
Kernochan,   Samuel,   335 
Kernohan,  J.  W.,  122 
Kerr,  282 

John,  336 
Keyes,  or  Kays,  Elias,  256,  261,  265 
Kid,   Alexander,   326 
Kidder,  Benjamin,  258,  265 

Joseph,  258,  265 
Kile,  Ephraim,  335 
Killen's  Congregations,  220 
ivilleshandra,  101 


388 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEEES 


Killough,  John,  182 
Kilmore,   100 
Kilraughts,  101 
Kilrea,  38,  42,  299 
King,  281 

James,  327 

John,    327 

Robert,  329 

William,  Archbishop,  on  labor  in 
Ireland.    144 ;    and   rents,    56 ; 
on   trade,   57 ;   on  the  Tolera- 
tion   act,    64 ;    and    Dr.    Ashe, 
67  ;  his  book  on  the  Inventions 
of  Men,  69-70 
Kingsfield,  173 
Kingston,    Thomas,    328 
Kirkcaldy,  115 
Kirkland,  293 

Kobert,  335 
Kirkpatrick,   John,   282 
Kittery,   142 
Knowles,  281 
Knox,  Adam,  333 

Andrew,  170,  330,  335 

Henry,   310 

James,  326 

John,  326 

Robert,  325,  327,  334,  335 
Koppra,  188 
Kyle,    282 

James,  272 

John,  63 
Kyrle,  Sir  Richard,  31 


Lacey,  293 

Laidlay,  James,  329 

Laird,  Francis.  83 

Lamb,  28u 

Lamond,   Archibald,   188 

John,  327 

Robert,  327 
Lamont,  James,  192 

John,  328 
Lancaster,  152 
Lancaster     County,      Penn.,      Scotch 

Irish  in,  280 
Landlords,   Swift  on,  19 
Lason,  John,  329 
Latham,  293 

Law,  James,  141,  142,  320 
Lawler,  Thomas,  333 
Lawry,  Thomas,  636 
Lawson,  David,  126 
Leaser,  20 

Leavitt,  Emily  W.,  92 
Lechmere,   Thomas,   157 ;   his  letters, 

132-144 
Lecore,   John,   192 
Lee,   Arthur,   on   the   Scotch   Irish,   5 

Francis,   335 
Leech,  John,  327 

Rev.  William,  101,  320 


Leicester,  155,  184,  239 
Leman,  William,  155 
Lemon,   John,   288 
Lenox,  James,  329 
Leslie,  James,  262,  263 

John,  329 
Lewes,  33,  36 
Lewes,  Del.,  26 
Lewis,  Joseph,  233 

Mehitable.  157 
Lexington,    155 
Liggett,  282 
Liggit,  James,  263 
Limavaddy,  99 
Lindsay,  David,  329 

James,  155,  263 

William,    335 
Lindsey,  281 
Linen,   50,   52;   in  1698,   15;  use  of, 

305 
Linn,   278 

Lisburn,  Pelham  to  be  called,  184 
Literature,   Scotch  Irish  in,  301,  309 
Lithgow,    Robert,    229 

William,   231,   235 
Lithgow  family,  231,  236 
Little,     John,     169,     333,     334;     his 
school,    171-2;    and    the    Pel- 
hams,  172 

Thomas,  155 
Livingston,  281  » 

Rev.   John,   8,   9 

Rev.  William,  285 
Lizard  Manor,  view  of,  129 
Lockhart,  282 
Lockhead,   John,   336 
Lodge,     Senator,     on     Scotch     Irish 

ability,   308 
Log  College,  279 
Logan,  278,  294 

George,  279 

James,  30,  35 ;  on  Scotch  Irish, 
268 
Loghouses,  247 
Lollard,  Robert,  191 
Londonderry,    Ireland,    siege    of,    13- 
15  ;  Cathedral  records,  339-377 
Londonderry,    N.    H.,    on    map,    178 ; 
settled,  242  ;   view  of  meeting 
house,      245 ;      title   to   lands, 
248-251;    first     settlers,     252- 
261 ;  proprietors,  262-265 
Long,  281 

James,   155,  336 

Capt.  John,  165 
Longhead,  John,   155 
Long  Lane  meeting  house,  169 
Longworth,  Thomas,  213 
Lord's  Supper,  64 
Lowrey.  275 
Lorie,  Thomas,  326 
Lothridge,  Robert,  182,  183,  184,  191 
Lough,  John,  335 


INDEX 


389 


Lowden,  Thomas,  184 
Lower  Brandywine,  282 
Love,  293 

Matthew,  325 
Luckey,  282 

Lunenburg,  155,  202,  239 
Lyle,   293 
Lytle,  Ephraim,  272 

M 

McAlan,  James,  335 
McAlaster,  294 
McAlben,  William,  330    * 
McAlester,  George,  329 
McAllach,    James,    184 
McAllister,  282 

John,  155 
Macarell,    John,    317 
McBride,  Alexander,  329 

Rev.  Robert,  100 
McCalla,    294 
"Maccallum,"    ship,    141,    142,    145, 

220,  320 
McCan,  293 

John,  330 
McCardy,  280 
Maccarell,   Robert,   318 
McCarter,  William,  192 
Macartney,  Alexander,  202 
McCaw,  293 
McCawley,  280 
McClanaghan,  281 
McClanathan,   John,    173,    192 

Thomas,  192 

William,   173,   192 
McClanethan,    Rev.    William,   116 
McCleary,  Alexander,  336 

John,  334 
McClellan,  294 

James,  183,  191;  his  land,  179; 
his  will,  185  ;  his  arrival,  194 

George  B.,  186,  310 
McClellan,   J.,   182 

John,  85 

William,  179,  183 
McClelland,   280 

James,  288 
McClenathan,  Rev.  William,  209 
McClenn,  281 

McClennehan,   Rev.   William,   334 
McClintock,  105 

John,  191 

Rev.   Samuel,  106 

William,  335 
McClure,   281,   294 

Charles,  335 

David,  155,  292,  335 

James,  335 

John,  155,  335 

Richard,  169 

Richard,  335 

Samuel.  169,  335 
McClurg,  John,  263 


McCollum,  Alexander,  263 
McCombs,  Dugall,  155 
McConkey,  Alexander,  182,  183,  184, 
191  ;   his   house,    189 
John,  183,  184,  191 
McConnel,  280 
McConoeighy,  John,  263 
McCook,  Archibald,  102,  330 
McCool,    William,   252 
McCord,  278 
McCormick,  Hugh,  278 
Maccoullah,   Joan,   213,  214 
McCracken,  294 
McCrady,  Edward,  quoted,  292 
McCreary,    294 
McCrillis,  James,  334 
McCully,  John,   156 
McCurdy,  John,  334 
McDaid,  294 
McDaniel,  293 
Hugh,   334 
Thomas,  334 
McDonald,  288 

Randal,  210,  214 
McDougall,  John,   335 
McDuffee,  Daniel,  263 
McElchiner,  Jenet,  125 
McElwain,  Andrew,  155 
McFadden,    Andrew,    102,    144,    217, 
218,    228,    231,    235,   327;    his 
transplanting,  331 
Daniel,  217 

Jane,   144,   332 ;   her   deposition, 
216,   217 
McFaden,  James,  334 
McFall,   Daniel,  334 

William,   156 
McFarland,  223 

Andrew,  183,  184,  187 
Daniel,  186.  191 
Duncan,  187,  192 
George,  125 
James,   228,  235 
John,  183,  186,  187 
Robert,  271 
McFee,  James,  327 
McGivern,   Samuel,  329 
McGlaughlin,   James,  264 
McGowan,  235 
McGowens,  228 
McGowing,    Lodowic,    334 
McGregor,   Alexander,   261,   264,   325 
Rev.  David,  108,  170 
Rev.  James,  94,  95,  99,  119,  145, 
146,   149,   256,   257,   261,  264; 
his  family,   106;   habits,   107; 
view    of    his    meeting    house, 
120  ;  dines  with   Sewall,   136 ; 
recommended  by  Mather,  197 ; 
198;    called    to    Dracut,    199; 
his  petition,  240  ;  goes  to  Nut- 
field,     243,     247;     and     Vau- 
dreuil,  244;  wife,  252 


390 


SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEEES 


McGregor  family,  106 
McGregory,  Alexander,  157 
McHan,  William,  191 
McIIard,  James,  334 
Mclllhenny,  293 
Mcllvain,  Rev.  J.  W.,  22 
Mclntire,  11 
Mclntire,  John,  192 

Neill,   334 
Macintosh,  Rev.  Dr.,  quoted,  300,  313 
Mack,  John,  264 
McKachan,  John,  191,  335 
McKane,  281 

Mackay,  John,  141,  320,  321 
MacKaye,  Archibald,  155 
Mackclothlan,   11 
McKean,  Alexander,  272 
McKeen,  Edward,  326 

James,  145,  149,  198,  242,  248, 
249,  253,  255,  256,  261,  264, 
328;  noticed,  252;  goes  to 
Casco  Bay,  203 

John,  252,  257,  327 

Rev.  Joseph,  255 

Robert,    264 

Samuel,  264 
McKenzie,  293 
McKerrel,  Daniel,  326 
McKerrell,  James,  328 
Mackey,  W.  D.,  quoted,  30 
Mackie,  Rev.  Josias,  27 
McKimm,  280 
McKinley,  William,  164,  310,  311 ;  on 

Scotch  Irish,  300 
McKinstry,    Rev.    John,    181 ;    sketch 

of,    113 
McKisick,  John,  336 
McLane,  Duncan,  335 
McLaughlen,  George,  329 

John,  329 

Lawrence,  327,  329 

Richard,  330 

Thomas,  326,  327 
McLellan,  228 

.Bryce,  his  house,  211,  214 

Rev.  John,  8,  9 
McLem,  Robert,  192 
Macleod,  Rev.  John,  304 
McLevenny.  Martha,  125 
McLure,  293 
McMahon,  290 
McMains,  Daniel,  192 
McMaster,   John,   192,   321 
McMillan,  Thomas,  252 
McMitchel,  William,  192 
McMorris,  293 
McMullan,  293 
Macmullen,  Jane.  156 

Thomas,  169 
McMun,  Samuel,  326 
McMurphy,  Alexander,  258,  262,  264 

Jesse,  262 

John,  264,  334 
McNabb,  281 


McNair,  David,  277 
McNal,  William,  182 
MacNeal,  Alexander,  264,  325 

Daniel,  170,  335 

James,  264 

John,  264 

Neall,  325 
McNealy,  280 
McNeil,  282 

Adam,  334 

Archibald,  334 

William,  171 
McNichols,  Ezekiel,  335 
McNish,  Rev.  George,  36 
McNitt,  Alexander,  192,  193 

Barnard,  193 
McNut,  235 

Macosquin,  on  map,  39 
MacPheaderies,  Archibald,  319 
McPherson,  280,  282 

James,  192 
McPhetre,  John,   216,   218 
McQuakin,  293 
McQuistian,   James,   335 
McQunkin,  293 
McRae,  Archibald,  288 
McRelis,  Daniel,   121 
Magherafelt,  42 
Magherally,  100 
Mahan,   William,   183 
Makemie,  Rev.  Francis,  21,  26,  365; 
in  New  York,  269 ;  his  arrest 
and  trial,  269 
Malcolm,  Michael,  334 
Malcome,   John,  228,  235 
Maiden,  155 

Manokin,  21,  28,  33,  36 
Manufacturers  and  Emigration,  55 
Map     of     Massachusetts     and     New 

Hampshire,  178 
"Margaret,"  ship,  322 
Marion,  John,  157 
Marriages  by  dissenters,   63,   65 
Marshall,   281 
Marston,  Captain,  322 
Martha's  Vineyard,  80 
Martin,  278,  293 
"Mary,"  schooner,  321,   323 
"Mary  and  Abigail,"  322 
"Mary  and  Elizabeth,"  ship,  320 
"Mary  Ann,"  ship,  318 
"Mary  Anne,"  ship,  140,  317,  320 
Maryland,  Presbyterians  in,  21 
Maryland  boundary  and  tithes,  267 
Massey,  293 

Mather,  Rev.  Cotton,  85,  86,  130, 
132,  166,  238,  239;  portrait, 
16  ;  desire  for  Immigrants,  17  ; 
letter  to  Hathaway,  88;  let- 
ter about  Boyd,  93 ;  letter  to 
Woodside,  109 ;  on  the  arrival 
of  Scotch  Irish,  133-136;  rec- 
ommends McGregor,  197 ;  en- 
courages ministers,  222 


INDEX 


391 


Mather,  Rev.  Increase,  on  Boyd,  92, 

166 
Mathieson's  Scotland  and  the  Union, 

quoted,   76 
Matthews,  Albert,   25 
Maxfeild,  William,   12 
Maxwell,  11 

James,  335 
Maybee,  William,  272 
Mayes,  James,  334,  335 
Means,  Robert,  209.  214 
Mear,  Alexander,  328 
Mecklenburg  declaration,  77 
Medford,  155 
Memorials    of   the    Dead    in    Ireland, 

240 
Mendon,  155 

Menford,   Andrew,   170,   335 
Menzies.      See   Minsy. 
Mercers,  42 
Merchant  Tailors,  42 
Meriwether,  294 
Merrel,  Abel,  264 

Merrymeet.ng    Bay.    143,    331 ;      on 
map,     204 ;    settlement,     215 ; 
names  of  Scotch  Irish  at,  233- 
238 
Mickleroy,  William,  335 
Mickleravie,  Hugh,  335 
Micklevain,   William,    335 
Middleboro,  156 
Middleton,   Robert,   272 
Migration  of  1636,  7;  in  Cromwell's 
time,   11 ;   from   New   England 
to  Ireland,  11 ;  to  the  South, 
13 
Military  duty,  227 
Military  training,   301.   309 
Millar,  David,  128 

Hugh,  125 

John,  326 

Margaret,  125 

Robert,  325 

Samuel,   334 
Miller,  294 

Alexander,  319,  320 

David,  121,  125 

James,  232,  235 

John,  230,  234 

Robert,  114,  328 

Samuel,   170,  252 
Mills,  293 
Milton,  155 

Ministers,  dress  of,  107 
Minnery,  Dr.  Hugh,  236 
Minsy,  Hugh,  232,  236 

Sarah,  232,  236 
Misconges,  230 
Mitchell,  278,  282 

David,  329,  334 

Henry,   236 

Hugh,  236 

James,  272 


Mitchell,  John,  noticed,  255,  264,  330 

Thomas,  272,  335 
Mole,  James,  282 
Molony,  Thomas,  334 
Moneymore,  41,  303,  304 
Monreagh,  105 
Montgomery.   280,  294 

Hugh,  127,  264 

James,  132,  319 

John,  156 

Robert,   319.   335 

William,  219,  236 
Moodey,  278,  282 
Moody,  Alice  P.,  210 

Caleb,   250 

Samuel,  206 
Moony,   John,   334 
Moor,  294 

James.  155,  264,  334 

John,   155,   192,   264,   328,  335 

Samuel,  264 

William,  336 
Moore,  281,  294 

Alexander,  252 

Andrew,  252 

Daniel,  252 

David,  334 

James,   192,   325 

John,  192,  217     ' 

Samuel,  334 

Thomas,  328 

William,  334 
Moorhead,  Rev.  John,  106,  334,  335; 
his  arrival,   164 ;     sketch     of, 
166;    portrait    of,    167,    172; 
wife,  170 ;  children  170 
Moorhead,  Mary,  170 

Sarah,  170 
Morison,  Mrs.,  303 

David,  260,  264 

James,  261,  264,  325 

John,      264,      325;      builds      log 
house,  247;   noticed,   255,   256 

Margaret,  247,  255 

Robert,  264 

Samuel,   260,  264 
Morrison,    Dr.    Hugh    S.,    letter    on 
Blair's    House,    126;    view    of 
his  home,  128 

L.  A.,  quoted,  257 

Sarah,  131 
Mortimer,  Philip,  334 
Morton,  Robert,  334 
Motley,  John,  214 

John  Lothrop,  214,  310 

Patrick    334 
Mount  Sandal  1  Port,  view  of,  53 
Mount  Zion  Church,  288 
Mourne,  river,  1 
Muff,  41 

Mullaghmoyle,   181 
Murchison,  Eliz.,  125 


392 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


Murdock,  John,  326,  327,  329 

Robert,  327 

Stephen,  327 
Murray,  281 

John,   192,  326,   327 

Rev.  John,  117 
Musgrove,  281 
Music,  193 
Myers,  on  the  Irish  Quakers,  28 

N 

Nazareth  Church,  294 
Neal,  294 

Daniel,   334 
Nealson,  James,  156 
Needham,  155,  239 
Neely,   293 

Neill,  Rev.  Henry,  100,  102 
Neilson,  Rev.  Robert,  101,  330 
Nelson,   288 

James,  334 

John,  231,  236 
Nepmug  country,  12 
Nesbitt,  294 

Neshaminy  Creek,  58,  278 
Neshaminy,   Penn..   266 
^Nesmith,  James,  252,  264,  325,  330; 
noticed,   255 
Nessley,  281 

Nevin,  Alfred,  quoted,  30 
Newall,  Joseph,  320 
Newberry,  294 
Newcastle,   35,   36,   117 
Newcastle,  Delaware,   267 
Newel,  John,  230,  236 
Newell,  Joseph,  323 
New   England   emigrants   to   Ireland, 

11;  Scotch  Irish,  266 
New  Hampshire,  308 
New   London,   113,   142 
Newton,  Marmaduke,  31 

Richard,   31 
Newtown  Limavady,  42 
New  York,  Scotch  Irish  in,  268,  269 
Nicols,  294 
Nichols,   Alexander,    261,    264 

Andrew,  335 

James,   261,   264 

John,  155 
Nickel,  Thomas,  122,  125 
Noble,   Arthur,   334 

John,  334 
Non-subscribers  in  Antrim,   75-76 
North,    Mrs.    Mary   M.,   quoted,    21 
North  Carolina.  308 
Nutfleld,  settled,  242 


O'Cahan,  Grany,  122 

Nealy,  125 
Octorara  Creek,  58 
Oliver,   Daniel,   305 


Omagh,  houses  at,  3 
Orr,  Alexander,  335 

Boniel,   329 

Isaac,  334 

John,  329 

Patrick,  329 

Thomas,  325 

William,  329 
Oursell,  Nicholas,  318 
Owen,   281 

Rev.  John,  113 

Philip,  12 

P 

Page,  Charles  D.,  261 

Paine,  James,   285 

Painter,  281 

Pakachoag  Hill,  177,  180 

Palmer,   115,   173,   281  ;  settlers,   182 

Park,  282,  327 

Lawrence,  178 
Parke,  John,  114 

Patrick,  114 

Robert,    114 ;    letter    on    emigra- 
tion, 282-284 
Parker,  278 

Rev.  E.  L.,  241,  252  ;  and  Shute 
petition,     324 ;     quoted,     131, 
199,  200,  203 
Paterson,  James,  271,  330 

William,  327 
Patterson,  Abraham,  184 

David,  329 

John,  192 

Peter,  264 

Vincent,   114 

William,  192,  335 
Pattison,   Alexander,   328 

Ninian,  328 
Paton,  294 
Patrick,  Andrew,  327 

John,  183 

Robert,    192 
Patten,  Robert,  175 
Patton,  Robert,  169,  334 

William,   334 
Patuxent,  27,  33 
Paxtang,    278 
Peables,  John,  183,  192 

Patrick,  183,  184 

Robert,   182,  183,  184,   191 
Pearson,  294 
Peat,  Robert,  323 
Peck,  Noah,  213 
Pedan,   275 

Peg  of  Limavaddy,  99 
Pejepscot,   218,  225 
Pelham,  115 

Charles,  17^ 

Peter,  172,  334 
Pelham,   Mass.,  settlement,  184 
Pendale,  281 
Pennock,  281 


INDEX 


393 


Pennsylvania,  life  in,  228-284  ;  Scotch 
Irish,   266 

Penny,  294 

Pequea,  89 

Perce,  Stephen,  265 

Per  cent,   of  population,  308 

Perry,    Prof.    Arthur    L.,     133 ;     on 
Worcester,    180,    195 ;    quoted, 
183,  186,  214 
Bliss,  188 
Prof.  James,  335 

Perth,  115 

Peterborough,  255 

Petition  for  land,  240  ;  to  Governor 
Shute,  101,  105,  324 

Pettey,  James,  329 

Pharr,  John,  335 

Philadelphia  passengers  at,  30,  35 ; 
Scotch  Irish  in,  270 

Phillips,  Thomas,  166 
Sir  Thomas,   19 

Pickens,  Israel,  279 
Thomas,  156 
William,   279 

Pike,  John,  155 

Pirates,  322 

Piscataqua,  142,  143,  248;  ship  at, 
219 

Plowden,  288 

Plowing  allowed,  49 

Polk,  Thomas,  77 

Pomfret,  155,  307,  308 

Poor  in  Ireland,  122 

Porpooduc,  on  map,  204  ;  houses  at, 
•       205 

Port  regulations  in  Ireland,  291 

Port  Royal,  285 

Porter,  275 

Isabel,  125 

John,  288 

Rev.  John,  100,  102,  330 

Portland.     See   Falmouth 

Potatoes,  at  Andover,  200 ;  use  of, 
305 

Poverty   in   Ireland,   47 

Powers,  John,  334 

Pownalborough,  332 

Poyntz,  John,  334 

Preaching,  302 

Presbyterian  books,  174 

Presbyterian  meeting  house,  Boston, 
169 

Presbyterians  under  Queen  Anne,  15 ; 
in  Maryland,  28  ;  and  Quakers, 
29  ;  at  Charleston,  31 ;  Synod, 
36;  in  Ulster,  60;  wanted 
control  in  Ireland  and  Eng- 
land, 61 ;  under  William  III, 
62 ;  criticised  by  Dr.  King, 
69  ;  charges  against,  71 ;  split, 
75 

Prentice,  Captain,  179 

Pressley,  David,  288 


Pressley,  William,  288 
Prices  of  provisions,  159 
Price's  view,   150 
Prince,  Thomas,  83 
Proctor,  Edward,  258,  265 
"Prosperity,"   ship,   323 
Protestant  tenantry,  55 
Providence,  155 
Pynner's  Survey,  41 


Quakers,  64  ;  did  not  influence  Scotch 
Irish  migration,  28  ;  in  Bally- 
nacree,  252 

Quig,  John,  334,  335 

Quinnebaug,  12 

Quinton,  Duncan,  192 


Ramage,  Thomas,  329 
Ramsay,  James,  327 

John,  327 

Thomas,  329 
Ramsey,  Hugh,  264 
Randal,  255 

Randolph,  Edward,  quoted,  25 
Rankin,  Hugh,   255,   264 

James,  219,   236 
Rasle,  Father,  219 
Rawlings,  Philip,  321,  323 
Ray,  294 
Read,  George,  323 

John,  269 
Records  in  Ulster,  337 
Reed,  Andrew,  279 

Hugh,  121 

Martha,  214 
Reid,   James,   264 ;   noticed,   258 
Rehoboth,  21,  22,  33,  36 
Religious   conditions   in   Ireland,    un- 
der William  III,  61 
Rent  and  tythes,  66 
Rents  in  Ireland,  56 
Regium    Donum,    suspended,    63 
"Return,"  schooner,  320 

ship,  323 
"Revenge,"  152 
Rice,  Gersham,  177 

Jonas,  177 
Richards,  Arthur,  12 

Charles,   155 
Richardson,  Thomas,  202 
Richie,  Francis,  329 
Richey,  Alexander,  325 

Francis,   334 

John,  264 
Richmond,  282 
Riddle,   Hugh,  202 
Riley,  Elizabeth,  230,  236 
"Rising  Sun,"  ship,  31 
Ritter,  Daniel,  155 


394 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


Rivers,    W.    J.,    his    South    Carolina, 

quoted,  286-287 
Rivers,   influence  of,  307 
Roan,  278 
Robb.   282 

John,  329 
"Robert,"   brigantine,   135,   146,   149, 
150,    319 

ship,  voyage  of,  205,  206 
Roberts,  Mary,  214 
Robey,  John,  265 
Robinson,  281 

James,  335 

William,   317 
Roddy,  James,  271 
Rodger,  278 

James,   327 
Roe,  Robert,  325 
Rogers,    Andrew,    231,    236 

Elizabeth,   232,   236 

Hugh,  327 

Isabella,  232,  236 

James,  232,  236,  264 

John,   157,  320 

Robert,   192 

Thomas,  232,  236 

William,  114 
Roquelo  coat,  174 
Ross,  293 

David,   229,   236 

James,  231,  236 

John,  232,  236,  327 

Robert,  335 

Samuel,  327 
Ross  family,  231,  236 
Rossiter,  W.  S.,  referred  to,  307,  308 
Route,  224 
Rowan,   282 

Rowland,  Robert,  231,  236 
Roxbury,  155 
Ruling  elders,  339-377 
"Runners,"    in   Ireland,   268 
Rupp,  Isaac  D.,  quoted,  280 
Rutherford,  Robert,  334 

Rev.  Robert,  116 

Thomas,  278 
Rutland,  on  map,  178 ;  incorporated, 

181 ;  names  of  settlers,  191 
Rutledge,   Edward,   310 
Ryan,  Kennedy,  334 


Sacramental  test,   63 

Sadsbury,  Penn.,  280 

Sagatabscot  Hill,  177 

St.  Lawrence,  Joseph,  334 

Salem,  S.  C,  church  at,  288 

Salley,  A.   S.,  Jr.,  quoted,  287 

Salmon  fisheries,  51-52 

Salmon  Leap,  42 ;  on  map,  39  ;  view 

of,  53 
Salter,  42 


Salter,  Grashinham,  321 

Mary,  232,  236 

Thomas,  232,  236 
Sandford,  282 
Sargent,  W.  M.,  218 
Saunders,    281 
Savage,  191,  294 

Edward,   192 

Isaac,  334 

James,   232,   237 
Scarboro,  116 

School  in  Boston,   Little's,  172 
Scotch   Irish,   4 ;   cleanliness,   5 ;   Lee 
on,  5  ;   as  farmers,   78  ;  mean- 
ing of  the  term,   309  ;   ability 
shown  by,  309 
Scott,  281,  282 

Alexander,  156 

Hugh,   272 

John,  272 

Patrick,  282 

Robert,  335 
Seating,  committee  on,  182 
Seaton,  James,  202 

John,  202 

Samuel,  202 
Semple,  275 

Mary,  on  the  Bann  Valley,  299 
Senter,  John,  265 
Seton,   John,   326 
Settlements  in  1776,  307 
Sewall,  Joseph,  83 

Samuel,  84,  136,  244 
Shadey,  Thomas,  328 
Sharpe,  282 
Shaw.    Samuel,   173,   174,   192 

Seth,  193 

William,   170;  his  will,  173 
Sheales,  John,  264 
Shearer,  James,  193 
Shennen,  281 
Sherrard,  280 

William,   334 
Shertwell,  Mary,  230,  237 
Ships   from    Ireland,    317 
Shipway,   John,  22 
Shirley,   155 
Shirley,  John,  121,  122 
Shirlow,  William,  335 
Shorswell,  James,  329 
Shrewsbury,   184 
Shute,    Samuel,    Governor,     18,     203, 

227  ;  petition  to,  324 
Simonds,  Joseph,  256,  261,  265 
Simonson,  Magnus,  282 
Simonton,  Andrew,  214 

William,  214 
Simpson,  Peter,  327 

William,  228,  237 
Simson,  Professor,  75 

Andrew,  334 
Sinclair,  George,  335 

William,  193 


INDEX 


395 


Skinners,  42 

Slamon,  William,  325 

Slarrow,  Matthew,  102,  192,  329 

Slemmons,  William,  214,  325 

Slemons,   210 

Sloan.  282,  294 

William,  192 
Sloane,    Robert,    334 

Samuel,  334 
Small   Point,    204.    237 
Smeally,  John,  325 
Smith,   281,    282 
Alexander,  155 
Aubia,  237 

James,  155,  192,  196,  237,  239, 
272,  328  ;  his  letter  from  Bal- 
lykelly,  197 
Jeremiah,  155,  247,  335  ;  and  his 
mother,  51;  life  of,  266,  299; 
education,  304 
John.    114,    179,    206,    232,    237, 

328,  335 
Matthew,  196,  237 
Patrick,  328 
Robert,  193,  327 
Samuel,    63,    82,    272,    327,    328, 

335 
Rev.  Thomas,  208 
William,  262,  264,  282,  303,  304 
Smith   family,   232,   237 
Snoddey,  278 
Snow   Hill,   21,    26,   28,    33,    36;   old 

house  at,  26 
Somerset,  Ireland,  53 
Somerset  County,  Md.,  21,  33  r  Scotch 

Irish  in,  25 
South,  Scotch  Irish  of,  266 
South    Carolina,    169;    Scotch    Irish 
in,      30-35,     285;     hardships, 
291,  292 
Southack,    Cyprian,    144 ;    his    map, 

215,   216.    219 
Spartanburg,   294 
Spaulden,  Andrew,  265 
Spear,   David,   220 
Jean,   230,   237 
John,  271 
Robert,  271,  335 
William,  192 
Spectacle  Island,  160,  163 
Spence,  John,  193 
Spencer,  294 

Spinning,   in  Ireland,   51 ;   in  Ameri- 
ca,   51 ;    wheels,    51 ;    school, 
305 
Stackpole,  Rev.  B.  S.,  219,  228 
Stafford,  Luke,  322 
Stanley,   David,    334 
Stanwood,  David,  232 
Jonas,  232 
Samuel,  232 
Stark,  Archibald,  264 
General  John,  310 


Steel,  280 

David,   219,   237 

James,  219,  237 

Thomas,   140 
Steele,   Thomas,   noticed,   256,   264 
Steer,  281 
Sterling,  John,  183 

Robert,  192 
Sterrett,  Benjamin,  272 

James,   255,  264 

John,  272 
Stet,  James,  334 
Steuart,  James,  327 
Stevens,  Mrs.  Charles  B.,  131 

Col.  William,  22 
Stevenson,   James,   237 
Stewart,  282 

Rev.  Hugh,  286 

Ronald,  335 

Walter,  201 

William,  334 
Stiles,  281 

Ezra,  President,  89,  117 
Still,  James,  326 
Stinson,  191,  280 

James,  237 

John,  183,  184,  192,  237 

Robert,  237 
Stirling,   Rev.   John,  100,   197 

John,  327 

M'G.,  327 
Stiven,  Robert,  329 
Stobo,  Rev.  Archibald,  31,  285 
Stockman,  Hugh,  328 
Stoddard,  David,  159 

John,  184 
Storey,  280 
Strabane,   80 
Strawbridge,  Rev.  Thomas,  156 

William,  156 
Strobridge,  William,  156 
Stronge,  Charles  E.  S.,  his  home,  129 

Pauline  Marian,  129,  297 
Stroudwater,  209,  210 
Stuart,  288 

Charles,  231,  237 

Gordon,  271 

Hanna,  231,  237 

Henry,   231,  237 

John,  201,  256,  264 

Margaret,  156 

Robert,  201 

Samuel,  201,  231,  237 
Sturgeon,  332 
Sudbury,  155 
Summeril,  282 
Summersett,  Maine,  331 

as  a  Christian  name,  217 
Surnames  in  Ulster,  339-377 
Sutherland,  George,  170 
Sutton,  113,  181 
Swanan,  Mr.,  232 


396 


SCOTCH  IEISH  PIONEEES 


Swift,     Dean,     on     landlords,     19 ; 

quoted,  44,  46 
Sym,   William,   288 
Synod   of  Ulster,   business   of,   94-98 
Synod  records,  339 


Tabb,  James,  334 
Tackels,  Alexander,   193 
Taggart,  James,  155 
Tailer,  William,  237 
Tailors,  306 
Tanner,  John,  334 
Tantiusques,  143 
Tappan,   Sarah,  82 
Tarbel,  David,  329 

Hugh,  329 
Tark,  Robert,  230,  237 
Tate,  James,  335 

Rev.  James,  101,  330 
Tatt,  James,  335 
Taughboyne,  105,  111,  186,  207 
Taylor,  Humphrey,  230,  237 

Rev.  Isaac,  187,  223 

James,  184 

John,  272 

Jonathan,  264 

Matthew,  264 

Rev.  Nathaniel,  36 
Teach,  Captain,  152 
Telford,  John,  202 
Temple,   Robert,   142,   187,  210,   218, 

334 
Templeman,  280 
Tenants,  19,  20 
Tennent,  Rev.  William,  30,  279 
Termont,  156 
Test  act,  15 ;  use  of,  63 
Thackeray,  W.  M.,  on  Coleraine,  99 
Theobalds,  John,  269 
Thien,  Alexander,  174 
Thorn,   Mrs.,   257 
Thomas,  Archibald,  334 

David,  191 

Mary,   233,    237 

Samuel,  184 
"Thomas  &  Jane,"  ship,  317 
Thompson,  278,  294 

Misses,  of  Cullycapple,  121 

Adam,  328 

Archibald,  155 

Archibald,  and  spinning  wheels, 
51 

James,  327,  328 

Jeremiah,  330 

John,  330,  334 

Jonathan,  328 

Peter,  237,  330 

Robert,  328 

William,  264 
Thomson,  Archibald,  336 

George,  328 

Rev.  James,  102,  330 


Thomson,  John,  122,  193,  325,  328 
Robert,  193 

Thorn,  Mary,  232,  237 
Thomas,  232,  237 

Thornbury,   281 

Thornton,  James,  183,  184,  191,  238 
Matthew,  310 
Samuel,  283 

"Three  Anns  and  Mary,"  156 

Tillage  bill,  45,  48 

Tobacco  trade,  58 

Toboyne,  Penn.,  272 

Tod,   Laurence,   328 

Todd,  Andrew,  264 
Daniel,  329 

Toler,  William,  334 

Toleration  act,  15,  64 

Tom,  John,  155,  335 

Tomb,  Archibald,  335 

Tomson,    Hugh,    326 

Tonson,  James,  327 

Topham,  Walter,  335 

Torrence,  Hugh,   127 

Town  names,  list  of,  339 

Towns,  Irish,  having  records,  337 

Townsend,  Rev.  Jonathan,  196 

Tracy,  Patrick,  334 

Traill,  Rev.  William,  22 

Tregoweth,  Thomas,  238 

Trevor,  Lord,  48 

Trinity,  64 

Trinity  Church,  Boston,  175 

Trotter,  James,  325 

"Truth   and   Daylight,"    galley,    318 

Tufts,  Mrs.  Henry  F.,  258 

Turk,  John,  335 

Turner,  Alexander,  184 
Thomas,  127 

Tuttle,  Julius  H.,  207 

Tweed,  David,  335 

Tyrconnel,  Earl  of,  13 

Tythes,  65 

U 

Ulster,  extent,  1  •  climate,  2 ;  houses, 
2-3 ;  population,  4 ;  under 
James  II,  13 ;  under  Queen 
Anne,  15;  in  1698,  15;  under 
George  I,  17 ;  economic  condi- 
tions, chapter  3  ;  disease  and 
drought,  43 ;  political  and  re- 
ligious conditions,  chapter  4 ; 
under  Queen  Anne,  64 ;  and 
curates,  68  ;  map  of,  103 

Ulster  Journal  of  Archaeology,  340 

Ulsterman,  313 

Unitarianism  in  Ulster,  72 

Union  County,  293 

Upper  Marlborough,  33,  36 

Upper  Octorara  church,  282 


Valley  Forge,  275 
Vance,  294 


INDEX 


39T 


Vanhorne,   John,  269 
Vaudreuil,   Marquis  de,   244 
Vernon,  294 
Vincent,  John,  238 

William,  228 
Vintners,  42 

Vital  records  in  Ulster,  337 
Voluntown,    114 
Voyage,  the  Atlantic,   151 

W 

Waite,  Robert,  156 
Wakefield,  John,  321 
Waldron,  Richard,  257,  265 
Walker,  Alexander,   261,   264 

Benjamin,  141 

Rev.  George,  at  Derry,  14 

James,    325 

John,  141,  335 

Nathaniel,  200 

Patrick,  334,  335 

Robert,  325,  327 

Thomas,   157 

William,  191,  325 
Wall,  Caleb,  180 
Wallace,  278 

John,  264;  noticed,  258 

William,  8,  9,  125 
Wallas,  Thomas,  329 

William,  329 
Wallis,  Daniel,  238 

James,   25,   230,   238 

John,   25,   232,   238 

Matthew,  25 

Matthias,   191 

Oliver,  183 

Robert,  232,  238 
Wallis  family,  232,  238 
Walsh,  Nathaniel,  334 
Walworth,  42 
Ward,  229,  238 

Obadiah,  177 
Wardlaw,  294 
Ware,  Mass.,   193 
Warnings,  229 
Watson,  281 

Andrew,  326,  328 

Joseph,   325 

Matthew,  155,  239 

William,   192 
Watt,  Andrew,  140,  320 

Luke,  329 

Samuel,  329 
Watts,  Alexander,  335 

John,  334,  335 
Waugh,  Joseph,  202 
Waxhaws,  292 
Wear,    Robert,    248,    249,    251, 

329  ;  noticed,  255 
Webb,  281 
Welch,  John,  229,  238 

Thomas,  114 


264, 


Wells.   294 

Rev.  John,  174 
Wendell,  Barrett,  118 
Wentworth,  Benning,  248,  257,  265 
Westboro,  155 
Western,  155 

Westminster  Confession,   75 
West-running   Brook,    242,    243,   247, 

252 
Wheeler's  Brunswick,  220,  222 
Wheelwright,   John,   248,   257,   265 
Whippie,  Allen,  335 
White,  Mrs.  Charles  F.,  258 

David,  335 

Rev.   Fulk,  to  teach  Hebrew,  70 

Hugh,  278 

John,  22 

Rev.  John,  83 

Rev.   John,   of   Dorchester,    Eng- 
land, 8 

Moses,  271,  279 

Patrick,  335 

William,  156 
White  Clay  Creek,  30,  89 
Whitehill,  275 
Whitley,  John,  334 
Wicomico,  21,  28,  33 
Widborn,  David,   329 
Wiggins,  John,  278 
Wight,  John,  329 

Joseph,  330 
Wiley,  282 
Wilie,  Robert,  335 
Wilkin,  282 
Wilkins,   Peter,   271 

Robert,  271 
"William,"   ship,   135,  146,   149,   150, 

320 
"William  and  Mary,"  ship,   132,  319 
William  III,  15 
Williams,  Benjamin,  264 

Peter,  334 
Williamsburg  colony,  287,  288 
Williamson,  William,  335 
Willis,  James,  335 

William,  228 
Willison,  Rev.  John,  174 
Willson,  Alexander,  170 

Benjamin,  264 

David,  328,  330 

James,   327 

John,  328 

Robert,  330 

Thomas,  122,  264 

William,  264 
Wilson,   278,   282,   294 

Alexander,  335 

David,  288 

James,  155,  228,  238,  264 

Jean,  231,  238 

John,  133,  319 

Capt.  John,  194 

Rev.  John,  36 


398 


SCOTCH  IRISH  PIONEERS 


Wilson,   Rachel,   300 
Roger,  288 

Robert,  155.  264,  288,  335 
Robert,  merchant,  32 
Samuel,  102,  328 
Thomas,  327,  328 
Rev.  Thomas,  22 
William,   82,   134,  149,  288,   317, 
327,  328 
Windham,  N.  EL,  112 
Winthrop,  Governor,  132,  139 

Wait,  12 
Wiscasset,  155 
Witherspoon,  293 
Gavin,   288 

John,  286,  288;  his  voyage,  291 
Robert,   291 
Woburn,    155 
Wood,  John,  155 
Woodburn,  George,  232,  238 
Woodburn  family,   232,  238 
Woodford,   John,   264 
Woods,   Catherine,  her  spinning,   51 ; 

Mrs.  Martha,  100 
Woodside,  Rev.  James,  94,  99,  131, 
142,  144,  166,  209,  241  ;  Math- 
er's letter  to,  109  ;  at  Bruns- 
wick, 220-227  ;  his  own  story, 
225 


Woodside,   William,   224 

Woolen  in  1698,  15 

Worcester,  settlement,   177 ;   on  map, 

178 ;       site     of     Presbyterian 

meeting     house,      180,      181 ; 

seating,    182  ;    cemetery,    186  ; 

names   of   settlers,    188 ;   their 

character,  195 
Work,  Joseph,  272 

Robert,  336 
Wright,  294 
Wylie,  293 


Yamassee  lands,  286,  287 
York,    Samuel,   238,   325 
"York  Merchant,"  ship,  317 
Young,    293,    294 

Arthur,  on  emigration  and  man- 
ufactures, 55 
Anthony,  269 

David,     183,     191 ;     his     grave- 
stone,   186 
John,    169,    191,    229,    232,    238, 

335  ;  his  gravestone,  186 
Rev.   Samuel,  100,  282 
Young   family,    232,    238 


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